Military Review

From Sevastopol to Budapest. The actions of the Black Sea Fleet reconnaissance detachments and the Danube Flotilla during the Great Patriotic War

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Actions of reconnaissance units of the Black Sea fleet and the Danube Flotilla during the Great Patriotic War.


1941 year

Creation of troops and the beginning of combat use


1 July 1941, the fascist troops in the 24 German and Romanian divisions and 15 Hungarian brigades from the territory of Romania went on the offensive, having the task to capture Odessa, and then the Crimea and Sevastopol - the main base of the Black Sea Fleet.

In order to resist the attack of the fascists, the Odessa Defensive Area (OOR) was created as part of a separate maritime army, marines and coastal units of the fleet. Also in the OER was a detachment of ships of the North-West direction.

For reconnaissance of the enemy, at the suggestion of the reconnaissance department of the Black Sea Fleet headquarters, two reconnaissance detachments were created, one of which was to act in the interests of the Odesa defense region, and the other in the Crimean peninsula region.

The detachment consisted of volunteers aviation Black Sea Fleet. The first use of naval saboteurs occurred in September during a landing operation in the Grigoryevka area.

In accordance with the September 22 plan, at half past one in the 4-5 kilometers north of Shizli, a landing force of 3 was ejected from a TB-23 plane under the command of Sergeant-Major Kuznetsov.

Under cover of darkness, the paratroopers cut lines of communication, attacked German headquarters, destroyed German officers and soldiers. The scouts managed to accomplish the combat mission and in the morning to unite with the main forces of the naval landing.

The first use of the Crimean reconnaissance unit took place in October 1941 of the year during raid operations on the island of Dzharylgach. A detachment of 60 under the command of S.Yermash made a raid along the route Dzharylgach - Akmechet - Evpatoria - Saki - Chebotarev - Simferopol. In the course of it, the fuel depot, the aircraft and the enemy convoy were destroyed.

From Sevastopol to Budapest. The actions of the Black Sea Fleet reconnaissance detachments and the Danube Flotilla during the Great Patriotic War


Evpatoria search

At NIGHT on 5 December 1941, a reconnaissance team consisting of 56 and a man commanded by V.Topchiev landed from two boats at the port of Yevpatoria, defeated the gendarmerie and the police department, drove the calculations of the Romanian batteries at the airport, destroyed one U-88 aircraft, the fleet (chi airborne), destroyed the Romanian batteries, and destroyed one of the UHNNXX aircraft, fleet of the Romanian batteries, destroyed the Romanian batteries at the airfield, one U-120 aircraft, the fleet destroyed (chikhus), chkhkhi batteries, flew the calculations of the Romanian batteries, destroyed at the airfield one U-XNUMX aircraft, the fleet (xh chuhs), the fleet destroyed the calculations of the Romanian batteries, chhui, flew the crew of the Romanian batteries. , boats, boats), located in the port, and burned warehouses and moorings. The scouts freed XNUMX people from the dungeons of the Gestapo, captured eight prisoners, weapon and documents. The task was completed without loss of personnel.

Feodosia search

The search took place for the purpose of reconnaissance support of the Kerch-Feodosiya landing operation. Initially, a reconnaissance group was withdrawn to Feodosia, consisting of the foremen of the 2 article V. Serebryakov and the Red Navy scout N. Stepanov, who had lived in Feodosia before the draft. At night, the scouts arrived at Stepanov’s parents, where they dressed in civilian clothes, and in the afternoon they set about fulfilling the task. Moving around the city, the scouts collected a large amount of valuable information relating to the coast guard and port defense, its air defense and antiamphibious defense, which was transferred to the headquarters of the operation that night.

A few days before the start of the operation, a reconnaissance group was landed to capture the prisoner, who gave valuable information.

On the night of December 29, a reconnaissance group consisting of a 22 man under the command of Senior Lieutenant P. Egorov disembarked from a boat on the Shared Port of Theodosia.

The scouts defeated the headquarters of the field gendarmerie and opened 6 metal cabinets with documents that were important for the intelligence of the Black Sea Fleet and other organizations. Among them was captured the "green folder" of the Crimean Gauleiter Fraunfeld, who was Hitler's personal friend. This folder was of great government importance, and subsequently its materials were used during the Nuremberg process.

1942 year

The fate of the Evpatorian landing


5 JANUARY 1942 of the year at 3 at 1 a.m. a division of the reconnaissance detachment of the Black Sea Fleet headquarters led by captain V. Topchiev as part of the landing of the marines was landed under enemy fire at the port of Yevpatoria. Marines fought in the environment for more than two days. The group died. Seriously wounded captain Topchiev shot himself.

