Military Review

Byzantine lessons. To the 560 anniversary of the fall of Constantinople. Part of 4

34
Final preparations for a decisive assault


In recent days, the city has been heavily bombarded. On May 27, Sultan Mehmed drove around the army and announced the imminent decisive assault on Constantinople. His heralds reported that the Byzantine capital would be given to the “fighters for the faith” for a complete plunder within three days. Sultan promised a fair division of loot. A high reward was promised to the one who first ascends the enemy walls. In the Ottoman camp, festive bonfires blazed and festivities began. 28 May 1453, Monday, declared a day of rest and repentance, so that Muslim warriors gained strength before a decisive battle.

The defenders of the city, seeing so many bonfires and torches, thought that the enemy was burning extra belongings, intending to leave. However, these hopes were in vain. Giovanni Giustiniani Longo engaged in filling up gaps and strengthening temporary structures, sent a messenger to Luka Notaras with a request to transfer to his disposal all the backup artillery. Notaras refused. Longo accused him of treason. It almost came to a fight, and it took the emperor to intervene to calm them down.

The Turkish Sultan gave the last orders. It was decided to attack the enemy without stopping, sending wave after wave of the attack, until the enemy trembled. Admiral Hamza Bey was instructed to distribute the ships on the wall overlooking the sea, where only you can try to land assault troops. Zaganos Pasha received the task of landing part of his troops on ships in the Golden Horn to attack the walls from the side of the bay. The rest of his forces must go over the pontoon bridge and strike Vlaherna. To his right, a section of the wall to the Harisian Gate attacked Karadzha Pasha with the Rumelian. Ishaq Pasha and Mahmud Pasha with Anatolian stormed the area from the gate of St.. Romana to the Sea of ​​Marmara, concentrating on the Golden Gate. The Sultan and the Grand Vizier with selected troops struck around the valley of the river Lycos.

In the city, Emperor Constantine XI Palaeologus gathered all distinguished people and commanders. The emperor spoke of the need to be ready to give his life for the faith, family, homeland and sovereign. He recalled the accomplishments and exploits of the great ancestors. He thanked the Italians present and called on the defenders of the city to stand to the death. Then he went around and asked for forgiveness. All those present followed suit, hugging and saying goodbye. In St. Sophia came all who are not on duty on the walls, and the Orthodox, and supporters of the union, and Catholics. They confessed their sins, offered prayers. Before the death fight the unity of Christians occurred.

The defenders redistributed their forces as best they could. Manuil of Genoa with 200 archers and crossbowmen defended the site near the Golden Gate and Studion. Theophilus Paleologus commanded a detachment south of the Pigiysky Gate. Giustiniani Longo with the Italians 400 and the core of the Byzantine army was responsible for the most dangerous area at the gate of St. Romana The place of the junction of the walls of the city with Vlachern was defended by taking Bocciardi. Minotto was in charge of Blakhern. The Caligari gates were defended by the "best shooter on earth" Theodorus of Kariston and military mechanic Johannes Grant. At Xiloport's gate, Archbishop Leonard of Chios and Hieronymus stood guard, with Cardinal Isidore on their right. A squad of Luke Notaras was standing in the Petrion area, he was in charge of the area before the gates of Saint. Theodosius. 500 archers and arquebusiers guarded the walls near the Golden Horn. Gabriele Trevisano, with 50 soldiers, guarded the central section of the walls by the bay. The sailors from Crete stood at the Oreus gate. Antonio Dieudo commanded the ships. Catalan Consul Pere Julia (Pedre Julia) guarded the area of ​​the harbors of Bukolene (Vukoleon) and Condoscaliani. Near the harbor of Eleutheria, Prince Orhan was located. The squad of Jacopo Contarini covered the wall from Eleutheria to the Psamphic gates. Dmitry Kantakuzin with Nikifor Palaeologom took up positions near the church of sv. Apostles.



