This topic is relevant primarily because of the situation around Syria, where the fact of the use of chemical weapons against the civilian population, however, it is not completely clear by whom. For the intervention in Iraq in 2003, the Americans had enough of a fake accusation that Saddam Hussein has weapons of mass destruction, which was then never found. In the current situation for Damascus, everything is much worse, Syria does have chemical weapons and has already massively used it once. Currently, the NATO military operation against Syria has been prevented. Washington supported the unexpected proposal of Russia for the complete destruction of the Damascus chemical weapons arsenal under the supervision of international observers. However, no one can with 100% surely guarantee that the aggravation of the situation around Syria will end there.
US military operations over the past 30 years
Grenada, 1983 year. Unilateral intervention by the United States.
After the military coup that took place in Grenada in 1979, the left-wing New JEWEL Movement came to power in the country. In October, 1983, under the pretext of protecting several hundred US medical students from the country, as well as at the request of a number of countries from the Organization of American States - Antigua and Barbuda, Saint Lucia, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Dominica - US President Ronald Reagan ordered the start of a military operation, code-named "Outbreak of Rage."
Downed American helicopter on the beach of Grenada
The American army quickly managed to suppress the weak, poorly equipped armed forces of Grenada, who did not exceed 1000 people. It was one of the few cases when the US did not support even the allies. The United Kingdom, France, Sweden, the countries of the socialist bloc and the state of Latin America spoke against the military operation. In this case, the invasion of Grenada was the first in stories US military operation abroad after the Vietnam War. Despite some local failures, the operation was successful. This military operation played a role in restoring the lost prestige of the American army. Lessons learned from it were used in the preparation of a much larger invasion of Panama. Moreover, for Grenada itself, with the exception of regime change, the operation did not have any special consequences. The United States even provided 110 with a million dollars in compensation for damage caused during the operation.
Panama, 1989 year. Unilateral intervention by the United States.
In the middle of the 1980, relations between Panama and the United States began to deteriorate. The cause of the looming conflict was the conditions for the transfer of control over the Panama Canal, which is of strategic importance. At that moment, when the government of Panama began to implement a foreign policy that was independent of the United States, and began to strengthen ties with the countries of South and Central America, serious economic, diplomatic and informational pressure began on the part of Washington. The introduction of economic sanctions against Panama was followed by a coup attempt prepared by the United States, which ended in failure. As a result, in December 1989, US President George W. Bush ordered the start of the “Just Cause” military operation.
The result of the operation was the change of the pro-American government of Panama. The new president, Guillermo Endar Galimani, almost immediately began the process of combating the memory of the former president of the country, Torihos, who advocated the nationalization of the Panama Canal. The US military operation in Panama was the first American intervention in history when Washington used the slogans of “preserving and restoring democracy” as a theoretical rationale for the operation.
In the course of the military operation in Panama, the American army launched air and artillery strikes on urban areas. Destroyed many civilian infrastructure, residential buildings. The total damage to the economy of Panama amounted to about 1 billion dollars. Another effect of the US invasion was the deterioration of the living conditions of the population. The statement of the International Committee of the Red Cross noted a shortage of medicines, essential goods, which caused the death of several people, and the disorganization of the work of public utilities in the country caused an epidemic. Also, during the fighting, the movement of ships along the Panama Canal was stopped, which in turn caused damage to the economies of states that were not involved in the conflict.
Libya, 1986 year. Military operation "Canyon Eldorado."
The military operation, code-named "Eldorado Canyon," was carried out against Libya in April 1986. The operation provided for a short-lived bombing attack on important military and administrative facilities of the country. The strike was made using tactical aircraft aviation. All targets designated for destruction were hit. 17 Libyan fighters and 10 Il-76 military transport aircraft were destroyed on the ground. The reason for the operation was the accusation of Libya in supporting international terrorism. In particular, Tripoli was accused of organizing a series of terrorist attacks against American citizens in Europe (an explosion on board a Rome-Athens flight on April 2, 1986, an explosion at a La Belle disco in West Berlin, which was visited by American soldiers).
Most likely, Libya was not involved in any major terrorist attack until 1988, when a Pan Am aircraft exploded in the sky over Lockerbie in Scotland. This attack claimed the lives of 259 passengers and crew members, as well as 11 people who died on the ground. In 2003, Libya recognized the responsibility of its officials for the explosion on board the Pan Am 103 flight.
Iraq, 1991 year. The military operation of the Multinational Force (MNF) with the approval of the UN.