To clarify the fate of the landing early on the morning of January 8, the submarine M-33, commanded by Lieutenant Commander D.Surov, landed a group of 13 headed by the battalion commissar U.Latyshev in the Yevpatoria region. The next day, Latyshev reported that the landing was completely destroyed by the enemy.

Due to a strong storm, the boat and submarine M-33 could not remove the group. She acted during the week behind enemy lines in the Evpatoria region, but was then surrounded. On January 14, Latyshev received the last radiogram: “We are undermining on our grenades. Farewell!"

In April, a reconnaissance platoon under the command of Lieutenant V. Kalganov arrived in Tuapse as part of a battalion of marines 1942 of the year. In May-June of the 1942, reconnaissance was conducted by forces of the Black Sea Fleet headquarters reconnaissance detachment and parallel to the reconnaissance detachment of the Kerch naval base led by battalion commissar V. Koptelov.



In the area of ​​Alupka

At NIGHT on 18 on June 1942, the 22 scout under the command of Senior Lieutenant N. Fedorov emerged from besieged Sevastopol on two ships, towing six, four and two oars in tow. The group was supposed to land in the Alupka area and disorganize the movement of the fascist transports with troops and ammunition.

A subgroup of midshipman O. Popenkov, as part of 4, a man landed successfully on a two-boat and embarked on the task.
Two other boats were discovered and fired upon. Landing boats, whose crews, having heard the shooting, decided that the whole group had successfully landed, had gone to Sevastopol. At dawn from Yalta two German boats came out to the boats. A battle ensued, during which one boat was damaged, but the second continued firing on the boats for another half hour, after which it took in tow the damaged boat and left for Yalta.

After that, the boats were attacked by two torpedo boats. During the battle, one of the boats also received damage and was towed to the base.
On the traverse of Cape Sarych, the boats were discovered by an Italian ultra-small submarine. The scouts opened fire on the submarine with machine guns and machine guns, and the boat went under water.

The coastal battery of the enemy began to shoot at the boats, but the boat sent for help led the boats out of the fire to Sevastopol. All eighteen scouts were awarded orders, and the sailor Gorbishchenko - posthumously.

A subgroup of midshipman Popenkov completed the task and a few days before leaving Sevastopol, she returned to the detachment, crossing the front line at night.

In the last days of the heroic defense of Sevastopol, the reconnaissance squad led fierce battles in the city, providing the output of the fleet command to Cape Chersonese. In street battles, as well as in the area of ​​the Cossack and Streletskaya bays, most of the scouts died.

Contrained and wounded were captured, including Fedorov, who died in a camp in Simferopol.

Revival squad

October 20 1942, the detachment led battalion commissioner V. Koptelov. The detachment consisted of three platoons, which, in turn, were divided into three reconnaissance groups.

When the front approached Novorossiysk, there was formed a recon detachment of volunteers - marines and sailors, taken from ships. He performed the duties of the detachment commander Captain Sobchenyuk.

In September 1942, the senior lieutenant Dovzhenko was appointed the commander of the reconnaissance detachment of the Gelendzhik task force of the reconnaissance department of the Black Sea Fleet headquarters.
11 September 1942, a group of 15 people led by Dovzhenko, was landed in the rear of the enemy in the area of ​​South Osayka with the task of conducting reconnaissance in the area Glebovka-Myskhako. The group successfully completed the task, setting the composition and number of troops in the Myskhako area, as well as the location and number of enemy firing points.

South Ozakey and Glebovka

19 September 1942, sea hunters MO-081 and MO-091 were prepared to sail. Their task was to land on the night of September 20 of the reconnaissance detachment as part of the 116 man, commanded by the commander of the detachment Captain Sobchenyuk in the South Ozeika-Glebovka area. The task of the detachment was to strike at the enemy’s garrisons.

For its implementation, Captain Sobchenyuk decided to divide the squad into two separate groups. The first, commanded by Sobchenyuk himself, was to strike at the enemy garrison located in Glebovka. The second group, commanded by Senior Political Commissar Libova, was to organize and conduct a raid on the enemy garrison in South Osika.

Libov's squadron, having landed with MO-081, divided into three reconnaissance groups and surrounded the station. The first two reconnaissance groups were supposed to attack the commandant's office, and each was solving its own task. One reconnaissance group was to capture the documents of the commandant, and the second to destroy the commandant's office. The object of the raid for the third group were enemy firing points on the coast. As a result of a sudden raid, the detachment solved the task. A panic arose in the garrison. The detachment began to move to connect with the squad Sobchenyuk. But the first squad out of luck. Due to the fact that in Glebovka, the enemy heard the sounds of a battle that had arisen in Southern Ozeika, he strengthened his posts. At the stage of advancement to the object of a raid, the detachment was discovered by the enemy and fired upon. Sobchenyuk died.