Storm 29 May 1453 of the year

28 May closer to the end of the afternoon, when the setting sun shone in the eyes of the defenders of the city, the Ottomans rushed to fill the moat and began to pull the artillery and throwing tools closer to the walls. Three hours before dawn, the Ottoman artillery struck, and the Turkish irregular units under the command of Mustafa Pasha rushed to the assault. The sentinel raised the alarm, and the garrison was prepared for battle. Sultan somewhat changed his plans and was the first to throw into the battle not his choice forces, but the bashi-bazouks. These were poorly armed, as compared with regular units, and poorly disciplined troops, recruited from mountain tribes, Albanians, loot seekers from various countries, including Slavs, Hungarians, Germans, and even Greeks. The attack went along the entire line of the walls, but the main attack was aimed at breaking through the gate of St. Romana Here was holding the 3 defense, a thousand detachment of Justiniani Longo, who pulled most of the soldiers armed with firearms here weapons. Despite the huge losses, the bashi-bazouks did not retreat and stubbornly went forward. The soldiers of Justinian, being better armed and prepared, restrained their onslaught — in a narrow gap, the Ottomans could not take advantage of their numerical advantage. The units advancing from other directions also failed. After a nearly two-hour battle, Mehmed recalled his troops.

The Byzantines began to restore the fortifications, but had little time. After a new artillery strike, regular Ottoman troops went into battle. They were much better armed and organized than bashi-bazouks. If necessary, retreated, allowing gunners to fire on fortifications. But they also suffered heavy losses - a large number of soldiers tried to break through on a narrow sector. About an hour before dawn, the Ottoman artillery pierced the site of the palisade on the spot of the breach. Three hundred soldiers broke into the breach. The emperor blocked this group, most of the Turks were slaughtered, some were rejected. At other sites, especially fierce battles were fought on the walls of Vlaherna. Such a fierce rebuff caused confusion in the Ottoman troops, moreover, they were already tired. Turkish commander took the troops. In all directions, the assault was repulsed.



Sultan did not wait until the troops put themselves in order, and threw into battle the last fresh forces - the palace regiments and the Janissaries. Selected warriors of the Sultan attacked, observing awe-inspiring discipline, moving silently, without shouting, music. The Sultan himself brought them to the brink of a moat and remained there cheering the Janissaries. The battle has reached its highest point. The Greek warriors were tired, they had been fighting for several hours in a row, but they held on. A stubborn battle lasted about an hour, and it seemed that the Christians would repulse the third attacking wave.

But then there were two accidents that changed the picture of the battle in favor of the Ottomans. Someone from the Janissary discovered that the door of the Cerkoport between the wall of Theodosius and Vlahernem, through which the defenders made forays, was not locked. Whether it was just a mistake of the guard, or someone's malicious intent is unknown. Several dozen soldiers broke into this doorway and, running up to the inner wall, raised the rod. The Genoese Bocciardi was too small to stop the enemy. However, soon the Turkish soldiers were cut off and were threatened with total annihilation, if luck hadn’t yet smiled upon the Ottomans.

Giovanni Giustiniani Longo, who was at the front line, on a wooden parapet near one of the gaps, was injured. The bullet (or a fragment of the nucleus) pierced the arm and, striking the cuirass, apparently passed under the arm. Longo, bleeding and in great pain, asked his comrades to remove him from the battlefield. The emperor was nearby and asked him to stay in order not to undermine the morale of the troops. Giustiniani insisted on being taken away. His comrades carried him to the Genoese ship, which, when the city was captured by the enemy, would break into the sea and go to Chios. But the wound was really serious and Longo would die in June. The soldiers of Giustiniani saw that the commander was being carried off, confused, and panicked. Someone thought that the city was doomed, so the command is saved. Panic quickly spread, especially in light of the fact that the Ottoman flag was flying on the wall to the north. Many soldiers ran, hoping to find salvation on ships.

Ottoman commanders noticed dismay in the ranks of the enemy and a squad of janissaries under the authority of the giant Hasan made his way to the crest of a broken barrier. The Greeks rushed to the counterattack and killed the Janissaries, but they were able to hold out so long that they were joined by the main forces. The Greeks, without soldiers Giustiniani, could not hold back this wave. Emperor Constantine tried to organize the defense of the inner gates, and fell in battle. His cousin Theophilus Paleologus died with him.