The reason for the military conflict was the attack of Iraq on Kuwait. In July, 1990, Baghdad declared Kuwait in that it is waging an economic war against Iraq by lowering oil prices on the world market, as well as in illegal oil production on Iraqi territory from the large Rumaila border field. As a result, in August 1990, the Iraqi army invaded Kuwait and easily occupied the country. Baghdad announced the annexation of the country, which became the 19-th province within Iraq and was named Al-Saddamia. In response to the regime of Saddam Hussein, sanctions were imposed. The UN Security Council convened urgently, which condemned the actions of Iraq and made a proposal to organize an international coalition led by the United States. It was announced the start of the operation under the code name "Desert Shield", which provided for the concentration of coalition troops in the region. In January 1991, the Ministry of Taxes and Tax Collection started the operation “Desert Storm”, as well as “Desert Saber” (for the liberation of Kuwait).
"Highway of Death" section between Kuwait and Basra
The bombing of Iraq by the forces of the international coalition, the backbone of which was the US military, began in January 1991, in February, an operation of ground forces took place, which ended in a crushing defeat of the Iraqi army. By April 1991, the fighting was completely stopped. In total, 665,5 thousands of US troops managed to take part in the conflict. The US Army lost 383 people killed and 467 injured, Iraq’s losses amounted to 40 thousands killed and about 100 thousands injured. After a long air offensive, the coalition forces defeated the Iraqi units within a few days, and a complete crushing victory was won. All resolutions of the UN Security Council regarding the conflict were able to be fulfilled, Kuwait was liberated.
Somalia, 1993 year. Intervention by the United States and several other states with the approval of the United Nations.
The operation in Somalia is one of the inglorious pages of US history, along with the military conflict in Vietnam. She is familiar to many inhabitants in the film The Fall of the Black Hawk. At the beginning of the 1980s, a civil war broke out in Somalia, the Somali opposition launched a struggle against the country's legitimate government. By the beginning of the 1990s, a large-scale civil war was in full swing in the country, Somalia was on the verge of a humanitarian catastrophe. According to expert estimates, the famine in Somalia at the beginning of the 1990s caused the death of nearly a thousand 300 residents. In December 1992, the UN peacekeeping force was introduced into the country, which operated as part of the operation called “Return of Hope”. In reality, this operation began with the landing of US marines in the capital, Mogadishu. In 1993, Operation Continued Hope was launched. The purpose of this operation was to capture one of the leaders of a local armed group that claimed power in the country, Mohammed Farrah Aidid.
However, they failed to catch him, and the attempt to arrest his supporters ended in a city battle in Mogadishu. The fighting continued from 3 to 4 in October 1993, and ended with unreasonably large losses of peacekeepers. The Americans lost 18 people killed and 84 injured, 1 people were captured, the rebels managed to shoot down the 2 helicopter and destroy several cars. The operation ended in complete failure and caused the United States to decide to withdraw its troops from the country. The conflict in Somalia is still not resolved.
Yugoslavia, 1995 year. NATO military operation without UN approval.
The first large-scale military operation in the history of the NATO bloc was held in violation of the principles of international law. The UN Security Council did not adopt a resolution that authorized the use of military force by the countries of the North Atlantic Alliance. As part of the Bosnian war that unfolded in 1992, Washington and its NATO allies openly took an anti-Serb position, speaking in support of the Bosnian Muslims. In 1995, NATO conducted Operation Deliberate Force, which was accompanied by air strikes against Bosnian Serb positions. For the first time after World War II, combat aircraft of the German Air Force took part in this operation. As a result of the operation, the military potential of the Bosnian Serbs was significantly undermined, which led their leaders to agree to the path of peace negotiations.
Afghanistan and Sudan, 1998 year. Unilateral US military strike.
In 1998, large-scale terrorist attacks were committed against US embassies in Kenya and Tanzania. According to American intelligence, the blow was struck earlier by a little-known terrorist group Al-Qaeda. In response to these attacks, US President Bill Clinton responded with air strikes using cruise missiles at Al Qaeda camps in Afghanistan and a pharmaceutical factory in Sudan. The factory, according to the American authorities, produced chemical weapons. Missile strikes were carried out as part of Operation Unlimited Reach. It is worth noting that this factory was the largest manufacturer of medicines in Sudan.
At the explosion site of the embassy in Nairobi
At present, historians and analysts say that this operation was regarded by Bin Laden, who joked that as a result of air strikes only chickens and camels died, as the inability of the US to engage in open confrontation with its forces. That only provoked the activity of terrorists. In October, an al-Qaida bomber bomber blew up the USS Cole destroyer while he was refueling in the port of Aden in Yemen. The explosion killed 2000 US military. A year later, the September 77 attacks in New York and Washington caused the death of almost 11 thousands of civilians.
Yugoslavia, 1999 of the year. NATO intervention without UN approval.