After returning to the base, the detachment was headed by junior lieutenant V.Pshechenko, the fleet headquarters reconnaissance team sent to this position. The landing of reconnaissance groups on various parts of the coast of the Taman Peninsula began to be conducted regularly. Intelligence groups operated before Abinskaya and Crimea, penetrated into the port of Novorossiysk. They obtained valuable information about the enemy, necessary for planning operations, indicated the objectives of aviation and artillery. Once a group of intelligence officers gave the exact coordinates of an enemy stronghold near Anapa and indicated landmarks for aviation, which destroyed the target with an air strike.

10 January 1943, the squad joined Caesar Kunikov’s squad and became one of its five battle groups.



Raid on the air base of Maykop

23 OCTOBER 1942 of the year at 21.30 from the airfield, which is located not far from Sukhumi, nine long-range bombers DB-3 and two high-speed bomber SBs flew into the sky and headed for Maikop. Two planes with a landing on board followed them. Before takeoff, the transport Lee-2 took on the 15 paratroopers. The heavy bomber TB-3, which was often used during the war years to drop troops, carried the 22 parachutist.

The aim of the operation was the destruction of the largest enemy group in the North Caucasus, based on the airfield of Maikop. The first strike on the airfield air defense firing points was inflicted by four DB-3 bombers. Following the approaching fighters attacked assault strikes on searchlights, and high-speed bombers dropped incendiary bombs on the railway station and furniture factory. Of the transport workers, Li-2 was the first over the airfield and dropped the landing force. The TB-3 was hit while landing, caught fire and crashed. Despite strong fire from the ground, from the 54 aircraft on the ground, the paratroopers destroyed 22 and inflicted damage of varying degrees of severity on 20 aircraft. During landing and during the execution of the task, 15 people died. The remaining 22 saboteurs made their way to the partisans.

1943 year

May Day demonstration


The sabotage operation conducted at the beginning of May should imitate the landing of a large number of troops. The detachment was instructed to break the telephone line and mine the Anapa-Novorossiysk road.

On the night of 1 on May 1943, a detachment consisting of 35 people under the command of Captain D. Kalinin successfully landed in the area of ​​Art. Barbarian. The detachment was divided into three groups, commanded by Captain Kalinin, Warrant Officer Zemtsov and Senior Sergeant Levinsky.

All groups of assigned tasks successfully completed. The last stage of the operation remained: it was necessary to sow panic in the ranks of the enemy. Levinsky’s group struck up a battle with a much superior enemy, lingered around Supsekha and was surrounded. Kalinin's group went to her rescue, but failed to break through the encirclement and help her comrades. During the battle, the entire group of Levinsky was destroyed, with the exception of a few wounded, whom the enemy took prisoner. Kalinin's group also fought to the last bullet and all died. Only the commander remained alive, who blew himself up and the Germans who had piled on him with the last grenade.

The group of midshipman Zemtsova, after staying in the enemy's rear for eighteen days, returned safely to the base, delivering valuable intelligence information.
For his courage and heroism, Captain Kalinin was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union posthumously. Also, the midshipman Zemtsov was awarded for the successful fulfillment of the responsible task of the high title of Hero.

After the death of Kalinin, Senior Lieutenant Dovzhenko was appointed commander of the 15 squad on May 1943. From under Tuapse the reconnaissance platoon of senior lieutenant Kalganov was transferred.

Preparations for the Novorossiysk landing operation began. To provide the headquarters with the necessary intelligence, the scouts constantly made forays into the enemy rear. Tasks every day became more difficult.

For the performance of reconnaissance missions in the area of ​​Novorossiysk, Senior Lieutenant Kalganov was awarded the Order of Alexander Nevsky for the first time in the Black Sea Fleet.

Intelligence of the Black Sea Fleet in the Crimea

In June, 1943, a group under the command of midshipman F. Volonchuk, was parachuted into the partisan airfield in the Crimea for reconnaissance in a given area.

In August, a group of chief sergeant Menadzhiyev, radio operator Gromovaya, reconnaissance sailors Vertenik and Konshin were parachuted into the Crimea to conduct reconnaissance in the Crimea.

Because of the strong fire of the enemy’s air defense, the group was forcedly landed from a height of about 4000 meters. Despite this, the group landed successfully on a platform in the forest between the mountains of Chernaya and Chatyrdag and gathered in full strength in the indicated place.