The defense collapsed. Foreigners, for the most part, tried to make their way to the ships, local residents rushed to their houses, trying to save their families. More and more Ottoman flags and pennants appeared on the walls. In the Kerkoporta area, the Genoese fought for some time, then realizing that the case was lost, the Bokkiardi brothers (one died - Paolo) cut through a still weak ring and made their way to the ships. They got to Peru. Minotto’s Venetian squad was unlucky: he was blocked in the old imperial palace in Vlaherna, some died, others were captured (some were later executed). Turkish flotilla in the bay, having received news of a breakthrough, landed troops and without a fight climbed the walls. The defenders have already fled. On a site south of the Lycos Valley, Christian soldiers were surrounded, many fell trying to break through, others were captured. Surrendered L. Notaras, F. Contarini and D. Cantacuzinus. The quarters Studio and Psamafia surrendered to the regular Turkish units, saving the churches from plunder and life to people. The Catalans and Orhan warriors were cut off and were mostly killed. Orhan himself changed into a monk and tried to escape, but was caught.

Cardinal Isidore was able to get into Peru. Alvizo Diedo arrived in Peru to discuss the situation, and his sailors cut off the straps that held the chain covering the entrance to the bay. As a result, many Christian ships fled, taking those they could. The Turks could not prevent them, many Ottoman sailors, fearing that the city would be plundered without them, threw ships and fled to Constantinople. The last center of resistance was in the three towers near the Oreisk gate, where sailors from the Cretan ships barricaded themselves under the command of captains Sgur, Anthony Ialin and Filomat. They stubbornly resisted until the beginning of the afternoon, refusing to surrender. Ottoman Sultan, respecting their courage and endurance, ordered to give them their ships and let them go. It should be noted that the captured Christian soldiers were quite small - about 500 soldiers. The remaining defenders of the fortress fell in battle or were able to escape.

In Constantinople there was a robbery and slaughter. Some quarters were able to provide organized resistance to the mob of marauders and hold out until the regular campaign of the Sultan. Robbery and defeat continued until regular troops, at the behest of the Sultan, stopped the human element. Mehmed did not want the destruction of the city, which was to become the jewel of his empire. Initially, many residents were killed, including women and children. Then, when the first heat of fury subsided, people began to be captured for sale into slavery. In particular, in sv. Sophia, where people fled in the hope of escape, killed all the elderly, wounded and sick, took prisoners who could sell or get a ransom — young women, girls, boys, children, and noble people. During the pogroms, many cultural treasures were destroyed or disappeared, including real relics, such as the icon of Our Lady Odigitria (Guidebook). It must be said that the mayhem of the city was in some respects weaker than when the crusaders captured Constantinople in 1204. It was already a Turkish city and Mehmed did not allow him to burn and destroy. 1 June, the Sultan stopped all the looting and led excessive troops out of the city walls. The neutrality of the Genoese Peru-Galatia did not save her, the sultan annexed the quarter to his possessions.

Results and consequences

The Byzantine Empire ceased to exist. Constantine XI Palaeologus became the last Byzantine emperor. The Ottoman Sultan granted the rights of the self-governing community within the state to the city’s Greeks. The community was headed by the Patriarch of Constantinople, who was in charge of it before the Sultan. The Sultan himself, began to be called the successor of the Byzantine emperor, took the title Kaiser-i Rum (Caesar of Rome).

30 May Mehmed replaced Grand Vizier Chandarly Khalil with Zaganosa Pasha. The reason was the denunciation that Chandarly Khali incited the Greeks to stubborn defense, promising the speedy departure of the Ottoman army. After some time, the former Grand Vizier was executed. Venetian leader Girolamo Minotto and his sons were executed. He was accused of continuing the resistance, after the fall of the city. Luca Notaras was also executed; he refused to give the 14-year-old son to the sultan's harem. Important Greek and Italian captives were taken to Edirne, many were bought.

Sultan Mehmed quickly restored the city. True, it was no longer a Christian, European city, but the largest center of the Eastern, Muslim world. The walls were repaired, the city was opened to access, both Eastern Christians and Turks, other Muslims. Some were attracted by tax breaks and privileges, others were simply driven by force, filling long empty quarters. In particular, after the capture of Trabzon, the local Christian population was resettled to Constantinople, and the Turks settled in the liberated territories. The implementation of an extensive urban planning program has begun. They built a new palace, a large hospital with a training center and students, a cultural complex, a barracks for the janissaries, a foundry yard for the production of cannons, etc. Mehmed II the Conqueror decided to turn Constantinople into the capital of the world, the center of many cultures, all peoples of Scripture - Muslims Christians and Jews. The new great empire, the heir to the First and Second Romes, was to become a crossroads, where the cultures of the East and the West met and supplemented each other. Moreover, Mehmed declared himself the legitimate heir of the Roman and Byzantine empires with claims to territories that were located far from the borders of the Ottoman state.

