The need to counter threats to the military security of our country in the aerospace sphere necessitates the creation of aerospace defense (WKO) of the Russian Federation. The concept of the aerospace defense of the Russian Federation was approved by decree of the President of Russia in 2006. In accordance with it, the East Kazakhstan region, being an integral part of the defense of the state, is a system of political, economic, military, military-technical, legal and other measures for the preparation and conduct of hostilities in aerospace.
The basis of the aerospace defense should be a complex of state-wide and military measures, as well as combat actions of multiple (heterogeneous) groupings of troops (forces) carried out in a common warfare system under unified leadership, according to a single plan and plan in order to protect the Russian Federation and its allies from attack from air and from space.
Which way to build the aerospace defense
The practical implementation of the provisions of the concept led to the creation in 2011 of a new kind of troops of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation - the Aerospace Defense Forces. However, this is only the first step towards the integration of the forces and means of air defense and missile defense and the formation of a unified system of aerospace defense of the country.
What to do next, on what path to continue the construction of aerospace defense and its material basis - the Air Force of the East Kazakhstan region? To answer this very difficult question, one should analyze the current organization of the aerospace defense of Russia.
Today the general leadership of the country's aerospace defense is carried out by the General Staff of the RF Armed Forces, and the responsibility for organizing the aerospace defense, including air defense, is entrusted to the commander of the aerospace defense troops. At the same time, the basic principles for the construction of the aerospace defense system are defined
The above principles are currently not fully implemented. By the normative legal acts of the Ministry of Defense and the General Staff, the responsibility of the commander of the EKR Troops for air defense is determined only for peacetime. For the period of the immediate threat of aggression and wartime, the responsibility and authority of the military control bodies for aerospace and air defense are not clearly established. In the existing structure of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, there is no single authority for the management of all troops (forces) solving aerospace defense tasks during preparation and during the conduct of hostilities. The command of the EKR Troops today cannot completely solve these tasks by virtue of its status.
In addition, most of the air defense forces are part of military districts (commanders of the Air Force and Air Defense) and the commander-in-chief of the Air Force, responsible for the air defense of the country, is responsible for their construction and development. In essence, responsibility for organizing and conducting combat against the forces and means of an aerospace attack of the enemy is now divided between the commander of the EKO and the commanders of military districts.
Organizational changes in the air defense system at the operational-tactical level did not justify themselves during the transition in 2009 from the corps and division structures of air defense units to the brigade structure. The reduction in the number and job categories of the personnel of the command and control units of these formations negatively affected the quality of command of the subordinate troops. Withdrawal from the fighter brigades aviation caused the problem of the allocation of part of the aviation forces to solve air defense problems. At the same time, difficulties arose in the management of aviation, its interaction with air defense systems and the provision of flight safety in the zones of destruction of anti-aircraft missile systems.
Over the past year, the problems of building an aerospace defense system and EKR Troops have constantly been in the field of view of the leadership of the Ministry of Defense, leading research organizations and universities dealing with this issue. A detailed consideration of these problems allowed us to form two main approaches to their solution. The first is to create a new type of Armed Forces - the Aerospace Forces (VKS), the second is to further build the aerospace defense system based on the development of the EKR Troops.
By aerospace forces is understood the type of the Armed Forces, created on the basis of the existing Air Force. It is proposed to include in the composition of the Armed Forces the Armed Forces along with the air force unions of the forces and means of the EKR and Strategic Rocket Forces. It is assumed that the main command of the VKS will be the administrative and support body, and for the operational management of the troops (forces) of the VKO within the structure of the General Staff of the RF Armed Forces it is proposed to create a special body - the command of the VKO (in the long term, aerospace command). The issue of including the Strategic Missile Forces in the videoconferencing system is not the topic of discussion in this article. We only note that due to the special importance of the Strategic Missile Forces and the specificity of the tasks they are solving, these troops, we believe, should be left in their current status (branch of the Armed Forces).
The development of EKR Troops means the inclusion of four Air Force and Air Defense Commands, which are now administratively part of the Air Force and operational subordinate to military district commanders, the creation of Air Force (OSN) brigades and the transfer of air defense units ( IN TO). In order to control the transferred and newly formed units, it is proposed to create an EKR command in strategic areas with direct subordination to their commander of the EKR Troops. At the same time, the command of the Troops of the East Kazakhstan region will remain an administrative and operational control body.
