Military Review

Runway Designer Novozhilova

10
General Designer. These two words have recently acted fascinating, because behind them was a strong personality, the highest intelligence and indomitable will of the owner of a mysterious and inaccessible position. The names of many generals are forever inscribed in the golden row of great compatriots who glorified the country and made an invaluable contribution to strengthening its power and greatness. Heinrich Vasilievich Novozhilov, a Hero of Socialist Labor, Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Lenin Prize winner, occupies his rightful and worthy place in this row.


Like any general designer, he is the creator of a new, including the most massive military transport aircraft of the domestic aviation - IL-76. This was the first plane he made, practically passing the exam for the title of general designer. In the mid-1960s, Novozhilov was invited by the Minister of Aviation Industry Dementiev. At that time, Henry Vasilievich was the first deputy of the outstanding designer Sergei Vladimirovich Ilyushin. Dementiev immediately outlined the problem, proposing to make a new aircraft, but not a turboprop, but a jet military transport. At the same time, he emphasized that the culture of passenger aircraft should be invested in this machine.

The creation of this aircraft was one of the most difficult exams in Novozhilov’s life, because a military transport aircraft, which paratroopers both paratroopers and military equipment, is a very complex machine. Tough demands were made on the plane: the plane had to be based on unprepared ground airfields, had decent speed, and be reliable. The complex of all these technical issues was very difficult to solve.

A major role in the creation of the IL-76 was played by the Commander of the Airborne Forces Vasily Filippovich Margelov. He invited a group of designers to Kaunas and personally dealt with them for two days, showed what airborne troops are, and told what kind of aircraft he needed for landing. He promised and really gave a huge help in its creation.

The IL-76 took off from the Central Airfield named after Frunze 25 March 1971. The car was a success, for many years becoming the main "cab driver" of military transport aviation. All the time, while creating a new aircraft, Novozhilov felt the support of Sergei Vladimirovich Ilyushin.

Heinrich Vasilyevich remembers his great teacher and the aircraft he created with special respect. According to him, Ilyushin's advice and wishes were useful to him throughout the whole difficult path of creating new aircraft with the IL brand. From him, Genrikh Vasilyevich heard: “There is no such work that could not be done better. Always guided by this rule. " And again: "Do not think that something worthwhile can be achieved in life by working only 8 hours a day."

About what heights reached Ilyushin, show his planes. They surprised the world before the war. In 1936, test pilot Vladimir Kokkinaki, later Major General of Aviation, twice Hero of the Soviet Union, for the first time in the world on the TsKB-30 bomber showed Stalin Nesterov’s loop. Less than three years later, Kokkinaki made a flight from Moscow to the north of the United States on the same plane. The US military gasped: unlike Chkalov and Gromov, who had flown there earlier on specially-built vehicles for records, this time the Russians reached America on a conventional serial bomber!

And then in stories The experimental design bureau was the legendary “flying tank” - IL-2, which became a nightmare for the Nazis during the war. On this plane, twice Hero of the Soviet Union, Marshal of Aviation Alexander Nikolaevich Efimov said: “It was one of the most accessible aircraft for the development. He was distinguished by ease of piloting, unpretentious maintenance on the ground both in preparation for the flight, and after its implementation. "

Twice Hero of the Soviet Union, Honored Military Pilot of the USSR, Colonel-General of Aviation Mikhail Petrovich Odintsov went through the Great Patriotic War, as they say, “from bell to bell”. He flew the attack aircraft Il-2. I recalled that the Germans with fear and hatred called this plane “the black death” and for each downed IL-2 they established a reward - two thousand marks. Our fighters and commanders called the ground attack pilots "air infantry", which, on a low-level flight, "ironed the ground", solving combat missions in close cooperation with ground forces, supporting them, striking the enemy’s combat equipment and manpower with all their firepower. It was also important for raising the morale of our troops. People have seen that not only the earth is burning under the feet of the fascists, but also the sky puts a fire barrier to them. Odintsov spent a lot of daring assault. Descending to the height of a flying flight, defiantly attacked the enemy, shot the fascists with missiles, smashed up with cannons and machine guns.

“We need to bow to the ground to the creator of the IL-2 designer Sergey Vladimirovich Ilyushin” - this is the opinion of the Chief Air Marshal Alexander Alexandrovich Novikov. Briefly and clearly.