For the Christian world, the loss of Constantinople was a serious blow. The Ottomans cut the trade routes of Genoa and Venice through the strait to the Black Sea and back. As a result, the great Italian cities will be forced to wage a stubborn struggle against the Ottoman Empire and will gradually decline. Europeans will begin to look for other ways to the East, to fabulous India, to the forefront will be navigators from Spain, Portugal, and then Holland and England. Italian navigators will make up a significant percentage of the discoverers. The Italian "golden elite" will move to Antwerp, Amsterdam and London. A general flight of the Genoese from the colonies on the Black Sea began, in a couple of decades Genoa will lose all possessions beyond the Bosphorus. The remnants of the Crusader possessions and the wreckage of the former Byzantine Empire quickly fell: in 1456, the Turks invaded the Athenian Duchy, the last Athenian Duke Franco held in the citadel of the Acropolis for two years, having lost hope of help, surrendered; in the 1460, the Sea of ​​Desporata fell; in 1461, the Ottomans captured the Trapezund "empire"; in 1470, the Turks captured Negroponte (Evia).

After the fall of Constantinople, the Ottomans continued military campaigns aimed at expanding their possessions. The conquest of the Serbian, Albanian and Danube lands continued, the islands in the Aegean Sea were conquered. The Ottoman fleet began to make pirate raids on Italian cities. There was a stubborn confrontation, where some wars were replaced by others, and so it lasted for centuries.

What lessons can be drawn from the sad Byzantine experience?

- We should not miss the situation with the education and upbringing of the military-political elite. Each generation of elites should be brought up in patriotic, national traditions. Cosmopolitanism, internationalism is the path to death. In Russia, at least two state projects have already crashed - the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union, due to the westernization and cosmopolitanization of elite circles. The Russian Federation is repeating their path, but at a faster pace, due to the growth of informatization and communication capabilities. The elite of Russia must be predominantly Russian by nationality and completely Russian in spirit. The Russian Tatars, the Germans, the Georgians, the Armenians, etc., have brought immense benefit to the Russian Empire, this must not be forgotten. The point is in the upbringing and education system - they must educate the Russians in the spirit of all Russian citizens.

- It is impossible to allow mass migration to the lands of the empire of carriers of other racial, ethnic and cultural and religious signs. The result will be sad. Indigenous peoples will be assimilated and implanted by more resilient and active ethnic groups, which may be inferior in education and cultural development, but will triumph in the field of demography (they will give birth and educate children on 3-7, unlike the white race, who are now massively creating or single-child families). It is possible to allow only the resettlement of certain representatives of other races, ethnic groups and cultures, which without a large community of fellow countrymen, are quickly assimilated. It is also permissible to relocate in Russia a significant number of representatives of related - Slavic, Indo-European ethnic groups.

- It is unacceptable rapprochement with the Western world, the game by its rules. The West has all the "cards" marked. You can not go on the trick of "universal" (actually Western) values. Playing by western rules has always led Russia to a catastrophe.

Author:
Articles from this series:
Byzantine lessons. To the 560 anniversary of the fall of Constantinople
Byzantine lessons. To the 560 anniversary of the fall of Constantinople. Part of 2
Byzantine lessons. To the 560 anniversary of the fall of Constantinople. Part of 3
Byzantine lessons. To the 560 anniversary of the fall of Constantinople. Part of 4
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  1. Esso
    Esso 4 June 2013 09: 14 New
    18
    The results are sad! The most interesting. true or fiction, it was said that the emperor of Byzantium asked for help from the merchants in the defense of Constantinople! The merchants were greedy, refused completely, hoping to pay off the Turks when the Turks arrived, they cut all the merchants and took all their good, sharing among themselves! Let this serve as a Lesson for the oligarchs and our unclean officials, weakening and stealing our defense money, no one is waiting for you in the west and east, they will kill and they will take everything away!
    1. Russian
      Russian 4 June 2013 14: 37 New
      +4
      Moscow is the third Rome, there will be no fourth! We must remember and know the story, and not make the same mistakes. We hoped for catalytic Europe, but they still had it, so you can’t trust them. The articles are excellent, of course I read about the fall of Byzantium, but not in such full volume.
      1. Karabu
        Karabu 4 June 2013 20: 19 New
        +1
        Quote: р_у_с_с_к_и_й
        Moscow is the third Rome, there will be no fourth! We must remember and know the story, and not make the same mistakes.

