In 1706, Swedish troops occupied Saxony. The Saxon Elector and the Polish King Augustus II were forced to sign a separate peace. According to the peace treaty signed in the village of Altranstedt, Augustus II abdicated the Polish throne in favor of Stanislav Leschinsky, refused an alliance with Russia, pledged to withdraw the Saxons from the Russian service and give the Swedes a Russian representative of Lyonman Patkul, as well as all other Russian servicemen who were in Saxony. The Elector promised to surrender the Polish fortresses of Krakow, Tykocin and others with all the artillery to the Swedes and to place the Swedish garrisons in the Saxon lands.
There was a definite pause in the war. The victorious 40 th thousand. The Swedish army stopped in the center of Europe, causing fears of some and the hopes of other participants in the war for the Spanish inheritance. Karl XII consistently defeated all his enemies - Denmark (with the help of England and Holland), Russia and Saxony. Moreover, Denmark and Saxony were completely withdrawn from the war. And the Swedish king did not accept Russia for a serious opponent. Sweden could enter the war for the Spanish inheritance. The French king Louis XIV, who was in a difficult situation, was not slow to send his secret envoy to the Swedes. The French monarch recalled the traditional French-Swedish friendship, the glory of Gustav Adolf, appealed to the ambition of Charles. The Swedish king listened to these proposals favorably, especially since relations with the Austrians, opponents of the French, were strained.
The Austrians were frankly afraid that the Swedish army would oppose them. Austrian Emperor Joseph I feared the Swedish commander-in-chief. The Swedes in Silesia collected indemnities, recruited people into the army, although it was an Austrian possession, but the emperor did not even protest. In addition, Charles XII demanded from the emperor the transfer of previously taken away from the Protestant churches in Silesia.
In London and Vienna, they understood the danger of the situation and sent to Charles XII the commander-in-chief of British troops and Queen Anne's favorite, John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough. The duke received the consent of the queen for the transfer of large pensions to the Swedish ministers. Officially, he announced that he had come to learn martial art from the “great commander”. Marlborough did not serve the Swedish monarch for a single day, but he spent more than one day trying to persuade Charles and bribing his companions, inviting him to move east. Thus, the British contributed to the acceleration of the invasion of the Swedish army in Russia. The possibility of Sweden’s participation in the war for the Spanish inheritance was destroyed. It should be noted that during this period Peter was still ready for peace negotiations on very modest conditions. The Russian Tsar had enough access to the Baltic Sea.
Incident with Matveyev
In 1707, Peter Alekseevich sent to England with a special mission an envoy in the Netherlands, Andrey Matveyev. 17 May, the Russian envoy was received by the British Queen Anne. A few days later, Matveyev met with State Secretary Garley. The Russian envoy outlined to him the king’s proposal for England to take over mediation in reconciling Russia and Sweden. If the Swedes refuse to put up, Peter offered to make an alliance between England and Russia. On behalf of the king, Matveyev also asked that London not recognize the Altranshedt peace and not give it his guarantees, and also did not recognize Stanislav Leschinsky as the Polish king. 30 May Matveyev achieved another meeting with the queen. The queen promised to give an answer through the state secretary.
Garley apparently showed interest in the proposal, but did not give clear answers and dragged time. The British pulled time, as they expected the imminent defeat of the Russian troops. 21 July 1708, the carriage of Matveyev was attacked, the servants were beaten. Matveyev himself was beaten. Citizens came running to the shouts and detained the attackers. But the attackers said they had arrested Matveyev on the written order of the sheriff for failure to pay the debt. The people broke up, and the Russian ambassador was thrown into a debt prison. He was released only with the help of foreign diplomats.
The British authorities pretended that the incident was to blame for the merchants who loaned Matveyev and began to fear his departure from the country. However, this is hardly an accident. Beating Matveyev was expressed the attitude of England to Russia. In addition, at this time, the Russian army retreated, and Charles planned to seize Moscow. At the same time, England recognized Stanislav Leschinsky as Polish king.
However, the British clearly rushed to the conclusions of the defeat of Russia. The Swedish army suffered a crushing defeat at Poltava, and the broken remnants capitulated near Perevolochny. The Swedish king fled to the Ottomans. The Saxon Elector declared the World of Altranstedt canceled, and himself the Polish king. Stanislav Leschinsky was forced to flee. It is clear that the brilliant Poltava victory and its results changed England’s attitude to Russia. In February 1710, the English ambassador Vitvort (Whitworth), on behalf of her queen, brought Peter I official apologies regarding the case of Matveyev. And for the first time Peter was called the "cesar", that is, the emperor.