The group established contact with the partisans and organized monitoring of the Yalta port and coastal traffic. The scouts regularly reported to the headquarters the obtained intelligence information, as well as preparing to receive other reconnaissance groups. Soon the second group was thrown into the area of ​​Black Mountain, and in November - the third group, commanded by Senior Lieutenant Kalganov.

From the numerous heights surrounding Yalta, the reconnaissance sailors conducted continuous monitoring of the Yalta port. For this purpose, they used observation posts, where the scouts and radio operators were carrying the watch for several days, replacing each other. Place NP periodically changed, so as not to be detected by the enemy.

Scouts were not only observing surveillance. They actively used partisan intelligence. A good connection was with the underground, which operated in Sevastopol, Balaklava and other ports of the Crimea from Alushta to Evpatoria.

The Germans did not realize that the reason for the successful air raids on their warships that were in the ports of the peninsula, was a clear interaction of intelligence and bomber aircraft of the Black Sea Fleet. Two regiments of bomber were on duty in anticipation of intelligence data on the identified targets in the ports of Crimea.

Interaction with aviation allowed the operating groups to provide the necessary ammunition, food to radio stations and food. The pilots of the 5 Guards Mine-Torpedo Regiment delivered and dumped cargoes to the sites designated by the intelligence officers until April 1944.

The enemy, fearing the constant air strikes of the Soviet bomber aircraft, decided to relocate to Alushta, but even here two reconnaissance sailors were on duty at the NP, and the radio operator Valentina Morozova promptly transferred the data to the fleet headquarters.

Therefore, the measures taken by the enemy were unsuccessful. The intensity and effectiveness of air strikes of the Black Sea Fleet, which implemented intelligence data, did not decrease.

13 April 1944, after Soviet troops liberated Yalta, the scouts left the forest. Their long and difficult, but at the same time necessary work for the fleet headquarters at this stage was completed.

1944-1945 years

On the Danube


In August, 1944, after the creation of the Danube Flotilla, Kalganov's detachment was placed at its disposal and became the reconnaissance detachment of the Danube Flotilla headquarters.

On August 24, supporting the 3 of the Ukrainian Front, the flotilla ships entered the Danube. Reliable intelligence was required to support their actions. They were harvested by the recent Black Sea scouts. They chose the safest paths for the passage of armored boats, interviewing local residents, clarifying whether the fairway was mined, identifying the positions of the enemy’s coastal batteries, and selecting locations for the landing. In addition to new tasks, the scouts were also engaged in the habitual capture of languages. The enemy created a powerful defensive line at the Yugoslav village of Raduyevac. During the night, a reconnaissance group commanded by Morozov’s 1 foreman was landed from the boat, and the headquarters of Chechnyo, Globa and conductor Yugoslav Radula were also included in the group. The scouts dressed in civilian clothes, taken from the locals, and went in search of the language in two pairs. As a result, the non-commissioned officer of the German fleet and the corporal of the 2 Alpine Division, who provided valuable information on the German defense, were captured. From Raduyevats, the Germans were knocked out by a joint strike by the troops of the 1 of the Ukrainian Front and the ships of the flotilla that landed troops and supported its actions with fire.

In search of a free fairway

Without waiting for the capture of Raduyevac, the reconnaissance aircraft on two semi-hydromysers broke past enemy positions upstream to the coastal village of Prakhovo to verify information received from the language.

Upstream, the fairway was blocked by submerged ships, and the enemy kept approaches to the barrier under artillery fire.

Returning and reporting to the headquarters of the flotilla on the results, the intelligence officers immediately received an order to leave for reconnaissance of passages in the barriers. There was little time to find them — only one night. Ground forces could not move forward without the support of the flotilla. They need fire support, the provision of crossings and the landing of assault forces. Once again, the scouts wandered upstream of the Danube. On the way to the barrier, they moved into two boats, which were towed by a boat. Darkness, cold and fast flow interfered with the task. Constantly diving into the cold water, the scouts searched for a passage for the armored boats, but the whole channel was littered with submerged ships. Dawn was approaching, and the aisles were still not found. Almost before dawn he was found. Next, we checked the passage in the second line of the submerged ships - there is! On departure, they came under fire and were forced to release the boat, and themselves to swim. Under fire, we got ashore, completely numb from the cold, and met with the crew of a large boat. She also found passages in the first and second lines. On the evening of the next day, the wake column of armored boats passed under fire. Ahead was a reconnaissance boat.