Optimally: integration of missile defense and air defense systems
Let us try to conduct a system analysis and give a comparative assessment of the above approaches to the creation of the East Kazakhstan Oblast system and the organizational development of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation on the following factors:
Analysis of the development trends of aerospace attack systems and systems allows expecting a potential enemy to emerge in the near future a fundamentally new class of manned and unmanned military aircraft capable of operating at speeds from 5 to 25M and in the height range of 30 – 120 kilometers weakly controlled by existing means of EKR. Intensive work is underway to create aerospace planes. In terms of the scale of the possible use of these tools and the tasks to be solved, they will relate to arms strategic purpose. Moreover, a potential enemy already has sea and airborne cruise missiles with a range of up to 2500 – 3000 kilometers. They have high accuracy of shooting, and in the onboard control systems of sea-based cruise missiles of the latest generations there are elements of artificial intelligence. According to their capabilities, such cruise missiles, even in ordinary equipment, can be classified as strategic weapons.
Under the conditions of the new threats presented above, the fulfillment of aerospace defense tasks by independently operating RKO and air defense systems will lead to uncertainty in assessing the aerospace situation at strategic and regional levels, reducing the effectiveness of deterring aggression and repelling such attacks.
Therefore, the most rational ways of responding to new threats is a comprehensive build-up of the combat capabilities of means and systems of missile defense and air defense systems and their integration within the framework of a unified system of aerospace defense.
One of the most important tasks of integrating air-missile defense and air defense systems is to obtain information about the beginning of aggression in aerospace from the moment of the launch (take-off) of SVKN and their maintenance before entering the active media coverage areas. These tasks should be performed by space assets and high-potential ground-based missile radar and reconnaissance systems together with ground-based, airborne, and in the long run space defense systems. The processed information at command and control centers of the aerospace defense will make it possible to assess the aerospace situation in a timely manner and with high confidence to generate warning signals about the onset of aggression in aerospace, to distribute information to air defense brigades (AUC) to repel the strikes of SVKN based on the organization of layered defense. The implementation of the integration of the missile defense and air defense systems will allow to perform tasks as part of a single circuit of the centralized combat control of the missile defense and air defense systems within the framework of the aerospace defense in the real-time SVKN flight. Thus, the conditions will be created for coordinated operational buildup and distribution of efforts of associations and connections of the aerospace defense over the entire territory of the country in the course of preparation and repelling the attacks of all types of SVKN.
Unified management, leadership and responsibility
Next, we will dwell on the problem of implementing one of the most important principles for building an aerospace defense system - the integrated use of all forces capable of solving the tasks of combating the forces and means of an aerospace attack of the enemy.
The main system-making element is a unified system of command and control of troops and aerospace defense forces of the types and branches of troops of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, while respecting the principle of unified leadership and responsibility for organizing and conducting combat with all forces and means of aerospace attack of the enemy throughout the country.
At the strategic level, the command of the Armed Forces armies of the East Kazakhstan region can become the single control body of such a system when delegating to it the General Staff of certain powers. Thus, the fulfillment of the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of 2012 on assigning personal responsibility for the organization of aerospace defense to the Commander of the East Kazakhstani Army will be fully ensured.
The command of the Armed Forces of the East Kazakhstan region by definition will more successfully accomplish such important tasks as the development of a unified plan and plan for the construction of aerospace defense, the equipping of armed forces forces, the creation (improvement) of forces and means of aerospace defense, taking into account the expected military threats, the implementation of a single military technology policy in the field of aerospace defense.
To ensure the unity of command and control of troops and forces of the aerospace defense at the operational (operational-strategic) level, it is necessary to create zones of aerospace defense. Zones should be divided into districts of East Kazakhstan. Total zones of the East Kazakhstan region can be formed five: Moscow, Western, Southern, Central and Eastern. They should be created on the basis of operational commands of the East Kazakhstan Region. The number of EKO regions should correspond to the number of air defense connections (VKO). Zones, districts of the aerospace defense are obliged to have unified management bodies when delegating to them the authority for the operational management of all troops and air defense forces (ASD) allocated to the composition of zones and areas.
Zones and areas of the aerospace defense should not be considered as certain ossified structures created for all times. When deploying fronts (combined-arms armies), depending on the specific conditions and the expected nature of military actions, in the area of their responsibility front-line zones (army areas) of air defense can be created, within whose boundaries general and operational guidance will be exercised by front-line commanders (armies).
When forming the aerospace forces, personal responsibility for the creation and development of the aerospace defense system will be assigned to the commander-in-chief of the VKS. However, a too wide range of tasks assigned to it (the development of aerospace defense, aviation, space systems) will inevitably lead to a significant complication of their solution.
In the case of implementation of this approach, responsibility for solving the tasks of the aerospace defense in peacetime (carrying combat duty in the aerospace defense) will be de facto distributed between the commander-in-chief of the VKS and the commanders of military districts.