Contradiction of English politics
Nevertheless, the British policy towards Russia and after Poltava remained controversial. On the one hand, England was in dire need of Russian goods - the English fleet was built from Russian materials. English imports from Russia grew from half a million pounds at the end of 17 to the beginning of 18 centuries, to 823 thousand pounds sterling in 1712-1716. On the other hand, London did not want Russia entrenched on the shores of the Baltic Sea.
In the 1713 year, Peter actually curtailed trade through Arkhangelsk, ordering all goods to be carried to Petersburg. England and Holland were put before the fact. After that, all trade traffic began to be carried out through the Baltic Sea. British and Dutch warships had to convoy their merchants, to protect against the Swedish privateers. In 1714, the Swedish privateers annoyed the English and Dutch merchants. Already by 20 in May of 1714, that is, at the beginning of navigation, the Swedish privateers seized more than 20 Dutch ships, mainly sailing with a load of bread from St. Petersburg. By July 20, the Dutch ships 130 had already been captured. A large amount of goods accumulated in Russian ports, which there was no one to take. Holland was forced to organize convoys.
1 August 1714, Queen Anne died. By this time, all her 13 children have already died. After her death, in accordance with the 1701 Act on the throne, the throne of England passed to the Elector of Hanover from Welf's house to Georg Ludwig, grandson of Elizabeth Stewart, daughter of King Jacob I. The first representative of the Hanover dynasty on the English royal throne did not know English and Politics was guided by the interests of Hanover. George I dreamed of annexing the cities of Verdun and Bremen to Hanover. For this purpose, he entered into negotiations with the Russian tsar.
On November 5, 1714, the Russian ambassador Boris Kurakin arrived in London. He proposed to the English monarch a plan to expel the Swedes from Germany; Bremen and Verdun should leave for Hanover. Russia received those Baltic lands that it managed to recapture from Sweden. Under the pressure of Peter Alekseevich, who wanted to end the war as soon as possible, he wanted an alliance with England and British help fleet, Denmark in February 1715 lost to the British Bremen and Verdun.
By this time, the relationship between England and Sweden had escalated. Karl XII pursued a too independent policy. The British in 1714 protested Sweden’s actions to block trade in the Baltic. However, there was no sense in this. At the beginning of 1715 of the year, the British filed a claim with the Swedish government for reimbursement of the ships and their cargoes seized by the Swedes for the sum of 24 thousand pounds sterling. The Swedish king not only did not satisfy England’s requirements for free trade in the Baltic Sea and for damages, but, on the contrary, turned to even more severe measures to curb Baltic trade. 65 February 8 of the year Karl issued the "Privateer's Charter," which effectively banned British trade with Russia. In addition, it was forbidden to trade the British with the Baltic ports, which were occupied by the Poles and Danes. All vessels transporting any goods to or from the ports of the enemies of Sweden were subject to seizure and confiscation. By May 1715, even before full navigation, the Swedes captured more 1715 English and Dutch ships.
In March, 1715, England sent a squadron of John Norris as part of the 18 ships to the Baltic Sea, and Holland - a de Witt squadron as part of the 12 ships. Norris received orders to protect British ships and intercept Swedish ships. Prizes were supposed to compensate for British losses. Swedish military and marque ships were forced to hide in the ports. The Anglo-Dutch fleet began to escort trade caravans.
October 17 The 1715 of the year was concluded a treaty of alliance between Peter and Georg. The British king pledged to provide Russia with the acquisition of Ingria, Karelia, Estland and Revel from Sweden. Peter undertook to ensure the transition to Hanover Bremen and Werden. George I, as Elector of Hanover, declared war on Sweden and sent 6 thousand Hanover soldiers to Pomerania.
In May, an English squadron was sent to 1716. Norris made three main demands to the Swedish government: 1) to turn the privateering and pay damages to the English merchants; 2) take an oath not to help the Jacobites, who revolted in 1715, to enthrone the brother of the deceased Anna, the Catholic Jacob (James) Stewart, to the throne; 3) cease hostilities against Danish Norway.
King George I, having received Bremen and Verdun, rather quickly from Peter's ally became his enemy. The reason for the aggravation of relations between Russia and England, as well as Denmark, Prussia and Saxony was the so-called. "Mecklenburg case." In 1715, Peter got into the strife of the Duke of Mecklenburg with his nobility. This frightened Prussia, Hannover and Denmark, who were afraid of strengthening Russia's position in Central Europe. Allies of Russia became its political opponents. On the 1716, the Russian-Danish landing party was scheduled for southern Sweden, under the protection of the English, Dutch, Danish and Russian fleets. At the same time, the Russian galley fleet, with the support of the Danish fleet, was to carry out a landing of troops to Sweden by Aland. It seemed that the success of the operation in Scania (southern Sweden) was ensured. But neither the Danes nor the British were in a hurry to start the operation, they were dissuaded by various pretexts. As a result, the troops were postponed until next year.