Another was IL-4 - the main bomber of the Great Patriotic War. It was they who 8 August 1941 hit Berlin. A total of 5500 machines were produced, and it is symbolic that a monument to IL-4 was installed on Poklonnaya Hill. Sergey Vladimirovich himself spoke less about the Il-2 attack aircraft, and more about the Il-4 bomber. It was felt that he was dearer to him ...

But even during the war years, Ilyushin was thinking about peaceful life, and even in 1943, he began to design the first Soviet passenger aircraft, the Il-12. Nobody gave him a task, but Sergey Vladimirovich himself understood that after the victory he would need a plane better than IL-2. And he made such a plane ...

A student of the Aviation Institute Novozhilov was sent to pre-diploma practice to Ilyushin Design Bureau in 1948 year. Aviation Henry Vasilievich delirious since childhood. The boys had their “star” heroes - Chkalov, Gromov, Kokkinaki, from whom they took an example, which they wanted to be like. As Novozhilov recalls, his love for aviation began with his neighbor in a communal apartment, Uncle Shura Sinitsyn, who worked in civil aviation, although he was not a pilot, but he wore a handsome uniform and gave a neighbor boy to read books about aviation. And he often visited his neighbor and listened to his stories with bated breath. First, together with him, and then independently built models of aircraft. Uncle Shura taught an inquisitive boy to be fluent in carpentry and plumbing tools. It was great useful in life.

Naturally, Henry really wanted to become a pilot, but it was not possible. In 1939, he badly injured his leg, underwent several operations, and had to part with a dream about the profession of a pilot. But not with aviation! When it came time to choose an institute, I chose aviation: let the designer, but still in aviation. When I defended my diploma, I was invited to work. So from the year 1948 Novozhilov has one employment record: “Aviation complex named after S. V. Ilyushin.

Sergey Vladimirovich always personally held the first meeting with young specialists. Nobody wrote down, took notes of his thoughts, but remembered well: his statements were so vivid, accurate, proven practice and time. He drew the attention of young people who had just come to the enterprise, firstly, to the need to preserve state secrets and, secondly, to the observance of labor and production discipline. And with that, and with another it was very strict. In addition to civilian aircraft, the company also designed military vehicles, so a closed, secret regime applied to everyone, just like at other plants of the defense complex.

Novozhilov also noted that Sergey Vladimirovich was serious and interested in young specialists, trusted them in important areas of work, and ensured rapid promotion, of course, if they deserved it. However, the full "old Ilyushin Guard" provided all-round support to the newcomers. The arrival of the next group of young professionals carrying new knowledge, combining them with the experience of specialists with many years of experience created what might be called the driving force of the design bureau.

In those years, the IL-28 bomber was launched into serial production in those years. Novozhilov immediately joined the work. Then there were modifications: IL-28 - reconnaissance, IL-28 - torpedo bomber. Over the years, more than 5500 machines have been released.

Novozhilov had to work a lot on a passenger plane with IL-18 turboprop engines. This is a whole era in the domestic aircraft. Not only ordinary people, but also state leaders flew on this reliable, comfortable car. It was the first aircraft that, in terms of its technical and flight characteristics, successfully competed with foreign counterparts and sold abroad. Of the 500 – 520 machines produced, about a hundred have been sold to 16 countries of the world, and still in some states are in operation.

Noteworthy is the history of the appearance of this aircraft. As Novozhilov recalls, Sergey Vladimirovich preferred to spend holidays in his native Vologda places, in the village of Dilyalevo. There was hunting, fishing. But once he flew south in Sochi. He returned and said: “Guys, but here we are traveling or rich people. It is necessary to make, sorry, the aviation property of the Soviet people, so that a plane ticket is not much more expensive than a train ticket! ”

By that time Novozhilov was already the designer of the 1 category and the lead designer for flight tests. Ilyushin, unexpectedly for him, offered to become the deputy chief designer and take the lead in the implementation of the Il-18 aircraft. Novozhilov first began to refuse, he was afraid that he could not cope, but the general insisted. It was then Henry Vasilyevich 33 of the year, and a huge responsibility fell on his shoulders.