The Kosovo war, which began in the 1996 year, was the pretext for the start of armed intervention by the United States and the NATO bloc. Under the pretext of committing crimes against humanity and ethnic cleansing in the province, as well as failure to comply with the requirements for the withdrawal of the Serbian army from the Serbian autonomous region of Kosovo and Metohija, in March 1999, the military operation “Allied force” began. The United States participated in this campaign as part of Operation Noble Anvil. Like the airstrikes on the Bosnian Serb positions in 1995, this operation was positioned by Washington as a “humanitarian intervention.” As part of this “humanitarian intervention,” NATO aircraft for almost 2,5 months struck not only military infrastructure, but also Serbian cities, civilian objects, bridges and industrial enterprises. Belgrade and other major cities of the country were subjected to rocket fire and air strikes.
A series of air strikes led to the final collapse of Yugoslavia. The total damage from the raids was estimated at 1 billion dollars. The country's economy has suffered tremendous damage. A total of 1991 attack was carried out on the industrial and social infrastructure facilities. As a result of the bombing were completely destroyed or damaged 89 factories, 14 airfields, 120 energy facilities, 128 facilities industry of services, 48 hospitals and clinics, 82 bridge, 118 sake and TV repeaters, 61 tunnel and road junction, 35 churches and 29 monasteries, 18 kindergartens, 70 schools, 9 university faculties buildings, 4 hostels. About 500 thousands of people in the country were left without work. Civilian casualties were at least 500 people, including 88 children (excluding the injured).
Kosovo during the operation almost gained independence. Currently, this state is recognized by 103 countries from 193 UN member states (53,4%). At the same time, 2 permanent members of the UN Security Council (Russia and China), as well as more 1 / 3 countries belonging to the UN, refuse to recognize the independence of Kosovo, for this reason the country cannot take its place in the UN.
Afghanistan, 2001 year - our days. NATO intervention without UN approval.
After the horrific 11 attacks of September 2001, US President George W. Bush demanded that the Taliban move the extradition of Osama bin Laden. At the same time, the Taliban re-responded to the US authorities with a refusal, as in the 1998 year after the terrorist attacks in Kenya and Tanzania. After that, the US government initiated the military operation "Unlimited Justice", which was quickly renamed to "Enduring Freedom." In October, 2001 began the bombing and rocket bombardment of the positions of the Taliban troops. Sanctions by the UN Security Council on the introduction of military troops in Afghanistan - the International Security Assistance Force - were adopted after the actual start of the operation. This armed conflict is the longest in US history. Currently, the US land force is in the process of leaving the country.
The operation cannot be called successful, since it was completely impossible to unite Afghanistan and bring it back to peaceful life. During the operation, about 500 thousands of inhabitants of the country became refugees, from 14 to 34 thousands of people died. At the same time, not only residents of Afghanistan, but also neighboring states are becoming victims of the conflict. Americans are actively using their UAVs for strikes on terrorists in Pakistan, in some cases civilians are killed by these air strikes. Also, with the fall of the Taliban regime, the production of raw opium significantly increased in the country.
Iraq, 2003 year, the intervention of the United States and a number of allies without issuing sanctions from the UN.
Washington, with the help of fabricated evidence and incorrect intelligence, tried to convince the countries of the world that Iraq was actively developing weapons of mass destruction and possessed chemical weapons. However, the vote on the version of the resolution proposed by the United States did not take place. The representatives of Russia, France and the PRC made it clear that they would veto any draft resolution that would contain an ultimatum with the possibility of using force against Iraq. Despite this, the United States and its allies launched Operation Iraqi Freedom in March 2003. Already in May of the same year, US President George W. Bush announced the end of the active phase of hostilities. As in 1991, the Iraqi army was quickly defeated, the regime of Saddam Hussein fell, and he himself was later executed.
The official date for the end of the Iraq war is 2011, the year when the last US military were withdrawn from the country. The military campaign in Iraq cost the United States 4423 dead and 31 935 injured, the civilian population of Iraq is hard to estimate the loss, but the number of dead has exceeded 100 thousands of people. After the overthrow of the regime of Saddam Hussein, a wave of terror swept the country. Major terrorist attacks in Iraq occur to this day. It is worth noting that the United States not only overthrew the Hussein regime, but also invested heavily in the reconstruction of the country. By 2010, the volume of US investments in the construction of social and industrial infrastructure in Iraq amounted to 44,6 billion.
Libya, 2011 year. NATO intervention with UN Security Council approval.
In February, 2011 began a riot in Libya that escalated into a full-scale armed conflict between opposition groups and government forces led by Muammar Gaddafi. On the basis of the unproven use of aviation to suppress peaceful protests at the end of February 2011, the UN Security Council adopted a resolution that introduced sanctions against the official Tripoli. In March, 2011, another resolution was adopted that established an unmanned zone over Libyan territory. After the adoption of this resolution, NATO aviation began to bombard the positions of government troops and military infrastructure. Officially, the civil war in Libya ended with the murder in October 2011 of Muammar Gaddafi. However, armed clashes between paramilitary groups and various militias continue to this day.