In the last years of the Northern War, the closest adviser to the King of Sweden was a gifted statesman of German origin, Georg Heinrich von Gertz. Görz traveled to all the great Western European powers and, realizing the futility of a further war with Russia, he conceived a grand plan. Görz understood that it was impossible to persuade Charles XII to satisfy all the claims of Russia, which turns Sweden into a secondary power. However, you can create a new union of Russia, Sweden, Spain and France against England, Austria, Denmark and the Commonwealth.
In case of success of this plan, both Russia and Sweden received great benefits. Sweden received compensation at the expense of Poland and Denmark, which exceeded its losses in Karelia, Ingria, Estland and Livonia. Russia could reclaim the land of Little and White Russia. The accession of these lands to Russia was facilitated by the fact that with the start of the Northern War, the Right Bank of the Dnieper was controlled by Russian troops and Cossacks.
Hertz planned to begin the creation of a coalition by diplomatic means using special operations and only then start an open war. In 1715, Louis XIV died in France. By this time, his son and grandson had died. The throne passed the great-grandson of Louis XV 1710 of birth. The regents were Philip of Orleans (great-uncle of the king), and Cardinal Dubois. In Spain, Philip V Bourbon, the grandson of the deceased “king of the sun”, the son of the dauphin Louis, grandfather of Louis XV, ruled The Swedish minister suggested that Cardinal Alberoni, the de facto ruler of Spain, organize a coup in France. To remove Philip of Orleans and Dubois from power, and to transfer the regency to the Spanish king Philip, the uncle of a minor French monarch, in fact to Alberoni. The Spanish Cardinal has agreed. In Paris, this coup was to be organized by the Spanish ambassador Zellamar and the Swedish officer Fallar.
In England, they also planned to carry out a coup. Its basis was the Jacobites, instead of George, they planned to erect Jacob (James) Stewart instead of George. Hertz visited Rome, where Yakov lived, and agreed with him about the plan for the restoration of the Stuarts in England. The Jacobite rebellion broke out in Scotland. The pretender to the throne appeared in Scotland, and on January 27 1716 was crowned in Scone, under the name of Jacob VIII. However, soon the uprising was defeated, and Jacob was forced to flee to mainland Europe.
In the Commonwealth Hertz planned to put Stanislav Leschinsky on the throne. Denmark was supposed to take Russian-Swedish troops. However, at the end of 1716, the people of Cardinal Dubois were able to intercept Hertz's correspondence with the Parisian conspirators. He immediately informed London. The British began to intercept letters from the Swedish ambassador, and then arrested him. From the documents that were withdrawn from the Swedish ambassador, it became known that the leib-medic Tsar Peter was in correspondence with the leader of the Jacobites, General Marr. The Russian tsar allegedly promised to support Jacob. Peter immediately denied the accusation, said that the life-doctor had nothing to do with politics and Hertz had woven the name of the Russian tsar into this matter specifically.
This conspiracy further complicated Russia's relations with Denmark and England. The English king even gave the order to Admiral Norris to seize the Russian ships and the tsar himself and not to let him go until the Russian troops left Denmark and Germany. However, the admiral, picking on the form of the order, refused to execute the order. The British ministers rather quickly explained to the king that, in response, the Russians would arrest all the English merchants and profitable trade, on which the condition of the fleet depended, would be interrupted. Thus, the matter did not reach the war between Russia and England. But the Russian troops had to leave Denmark and Northern Germany.
In 1717, England was alarmed by rumors that many of Yakov’s supporters were in Kurland, where Russian troops were stationed, and a marriage contract was allegedly concluded between the applicant for the English throne and the Duchess of Courland, Anna Ivanovna, Peter’s niece. In reality, Peter and Jacob were in correspondence, negotiations were held on the marriage of Anna and Jacob. Tens of Jacobites were taken to the Russian service.
Georg Heinrich von Gertz.
On the road to peace
In 1718, Karl XII, on the basis of the deteriorating situation in Sweden, decided to start peace talks with Russia. They took place on the Aland Islands. By the end of the summer the contract was agreed. Ingria, Estland, Livonia and part of Karelia with Vyborg remained behind Russia. Finland occupied by Russian troops and part of Karelia returned to Sweden. Peter agreed to allocate to the Swedish king Charles XII 20 thousand soldiers for military operations against Hanover, who captured the duchy of Sweden Bremen and Verdun. Peter refused to fight against Denmark.