The car had a difficult reputation as super-reliable. There were catastrophes, titanic work on fine-tuning the aircraft. Heinrich Vasilievich worked, as he used to, for the 12 – 14 hours. That plane is especially dear to him, like any "difficult child." IL-18 he gave six years. He says that without that industrial school there would not have been the general designer Novozhilov ...

In 1964, Ilyushin appointed Genrikh Vasilyevich as chief designer and first deputy general designer with the task of putting the long-haul IL-62 “on the wing” and organizing its mass production. The aircraft at that time was at the stage of production tests. I had to carry out flight and government tests, launch the aircraft into mass production. 15 September 1967 began passenger traffic - and immediately along the international route Moscow – Montreal, then flew Moscow – New York, etc.

For this work in 1970, Novozhilov was awarded the Lenin Prize as part of a group of Ilyushins. By the way, it was on the IL-62 that the emergency recorder appeared, which we call the “black box”, although the case has a bright orange color. His tape recordings were quite informative, and the casing was protected. Who invented the name "black box" Novozhilov does not know.

In July, 1970, Academician Ilyushin decided to retire - he was already seventy-seventh ... He was persuaded to stay, but he firmly said: "If I can’t come first, and leave last, then I don’t have to be a general designer!" Having announced his decision, Sergey Vladimirovich said that in agreement with the Minister Dementiev, the Central Committee of the Party, the Military Industrial Commission of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, he transfers the “steering wheel” to one of his closest students, his first deputy Genrikh Vasilievich Novozhilov, a specialist with excellent business and human qualities ...

“To tell the truth,” says Genrikh Vasilyevich, “I never felt that he, roughly speaking, had been training me for the six years that I had been his first deputy. Maybe I became the general designer because I never tried to become one ... ”And he never sat down at the table of his teacher, equipped himself with a new workplace for the leader in his office. A chair and table of Sergei Vladimirovich, his portrait remained in the same place as the memory of the great aircraft designer. That is how he called himself - not the chief, not the general, but simply: "Aircraft designer Ilyushin."

A year later, on April 26, 1971, Novozhilov was awarded the title Hero of Socialist Labor. A month before the award, March 25 1971, Genrikh Vasilyevich invited Ilyushin to Khodinka - the Central Airfield named after MV Frunze, from where almost all the vehicles of this bureau were flying. On that day, a new military transport plane was being prepared for lifting - a huge IL-76.

The lifting of the “winged truck” was entrusted by the crew commander to the Hero of the Soviet Union Eduard Ivanovich Kuznetsov. The teacher and the student went around the plane, examined everything, exchanged opinions, and Academician Ilyushin gave the nod to take off. It is clear that the decision on the first flight of the IL-76, in fact, in the very center of the capital has already been agreed and accepted, but Novozhilov considered it his holy duty to provide Ilyushin with the opportunity to carry out an airplane with his name on the wings ...

Later, Heinrich Vasilyevich had to develop many modifications of the IL-76. We are talking about the military transport Il-76 MF and Il-76 MD, IL-76 K plane, intended for training astronauts in conditions of short-term weightlessness, flying IL-76 MD "Scalpel", Il-78 tanker ...

Pay attention, in particular, to one of the options for the use of IL-76. To extinguish forest fires used aircraft of various types. After the appearance of the "seventy-sixth," the idea arose to use it for this purpose. And such a “firefighting aircraft” that could dump 32, and later 42 tons of water, was designed and put into production. In 1990, the aircraft was first used in the Krasnoyarsk region to extinguish the taiga and showed its high efficiency. Two years later, in extremely harsh conditions near Yerevan, a fire was put out at an ammunition depot. Later, there were many other successfully completed tasks both in Russia and in Greece, Bulgaria, Turkey ...

Abroad, they immediately became convinced that the Il-76 fire plane has no analogues in the world. It is noteworthy that after the fires in Florida, the Americans, having familiarized themselves with the capabilities of the machine, called it a “water bomber” or “strategic weapons in fire fighting. "

In 1995, the aircraft and fire-fighting equipment received a gold medal at the World Exhibition of Inventions and Scientific Research in Belgium “Brussels-Eureka-95”. And this is not the only prestigious international award of a unique car.