In the battles for Mikhaylovets and the Iron Gate

In BOYAH for Mikhailovtsy infantry ahead of the flotilla. At night, being guided by artillery fire, Senior Lieutenant Kalganov went upstream on a semi-hydrofoil. Having met the Romanian boat and accepting the capitulation from its commander, Kalganov and the foreman of 1, Morozov remained on board the boat that had surrendered. The boat went up to the division that defended Mikhaylovets, where, with the command post Kalganov, he corrected the fire of armored boats for two days.

The next frontier is the Iron Gate. The scouts were tasked to ensure the passage of armored boats through them. To solve the problem, the group of senior lieutenant Kalganov was singled out. With her was the Serbian partisan Lubish Zhorzhevich.

Early in the morning of October 2, the group went on a mission on the hydroplane. It was necessary to hurry, behind the distance of 20-30 kilometers, there were armored boats. Under the mortar shelling, they overcame the canal and found the canal attendants (beaters, locomotive drivers). It was possible to agree with them on cooperation and supply them with weapons. On the way back again came under fire. Hydrofoil sank. The scouts picked up the lead armored trooper. The course of the boats pointed scouts.

Danube Secret Flight

Back in December 1944, when the scouts were just starting to work in Budapest, they were given the task of obtaining data on where on the Danube, above Budapest, the fairway is mined, where the enemy’s ships interfering with the passage of ships, and where the fairway used by the enemy for the movement of their vessels. This information was needed for the spring period, when the river is free from ice and the flotilla will go forward again. Navigation documents could be managed by the Danube Shipping Company. After a long search, the scouts managed to capture the shipping company official, who drew them a plan for the management building. On the night of Kalganov, Chkheidze and Globa penetrated into the protected building of the shipping company. First, the iron door leading to the secret compartment was blown up, and then the safe door, where they discovered the Danube Lottery made as an album. On the way back, they were discovered by the enemy and blocked in a high-rise building not far from the front line. They let the rocket know their own and with the help of a rifle company broke free of the front line.

Before storming Budapest

All the forces of the enemy, surrounded in Budapest, were pulled to the Castle Hill. For a strike, information was needed about the artillery positions in Boda, and about enemy forces in the defense sectors. All attempts of the scouts to get beyond the line of defense were unsuccessful. Then it was decided to penetrate the sewer. Found an old sewer system engineer who drew a diagram for several hours. 6 February 1945 of the year in 21.00 in the sewer hatch went down reconnaissance. She had to walk a few kilometers in gas masks, half bending. Three hours later, we reached the desired branching and rose to the surface, where we were divided into two groups. The first group managed to capture a German officer from the operations department of the headquarters. The second group captivated the major. The return journey with the captives turned out to be harder, but they were delivered and gave valuable evidence.

Already passed Vienna. Troops moved on. And as always, in front of the eyes and ears of the Danube Flotilla are intelligence agents. True, the commander of the detachment Kalganov did not take part in the last battles due to his injury. For the same reason, he was not in the ranks of the reconnaissance detachments of the detachment who were sent after the war to the Far East to form the 71 reconnaissance detachment of the Amur Flotilla. It was based on the reconnaissance sailors who arrived from the Northern and Black Sea fleets. The Amur reconnaissance unit successfully acted against the Japanese militarists, but that was another история.
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  1. omsbon
    omsbon 3 May 2013 08: 23 New
    +5
    A scout is an alloy of courage, courage, duty!
    Glory and eternal memory to those who died for their homeland!
  2. avt
    avt 3 May 2013 10: 30 New
    +4
    Big war on small ships. Like that along rivers and almost point blank request ... Strong! Went almost like a melee.
  3. smershspy
    smershspy 3 May 2013 12: 14 New
    +5
    Intelligence - there is intelligence! Honor and glory! Hooray!
  4. misterwulf
    misterwulf 3 May 2013 14: 03 New
    +5
    Good article. Respect to the author! But, not everything that is described here (and is available in official sources) ... although ... m. it was not fleet reconnaissance? But near a company of defenders of Sevastopol they managed to break into the mountains and after 2 years they stormed the city the very first. There are many such episodes and legends, where the legends are intertwined with reality, and no one will know the "exact ratio". No wonder the city is legendary! During the defense of Sevastopol, reconnaissance groups seeped behind the front line every 2-3 days and returned. Who were they? The fleet definitely participated there! There was the Army and the NKVD, but who then took it apart?
    We soon have a double holiday (every year) on May 9, 1944, the date of the liberation of Sevastopol! Thanks to them!
  5. Kubanets
    Kubanets 4 May 2013 23: 43 New
    +2
    Article + But the author should have mentioned that in the ranks of the Danube Flotilla the future actor and 50-70 screen star Georgy Yumatov fought