        so it is. only those in power are not interested in either the past or the future of Russia. this whole modern project with the symbol of the Russian Federation exists only for profit in the interests of a narrow circle.
        our country has everything to become number 1 in the world, while there is still, only our purchased power is quite satisfied with the role of a raw materials appendage
  2. Prometheus
    Prometheus 4 June 2013 10: 18 New
    0
    The designer of the Urban Basilica was either executed, or he himself died during the explosion of one of his guns.
  3. Alexander-Tomsk
    Alexander-Tomsk 4 June 2013 11: 12 New
    +1
    A worthy conclusion, I read all the articles. Interestingly, I learned many facts for the first time, there is something for contemporaries to think about. Plus.
    1. Setrac
      Setrac 4 June 2013 13: 47 New
      -2
      Quote: Alexander-Tomsk
      A worthy conclusion, I read all the articles. Interestingly, I learned many facts for the first time, there is something for contemporaries to think about. Plus.

      You will think about how such details are known, in historical documents the contents of four articles "Byzantine lessons. On the 560 anniversary of the fall of Constantinople." It takes almost a few lines. We know the fact of the fall of Constantinople (without geographical reference) and several key points (the most important), most of the remaining "facts" are the artistic conjecture of historians.
      1. Iraclius
        Iraclius 4 June 2013 18: 53 New
        +2
        Mr. Setrac never read a monograph by F.I. Assumption "History of the Byzantine Empire"? Sad, sad s. Fundamental and thorough work in five volumes. With an abundance of links. Read and bad thoughts in your head will disappear. And more good advice - read less healers Fomenko, Nosovsky and their hangers-on.

        PS I recommend visiting Genoa and Venice. Marvel at how many Byzantine monuments there are, including and icons and manuscripts. Fourth Crusade, you know.
        1. Setrac
          Setrac 5 June 2013 20: 05 New
          0
          Quote: Iraclius
          Mr. Setrac never read a monograph by F.I. Assumption "History of the Byzantine Empire"?