Karl XII was so confident in the positive outcome of the negotiations with Russia that he began another campaign - he invaded Norway. 30 November (11 December) 1718, the Swedish king during the siege of Fredriksten fortress, was killed (by a stray bullet or specially shot by conspirators). In Sweden, there was actually a coup d'état. The throne was to go to the son of the king’s eldest sister, Karl Friedrich Holstein. But the Swedish rigsdag chose the king's younger sister, Ulric Eleanor, as the queen. Royal power severely limited. Duke Golshtinsky had to flee the country. Baron Hertz executed.
Thus, the obstacles to the Anglo-Swedish alliance were eliminated. Aland Congress did not lead to peace, now the English fleet was behind the Swedes. In 1719, a new scandal erupted between Russia and England. An English resident in St. Petersburg, James Jefferis, was sent a royal decree, which prohibited Russians from studying in England, and ordered English shipwrights to return to their homeland. Russia declared that these are hostile acts. Peter refused to release the British from the service until the end of the war. And in response to the prohibition of Russian studies in England, he detained several English merchants. Russia insisted that the students complete the term of study stipulated by the contracts.
In June, the English squadron entered the Sound. England began to put pressure on Russia to make peace on Swedish conditions. However, the British had little strength for open conflict: the 11 of the battleships and the 1 frigate. The Swedish fleet was in full decline, and Sweden could only pick out a few poorly equipped ships. Russia at that time had the 22 ship and the 4 frigate. The English fleet stopped at Copenhagen, awaiting reinforcements. As a result, the Russian armed forces quietly carried out amphibious operations on the Swedish coast, and the ships intercepted British and Dutch ships smuggled for Sweden. In addition, Apraksin’s galley fleet was almost invulnerable to the English sailing (ship) fleet. Russian troops in the 1719 year acted only 25-30 versts from the Swedish capital. The Russian galley fleet actually committed a real pogrom on the Swedish coast, destroying cities, settlements and industrial enterprises. The English admiral Norris received reinforcements from the 8 ships, but was never able to prevent the Russians. Only the approach of winter forced the Russian forces to return to the bases.
London, faithful to its traditions to act with the hands of others, tried to incite Prussia and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth on Russia. Prussia was promised friendship and Stettin, and the Polish pans were sent 60 thousand zlotys. However, they did not want to fight Russia either in Berlin or in Warsaw. The British wanted to use against Russia and France, but the French confined themselves to sending thousands of crowns to the 300 Swedes. 29 August 1719 was signed a preliminary agreement between England and Sweden. Sweden was inferior to Hanover, Bremen and Verdun. The English king promised cash subsidies to help Sweden fight Russia if Pyotr Alekseevich refused to accept English mediation and continued the war.
In the 1720 year, the British again sent money to the Poles, the gentry took them willingly, but did not fight. In 1720, the situation in the Baltic was repeated. The English fleet 12 May arrived in Sweden. It included the 21 battleship and the 10 frigates. Admiral Norris had instructions, together with the Swedes, to repel the Russian invasion and ordered the squadron to seize, sink, and burn the encountered Russian ships. At this time, the Russian galley squadron again began to host the Swedish coast. At the end of May, the Anglo-Swedish fleet appeared at Revel, but all his “combat” activities ended with the burning of the hut and bath on the island of Nargen. When Norris received a message about the attack of the Russian troops on Sweden, he went to Stockholm. The British only had to be witnesses of the pogrom of Sweden by the Russian galley fleet. In addition, the Russians broke the Swedish squadron at Grengam and took the 4 frigate aboard.
Battle of Grengam 27 July 1720 of the Year Artist F. Perrot. 1841 year.
In the fall, the British squadron returned to England "hungry". As a result, the Swedes had no choice but to conclude peace with Russia. On March 31 (April 10), 1721, peace negotiations began. True, the Swedes were playing for time again, hoping for England. On April 13, the British fleet of 25 ships and 4 frigates under the command of Norris again moved to the Baltic. Peter, in order to hasten the Swedes, sent another landing party to the shores of Sweden. Lassi's detachment walked gloriously along the Swedish coast. Soldiers and Cossacks burned three towns, hundreds of villages, 19 parishes, destroyed one armory and 12 ironworks, captured and destroyed 40 coasters. From an alliance with England, Sweden received only three years of pogroms. This pogrom was the last straw that forced the Swedes to capitulate.
On 30 of August 1721, the Nishtadt Peace Treaty was concluded. Russia forever (the Nystadt peace treaty has not been canceled and it is formally valid, it only takes political will and strength to confirm it) received the Russian weapons conquered: Ingermanland, part of Karelia with the Vyborg province, Estonia, Livonia, islands on the Baltic Sea, including Ezel, Dago, all the islands of the Gulf of Finland. Part of the Kexholm district (Western Karelia) also went to Russia. Russia returned territories that belonged to it or were within its sphere of influence even during the existence of the Old Russian state.