In 1969, the design bureau began the development of the first Russian wide-body passenger aircraft, called the IL-86. By that time, the demand for air transport was enormous, besides, overseas made the first flight of the Boeing-747. Creating an unprecedented machine for the Russian aircraft industry, because the 350 passenger seats is a serious matter, began with the study of possible options. Novozhilov recalls that the transformation of passenger IL-62 and even transport IL-76 were considered. In the end, they began to develop a completely new airplane.

The first experienced IL-86 with a range of 4500 km was rolled out of the gate of the experimental bureau of the OKB to the airfield of the Central Aerodrome at the end of 1976. 26 December 1980 of the year on the IL-86 began passenger traffic, first along the route Moscow – Tashkent, later - in Sochi, Simferopol, Mineralnye Vody ...

3 July 1981, the IL-86 performed the first international flight to Berlin. Soon the plane began to land at the airports of Madrid, Paris, London and other European capitals. This was followed by Singapore and Malaysia, the United States and Canada.

IL-76 and IL-86, which over the years transported more than 150 millions of passengers, absorbed a whole bunch of original design solutions, became a kind of base model for the development of the following aircraft. It is not by chance that in 1984, Novozhilova was elected a full member of the USSR Academy of Sciences for the separation of mechanics and control processes. His scientific work is related to aerodynamic research, the reliability of complex structures, the development of fundamentally new approaches to the so-called manufacturability of the machines and mechanisms being developed. About one and a half hundred inventions and these “innovations” are protected by patents. At the beginning of 80, Henry Vasilievich Novozhilov was awarded the second gold medal of the Hero of Socialist Labor.

September 28 1988 of the Year Hero of the Soviet Union, Honored Test Pilot of the USSR Stanislav Bliznyuk lifted into the air experienced wide-body intercontinental IL-96 – 300. This vehicle is capable of carrying 300 passengers or 30 tons of cargo over a distance of 10 thousands of kilometers at speeds of 850 – 900 km / h. Brand new aircraft - new wings, new engines, new flight-navigation complex. Later, together with the Americans, the IL-96 T cargo aircraft was designed and manufactured, which was equipped with American engines and equipment. This machine received - for the first time in the history of our aviation industry - the certificate of airworthiness of the United States Register (FAA). IL-96-MO - “modernized, experienced” - was able to carry 450 passengers, and in the cargo version - 96 tons for a distance of 5000 km or overcome a route of 13 thousand km long with a load of 40 tons. Later he flew around the globe in many directions.

The fact that the President of Russia flies on the Il-96-300 speaks about the traditional high confidence in the technology of this design bureau. The government of the USSR and Russia was transported on all Ilyushin planes: on IL-12, IL-14, IL-18, IL-62.

"Ilam" owns many records. But the main record is simple: for the entire lifetime of the design bureau, and it was organized in December 1933 of the year, about 60 thousand “Silts” were built. When this figure is heard by foreign colleagues, they do not believe. But the fact is a fact: more than 40 thousands were built at the most difficult time for our Motherland - during World War II: 36 thousands of Il-2, 5,5 thousands of Il-4 and somewhere else around 800 Il-10. In general, the planes of the design bureau, which bears the name of an outstanding aviation designer, world-famous Sergey Vladimirovich Ilyushin, you can view the entire history of aviation, including civil aviation. This applies to the military to a lesser extent, since there were attack aircraft, bombers, and there was a “gap” with fighters - just one modification of IL-1. But in civil aviation, the whole story is there: the piston IL-12, which was started to be designed in 1943, and in 1946, it already took off. Next, the IL-14 is an aircraft that was very much loved and which did a lot in the Arctic and Antarctic. Polar aviation pilots give the highest rating to this aircraft. Then there was the IL-18 - Novozhilov's favorite aircraft, on which he passed a giant school. Led him with operational tests, flew around on him half the world, drove on it the government, responsible for the material part. This car flew along new unexplored routes, and the designer’s place was behind the captain. Novozhilov investigated all the accidents of this aircraft. And not only. He was personally involved in the 80 investigation of the percentage of accidents of all aircraft in the Ilyushin Design Bureau.

Yes, in Novozhilov’s life there were not only pleasant ups "Ilov". There were also difficult moments when he participated in the work of emergency commissions - he represented the developer and got to the bottom of the true causes of disasters in order to rule out their repetition. And on such days and hours he remembered Il'yushin's farewell: “We must be able to take a punch!”.