In addition, the traditionally specific and generic structure of the Armed Forces was determined by the mastered areas of warfare — land, sea, and airspace. In this case, a great misconception is the mixing of this concept with the physical environment (temporary stay). So, the projectile fired from a cannon flies through the air. But air is only a temporary physical environment of the projectile. The target for the projectile is on the ground. And that is why artillery is part of the Ground Forces. The same statement fully applies to the Air Force, for which the airspace is not a sphere of warfare, but only a temporary environment for the stay of aircraft. The main objectives for the Air Force are on the ground or on the water, and the actions of the aircraft in the air on self-defense are only auxiliary, providing character.
Combining in one form of the Armed Forces - VKS shock (aviation) and defensive (forces and means of aerospace defense) components is an artificial symbiosis and will not lead to an increase in capabilities to combat the aerospace enemy. Each of these components has its own sphere of warfare, solves its tasks, influences its objects, uses its forms and methods of struggle. Different and specific management of shock and defensive forces. In this regard, the only specialized structure of the Armed Forces, for which the area of warfare is aerospace, may be the East Kazakhstani Army.
We believe that it will be appropriate to refer to recent history. After the creation of the NATO bloc in April 1949, the general political and military tension in Europe and the world as a whole increased. At the beginning of the 50's, the intensity and scale of the provocative and intelligence operations of NATO aviation in the airspace of the USSR sharply increased. Moreover, the air defense system existing at that time was unable to effectively counteract air intruders who had already reached the areas of Leningrad, Minsk, and Kiev. Recall that in the border zone the responsibility for air defense was assigned to the military districts, and in the internal territory 12 air defense areas were organized as part of the country's air defense forces.
Considering the rapid development of military aviation, a significant increase in its combat capabilities, as well as the ever-increasing violations of the airspace of the USSR, the military-political leadership of the country through trial and error concluded that it was necessary to create a powerful structure in the Armed Forces that would complex tasks of the air defense of the country. So, in May 1954, the formation of a new type of the USSR Armed Forces - the Air Defense Forces of the country - began.
Scientifically, the assessment of options for the organizational structure of the aerospace defense system is a complex unstructured problem, the solution of which using strictly formal methods is difficult. This is primarily due to the fact that the activities of the military administration of the strategic and operational units are practically non-formalizable.
In the course of the research, such assessments were made. They used the hierarchy analysis method (Saaty), which has found wide application for solving problems of this class. A comparative assessment of the variants of the organizational structure of troops (forces) solving the problems of aerospace defense (within the framework of a videoconferencing or armed forces unit) was carried out according to several of the most significant indicators: ensuring personal responsibility for the creation and development of the aerospace defense system; ensuring the development of a unified plan and plan for the construction of aerospace defense equipment, equipping the troops of the VVST ensuring the unity of direct planning for the use of troops and forces; ensuring effective operational management of all forces and means that solve the tasks of the aerospace defense; optimization of controls and a number of others (total 16 indicators).
According to the generalized priority indicator, the preference of variants is estimated as 1,22 – 1,25 (second variant) to 1 (first variant).
The aforementioned approaches to the creation of the system of the aerospace defense of the Russian Federation and the development of the armed forces of the aerospace defense, the main tasks of the construction of the aerospace defense system and ways to solve them, the use of troops (forces) of the aerospace defense in the last year have been reviewed and thoroughly analyzed during the 38 military science conference of the SIC Air Defense ) 4 of the Central Research Institute of the Ministry of Defense of Russia, 42 of the Military Scientific Conference of the Military Academy of the East Kazakhstan Region, the All-Army Military Research Conference of the Military Academy of the East Kazakhstan Oblast, which were attended by representatives of the staff of the East Kazakhstan region and the use of troops (forces) of the East Kazakhstan region, representatives of all over but the industrial complex. The results of the conferences showed that we are on the right track.
The above arguments and arguments give reason to consider as a priority direction the further development of the aerospace defense system based on the aerospace defense troops.
It is necessary to entrust the commander of the Armed Forces armies with personal responsibility for organizing and conducting armed struggle with all the forces and means of an aerospace attack of the enemy over the entire territory of the Russian Federation.
The main functions of the command of the Armed Forces armies should be:
The development of the East Kazakhstani Troops and the empowerment of the East Coastal Command command functions of administrative and operational management will optimize the organizational structure of troops (forces) solving the task of fighting the SVKN and ensure maximum effectiveness in countering potential military threats of the Russian Federation from aerospace at present and in the future.