          Assumption probably an eyewitness to the events? Tell me, why should a physicist or mathematician prove his theory, and historians should take a word? Why should I take the historian word for word? Is history a science or faith? Maybe I'm not strong in history (this is debatable), but I understand something in construction, I know that no building will stand 1000 years old, and 500 years will not stand.
  4. Mairos
    Mairos 4 June 2013 11: 33 New
    +1
    An excellent series of articles on ancient tragedy. Article plus, and many thanks to the author!
  5. Mairos
    Mairos 4 June 2013 11: 34 New
    0
    Great article loop !! Many thanks!!
  6. Mairos
    Mairos 4 June 2013 11: 34 New
    +1
    Great article loop !! Many thanks!!
  7. Kerch
    Kerch 4 June 2013 12: 36 New
    0
    I read that they were going to send troops to help the besieged.
    1. Misha 1453
      Misha 1453 29 June 2013 13: 09 New
      0
      during the siege of Istanbul, the city was defended by all the armies of the Crusaders, and not only. there were Greeks, Italians, Austrians, Germans, French, Hungarians, English, Spaniards. But the Russians were not for sure. because as a country they did not exist. There were small, weak principalities, and then under the hands of the Tatars.
  8. carbofo
    carbofo 4 June 2013 12: 43 New
    +1
    There is a movie about these events, quite interesting.
    http://www.kinopoisk.ru/film/622856/ -1453 Завоевание
    I recommend those who like historical subjects.
    http://www.kinopoisk.ru/film/277327/ -1612, смута на Руси,
    http://www.kinopoisk.ru/film/33444/ -Огнем и мечом, события Украино-польской войны,
    http://www.kinopoisk.ru/film/93572/ -Сёгун , события в Японии , то-же что и в остальных фильмах - судьба человека на фоне грандиозных событий.
    I recommend everyone to watch, they are all different but somewhat similar, I think you all will enjoy watching.
    1. nnz226
      nnz226 5 June 2013 15: 29 New
      0
      A documentary film on the RTR about the fall of Constantinople and the entire Eastern Roman Empire was in progress, the presenter was a priest (full name I don’t remember) he talked about all this in no less detail. Also, there is the background to how the Byzantine empire slowly slipped to ruin, and that was the reason.
  9. sq
    sq 4 June 2013 12: 57 New
    +2
    Good articles, especially conclusions.
    But the last section is more like the voice of one crying in the wilderness.
    1. Trapperxnumx
      Trapperxnumx 5 June 2013 11: 46 New
      0
      I agree. The conclusions are excellent. And they are very reminiscent of what is written in the "Project Russia".
  10. avia12005
    avia12005 4 June 2013 13: 06 New
    +1
    Hmm, many thanks to the author. It should be forcibly studied in the government)))
  11. zeksus
    zeksus 4 June 2013 13: 40 New
    0
    The conclusion is wonderful !!! We need a national idea, not a blurred and differently interpreted freedom !!! One whole, that’s where the power is !!
  12. Setrac
    Setrac 4 June 2013 13: 52 New
    +1
    "We must not allow mass migration to the lands of the empire of carriers of other racial, ethnic, cultural and religious characteristics."
    It is necessary to give birth to many children, so that the Russian nation dominates not only in Russia, but also on this planet
  13. Alexandr0id
    Alexandr0id 4 June 2013 13: 53 New
    +2
    strange conclusions. how cosmopolitanism and internationalism led Byzantium to a fall is not clear. demographics also have a remote relation to the fall of Byzantium; during their conquests, the Turks were numerically (population, not army) inferior to the autochthonous Greeks. even by the beginning of the 20th century, there were only slightly fewer Greeks than Turks. and about the white race, too, it is somehow strange - by the 15th century, the Turks from the Greeks in racial terms were no longer very different.
    1. Marek Rozny
      Marek Rozny 4 June 2013 15: 52 New
      10
      The Turkic wars that invaded Byzantium could not be particularly numerous. The author made a good historical digression, but the conclusions, IMHO, are complete nonsense. The inhabitants of Byzantium from among the Greeks, Armenians, Jews, Kurds and others were incomparably greater than the high-lying Mongoloid steppe conquerors. And it’s stupid to say that the Asians allegedly “assimilated” them all there because of their “gigantic” birth rate. Another thing is that the cunning mercantile Byzantines themselves rushed to overtake each other, do Muslim circumcision and speak the Turkic language of the aliens. The steppe residents are far from fantasies of assimilating someone, imposing their religion and so on. These are toys for neophytes of ex-Byzantium, which have no genetic relationship to the Eurasian steppes. I will get drunk in a hollow, but I distinguish a Turk from a Kyrgyz or a Tatar instantly. Politically, the Turks will consider the Turks to be Turks, but in ordinary communication for the steppe, the Turks - it is not clear who speaks the Turkic language. We can talk with a stretch about cultural, religious, historical kinship, but the Kazakh, Yakut or Bashkirs do not even give a hint that the Turks are our brothers in the literal (genetic) sense. Politically, yes. And genetically, these are the Greeks, Armenians, Kurds and Jews. Real Asiatic Turks dissolved themselves in a Byzantine cauldron. So the author’s conclusion about the assimilation capabilities of the Turks on the example of Byzantium is complete garbage. Not the Turks dissolved the Byzantines, but on the contrary - the Byzantines absorbed the steppes and did not even choke. And the fact that they changed their religion and language is on the conscience of the ex-Byzantines themselves, who, for the sake of penny profit, will not do such a thing. For centuries, the Slavs lived in the neighborhood of the Turks and under the rule of the steppes, but there was no mass assimilation. On the contrary, this significant part of the steppe inhabitants Russified and converted to Orthodoxy, starting with the pre-Horde Polovtsians and ending with the 20th century.
      And now the Russian is driven into the idea that guest worker Ravshan is assimilating more than 100 million Russians. Yes, in all of Tajikistan + Kyrgyzstan, the combined population is less than in Moscow alone. With the same success, the Gastas from Central Asia (after all, they are implied in the author’s conclusion) can assimilate China or India. Even if you add the whole North Caucasus to them.
      1. zvereok
        zvereok 4 June 2013 20: 45 New
        +1
        Remember the number of troops of Darius and Alexander. Remember how much this number increased, with the capture of satrapies. So with the strength of both the troops and the population in Asia (in this case, the Seljuk Turks) everything was in order, in relation to the Europeans. Now remember the diseases that plagued the unwashed Europe.