Heinrich Vasilyevich was one of the initiators of the International Aviation and Space Salon MAKS. It all started with an exhibition in the year 1992, which became the progenitor of the salon. Novozhilov received the Order of Friendship of Peoples from Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin for that exhibition, and the first show took place in 1993. It was here that our IL-96 – 400 T was first introduced.

Speaking about competition in the world market, Genrikh Vasilyevich notes: civil aircraft construction is one of the few industries that conceals a significant export potential. In particular, IL-76 brought the country billions in revenues. IL-96-MO could sell up to 40 aircraft per year. Unfortunately, today we are inferior to foreign models in terms of engine noise, ecology, interior, and in-flight passenger entertainment systems. The latest IL-96-300, Tu-204, Tu-214 aircraft meet all the requirements, but it became very difficult to sell the aircraft. It is necessary to create service bases abroad, to have a stock of various equipment, to quickly change failed units.

Heinrich Vasilyevich wrote an interesting book about himself and airplanes about his fate, which immediately became a bibliographical rarity. And this is not surprising - the book’s circulation of all 500 copies, and it absorbed a whole epoch of the national aviation industry: from IL-14 to IL-96-400. And the story is led by a man who personally went through all the steps in the design bureau, in the experimental and then in batch production, who knows his business perfectly.

Titles and regalia Novozhilova can be listed for a long time, his services to the motherland are impressive. Winner of the Lenin Prize (1970), twice Hero of Socialist Labor (1971, 1981), Academician of the USSR Academy of Sciences (1984), awarded three Orders of Lenin, Orders of the October Revolution, Red Banner of Labor, "Badge of Honor", medals ... Recently, the awards were added to these awards Government of Moscow "Legend of the Century", its G. V. Novozhilova honored for exceptional services in the twentieth century.

At one time, Sergey Ilyushin set up a team to make such planes that will be good today, tomorrow, and the day after. Novozhilov strictly followed this rule for many years. That is why during the presentation of the “Honored Designer of Russia” badge he told the President of Russia: “The difficulties that the aviation industry is experiencing will be overcome. “IL” aircraft flew, fly and will fly, doing the work for Russia that they are required to do. ”

Genrikh Vasilyevich is now the chief science adviser to the general director of OAO “Aviation Complex named after S. Ilyushin”. He hopes that Russian aircraft building will be revived and become, as before, a very prestigious, well-funded industry, in which it will be interesting and profitable to work. As for the capabilities of our designers, their ability to think and design successfully, he has no doubts here: talents have not been transferred to Russia. So to the question: "Does our aviation have a future?" - firmly replies: "If we assume that there is no future, then we should not live."
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  1. kind
    kind 13 July 2013 07: 30 New
    +2
    The latest Il-96-300, Tu-204, Tu-214 aircraft meet all the requirements, but it has become very difficult to sell aircraft. It is necessary to create service bases abroad, have a stock of various equipment, and quickly change failed units.

    So it’s abroad, but why don’t we have them ???
    1. vladimirZ
      vladimirZ 13 July 2013 12: 43 New
      +8
      "... but why do not we have them ???" Good (1)  Today, 07:30 AM

      The collapse of the aviation industry is to blame for the supreme power of Russia, from Yeltsin-Chubais to Putin-Medvedev. The predatory, gangster privatization destroyed not only the aviation industry, but also aviation, both civilian and military.
      Will the remnants of the aviation industry be able to restore the former power of Russian aviation, a BIG QUESTION, despite certain advances in the field of military aviation.
      Will the liberal government following the US-West allow this?
  2. kartalovkolya
    kartalovkolya 13 July 2013 08: 25 New
    +5
    As always: "give your wife to uncle, and go to b ....". We and second hand.
  3. andsavichev2012
    andsavichev2012 13 July 2013 12: 02 New
    -8
    There was also IL-4 - the main bomber of World War II. They were the ones who hit Berlin on August 8, 1941.
    Mistake Bombed on Petlyakov, IL-4 does not fly to Berlin
    1. VAF
      VAF 13 July 2013 13: 11 New
      +9
      Quote: andsavichev2012
      Mistake Bombed on Petlyakov, IL-4 does not fly to Berlin


      No mistake, dear!