        Quote: Marek Rozny
        . The steppe residents are far from fantasies of assimilating someone, imposing their religion and so on.


        It was just soft assimilation that you don’t want to pray to my god - pay the tax. Gradually, the population accepted Islam, and with it the way of thinking of the people who brought it.
        1. Marek Rozny
          Marek Rozny 5 June 2013 22: 32 New
          0
          Quote: zvereok
          It was just soft assimilation that you don’t want to pray to my god - pay the tax.

          You are talking about jizye. Jizya (0,2% of annual income) was taken from Jews and Christians (only from capable men). The essence of this tax is that the "people of the Book" (Jews and Christians) were not ordered to participate in wars in order to protect themselves and others, and since the state protected them and provided them with normal life activities; they had to pay this “military tax”. Those Christians who served in the Muslim army were freed from life for life. Muslims themselves gave the state a fifth of military booty, the obligatory Zakat tax and various religious alms taxes. In addition, the Muslim state bore social obligations towards the infirm non-Muslims.
          By the way, the Byzantines themselves sighed with relief from this tax on non-Muslims. Because during the time of their Byzantine emperors paid much more money as taxes.
          And whatever you say, the conquerors of Byzantium really were able to provide a peaceful life for the conquered Byzantines. It’s just that these Greek-Kurdish-Armenian-Jews themselves decided to repaint themselves as Turks and Muslims, and the Ottomans initially fought with this. Here is an example:

          On September 4, 1578, the following decree came from Istanbul:
          "To Beylerbey, Cadi, and the Damter of Damascus.
          Samaritans and Christians in Damascus dress like Muslims. They buy thin muslin, paint it yellow and wrap it around their heads, damaging Muslims. All of this is strictly prohibited. "
          The conquerors did not at all try to Islamize the conquered population - they were satisfied with the fact that they themselves were fighting, and the conquered people paid the established tax for this. There were, of course, some infringing laws (regarding the purchase of land, the construction of new churches and synagogues), but in general the Ottomans did not oppose the Christians. Christians held various important positions, conducted business and more. If we take into account that at the same time in Christian countries they cut their own Christians of other branches, then Ottoman society looks much more fair and soft. Yes, and the same Byzantines should have remembered how they crumbled Christian crusaders.
          In a word, the religion and language of the Romans on their own initiative changed. The Turks did not have such plans. These are not Arabs or Western Europeans who like to impose their religion. (by the way, the Türks did not give the Muslim world a single more or less prominent theologian, unlike the Arabs, Persians, and others. These religious disputes almost hit the drummers).
    2. Iraclius
      Iraclius 4 June 2013 19: 04 New
      0
      I have recommended one comrade here, I will recommend it to you. Article. Of course, it is a good one, but it does not provide a holistic picture of the situation in late Byzantium. Read the monograph by F.I. Uspensky "History of the Byzantine Empire."
      In short, cosmopolitanism led to the fact that the Venetians received the right to duty-free trade and, ultimately, all trade was in the hands of the Doges.
      Where did you get the information about demographics? Give a reference, if not difficult.
      While looking, I’ll tell you that long before the arrival of Mehmed, the eastern, Asia Minor provinces were practically depopulated and the Ottomans occupied almost extinct towns and villages. Due to tax burden. A monstrous burden. Such that many Greeks themselves fled to the Turks and converted to Islam.
  14. slaventi
    slaventi 4 June 2013 15: 44 New
    +1
    Earlier there was the Florentine Union 1439 - an organizational union under the authority of the pope of the ecumenical Catholic and Orthodox churches, proclaimed at the church cathedral in Florence (Italy).