      The first. On August 8, Berlin, the sailors (aviation of the Baltic Fleet) were bombed by the Preobrazhensky regiment and precisely on the DB-3 (Il-4), and before that they went for reconnaissance in July.

      But on August 10, the Air Force, Lebedev's regiment on TB-7 (Pe-8) planes were already connected.

      So ... sorry wink

      And so that they would "fly" to Berlin .. they would get on the island of Kagul, and from there they would ... "start" soldier
      1. Alan
        Alan 14 July 2013 19: 17 New
        0
        Yes, I remember reading about it; I don’t remember, unfortunately, the name of the book, but the fact that they bombed is for sure !!!! But he rummaged and found the name of the book. "ed. MILITARY LITERATURE Kuznetsov NG Course to victory"
    2. Bronis
      Bronis 14 July 2013 01: 15 New
      +1
      it is IL-4 and with about. Ezel. Goebbels, by the way, later on the radio excitedly talked about either 200 (or even more) BRITISH bombers who supposedly flew to Berlin. Valorous Luftwaffe, of course, they were intercepted, they interrupted decently, but several planes broke through ... But in reality - a dozen IL-4 are almost at the limit ... and without losses (surprise)
      So lovers of German sources are considered infallible a little uncomfortable ...
  4. RoTTor
    RoTTor 13 July 2013 16: 48 New
    +3
    [b] The moral atmosphere in the Ilyushin team was always, from the first days, warm, based on attention to people, respect for them, but without any relaxation in business. There was no ostentation of reverence, anarchy before the general. Ilyushin residents always wanted to go to work.
    So Ilyushin put it, so Novozhilov continued.
    And this, too, is one of the important components of success.
    In this "Il" has always been very different from other design bureaus. [/ b]
  5. shpuntik
    shpuntik 13 July 2013 23: 00 New
    +1
    Yes, we have the best design school in the world. Without any. In such circumstances, to create masterpieces, all Boeings never dreamed of. Save the continuity.
    So I won’t "drive", why not do the IL-96 for the domestic market?
  6. aviator65
    aviator65 14 July 2013 00: 46 New
    0
    Quote: shpuntik
    Yes, we have the best design school in the world. Without any. In such circumstances, to create masterpieces, all Boeings never dreamed of. Save the continuity.
    So I won’t "drive", why not do the IL-96 for the domestic market?

    Apparently because of why the Tu-334. On the one hand, in our airlines, advanced managers are very fond of foreign cars, even if they are second-hand ones, and on the other, the “superjet” is our everything!
    1. shpuntik
      shpuntik 14 July 2013 16: 54 New
      +1
      aviator65 SU Today, 00:46
      Apparently because of why the Tu-334. On the one hand, in our airlines, advanced managers are very fond of foreign cars, even if they are second-hand ones, and on the other, the “superjet” is our everything!

      Not ... I think there is some kind of agreement, an oral agreement: a ban on wide-body airliners. Airworthiness certificates for foreign aerodromes, this is all nagging for one purpose: to protect the market and force them to buy their engines. Strangled in general, so far.
    2. erg
      erg 15 July 2013 08: 49 New
      +1
      In fact, "used cars" make up the bulk of the fleet of almost all airlines in the world. There are much fewer aircraft just off the assembly line. The fact is that the aircraft, in fact, has no deadline. If necessary, engines, equipment, worn parts are replaced and he is back in service. The glider itself can be operated for a very long time. The whole business is built on this: decommissioned planes are bought up, canned, after their purchase, sent to the factory where the re-equipment is being carried out and it will be built in again. As for the availability of a large number of foreign models, usually Boeing and Airbus, everything is much simpler: in the first, airlines have the right to decide which models to use, in the second, there is a developed infrastructure for servicing these aircraft around the world, there are no problems with spare parts, with aerodrome services, etc., the corresponding service is generally developed. Thirdly - according to some indicators, efficiency, low noise, foreign models are ahead of us, and this is important if you are flying abroad. In general, the picture is something like this: we can make good planes, but competently sell them and most importantly provide the whole range of services for servicing them (spare parts, repairs, etc.) until we have studied.