    Along with the papacy, supporters of the union were leading circles of the Byzantine Empire, including Emperor John VIII Paleologue and Tsarist Patriarch Joseph II (1416-1439), who hoped to receive Catholic Europe’s help in the fight against the Turkish threat and the defense of the Byzantine Empire in exchange for a dogma concession .
    But betrayal did not help. As there was no substantial help from Rome.
    Russia must learn the lessons of Byzantium.
    1. slaventi
      slaventi 4 June 2013 16: 10 New
      +2
      During the war 1877-1878 year with Turkey. Russia was close to a complete victory over Turkey and the liberation of Kantantinople, but England and France intervened. Also, after the end of World War I, Kantantinople was supposed to withdraw to Russia, but the revolution prevented. The time would come when the Russian troops entered the city of Kantantina, and Turkey disappeared as a state .
      1. Iraclius
        Iraclius 4 June 2013 19: 05 New
        +4
        Sorry, but it hurts the eye - still Kоnantinople. hi
        1. Misha 1453
          Misha 1453 29 June 2013 12: 59 New
          0
          yes yes of course we’ll soon include the whole of Russia in the Great TURANA, damn you live on our lands and have the audacity to say all kinds of garbage.
      2. Kazakh
        Kazakh 4 June 2013 19: 10 New
        -1
        Quote: slaventi
        The time will come when Russian troops enter the city of Kantantina, and Turkey disappears as a state.
        Please answer 2 questions, why do we need Russia in Constantinople and 2 questions, why do you personally need it? Maybe you need to arrange something that could be used outside the garden ring. Especially since Turkey is stopping why it should disappear?
      3. Prometey
        Prometey 5 June 2013 07: 45 New
        0
        Quote: slaventi
        During the war 1877-1878 year with Turkey. Russia was close to a complete victory over Turkey and the liberation of Kantantinople, but England and France intervened. Also, after the end of World War I, Kantantinople was supposed to withdraw to Russia, but the revolution prevented. The time would come when the Russian troops entered the city of Kantantina, and Turkey disappeared as a state .

        Firstly, France did not intervene anywhere, she herself did not recover from the Franco-Prussian war and paid indemnity to Germany.
        Secondly, why are Turks not entitled to their statehood?
      4. Misha 1453
        Misha 1453 29 June 2013 12: 55 New
        0
        instead of dreaming about Istanbul, you should think about Moscow, which Muslims have already taken 60% by order of Turkey. soon the surprise will be my dear to you.
  15. AntonR7
    AntonR7 4 June 2013 21: 03 New
    +1
    The fall of Byzantium is a real lesson, because the siege of the city was preceded by a long period of decay, I hope our politicians will take this into account or our people will not allow it.
  16. Kolya
    Kolya 4 June 2013 21: 07 New
    +3
    And where were the “glorious” descendants of Richard the Lionheart when it was necessary to protect the Holy Land. Or do they go there only by crusades to rob sometimes?
    1. nnz226
      nnz226 5 June 2013 15: 33 New
      +1
      Exactly! They only come to rob! Name at least one war in which the Anglo-Saxons fought not for profit, but at least for some ideals ?! Like, how Russia saved the Bulgarian brothers from the Turkish massacre in 1877-78.
  17. Haxmah
    Haxmah 4 June 2013 22: 11 New
    0
    Vanity is vanity, all is vanity. There is nothing new under the sun
    1. mizantropi
      mizantropi 4 June 2013 22: 17 New
      +3
      Come, unclean, go to NA man!
      1. Haxmah
        Haxmah 4 June 2013 22: 38 New
        -1
        Wash your hands after using the restroom. And then, about purity, talk about it.
        1. alicante11
          alicante11 5 June 2013 09: 45 New
          0
          It’s you who yourself are judging others for something?
  18. воронов
    воронов 4 June 2013 22: 27 New
    +1
    Quote: Setrac
    Quote: Alexander-Tomsk
    A worthy conclusion, I read all the articles. Interestingly, I learned many facts for the first time, there is something for contemporaries to think about. Plus.

    You will think about how such details are known, in historical documents the contents of four articles "Byzantine lessons. On the 560 anniversary of the fall of Constantinople." It takes almost a few lines. We know the fact of the fall of Constantinople (without geographical reference) and several key points (the most important), most of the remaining "facts" are the artistic conjecture of historians.

    This is not speculation, it is a fact