As part of the development of proposals for the report "MILITARY REFORM AS A COMPONENT PART OF THE SECURITY CONCEPT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION: SYSTEM-DYNAMIC ESTIMATION ”aimed at improving RF Defense Plan, members of the Izborsk club asked to answer a number of questions, outlining their vision of the number of problems, recruiting the army, its state of combat readiness, with the definition of some ways to improve the system. One of the questions was as follows: the results of the introduction of a new number of personnel (with an assessment of the quality of decisions made with a breakdown of officers, sergeants and privates) and terms of service for conscription and contracts.
The size of the structure of the Armed Forces depends on the degree and nature of existing and prospective threats, on the state of the country's economy, on the willingness and political will of state leaders to pursue a particular policy, including elements of the country's sovereignty on a global scale and on other factors.
The current number of personnel does not meet the needs of the army in ensuring its combat readiness and ability to repel or eliminate the threat with available means. This is proved by the actions of the reformers, first by reducing the officer corps, and later, by its declarative increase.
Approximate strength of the Armed Forces, in the event of a world war in modern conditions, from 3 to 5 million people or more can be estimated, taking into account the mobilization, the threats themselves and the combat power of the army. At the same time, a clear organization of such armed forces should be adopted in the state, including a regular army, recruited by conscription and by contract, a regular army reserve, previously called reduced-strength formations, and a mobilization reserve, previously called cadre formations.
The number of regular army must be at least 1% of the total population and fluctuate within 1,3 - 1,5 million. This is the minimum that allows you to maintain and combat readiness and match the combat capabilities for solving emerging problems, or repelling the enemy’s sudden strike, which, given the development of high-precision weapons and new weapons systems and defeats are no longer considered impracticable.
Active army reserve, should number from 0.5 to 1 million people, and its number depends on the amount of equipment stored in reduced formations, the needs of all types and branches of troops, threats and their development. A distinctive feature of the current reserve from the rest is that they are paid 50% of the prescribed monetary allowance for servicemen in accordance with the position held and 100% with participation in exercises and trainings. When recruiting regular units for replenishment in the event of hostilities during a CTO, the calculation is carried out as with regular troops, increasing the amount three times, and possibly more.
The number of mobilization reserve can be from 3 to 5 million people, and depends on the availability of military equipment stored in bases and warehouses, on the industry's ability to increase the output of military equipment in a special period and in the course of an armed conflict, on the need to recruit a reserve component or deploy local units self-defense to perform the tasks of the territorial defense of the country.
Officer corps in the existing structure does not correspond to the tasks facing the governing bodies. But it is also unreasonable to increase its number. So, central government, in accordance with the emerging tasks, it requires clarification and perhaps a slight increase in certain areas. As part of the central government should be provided for the creation of additional government. Four types of armed forces should be recreated, since the air defense of the country and the army in modern conditions comes to the fore. USC (fleet) management, require significant processing with the definition of real possibilities and their practical approbation on real, not ostentatious exercises and a return to the functions of districts. Additionally, the management of the Siberian military districts within the boundaries of the pre-existing association should be created. Army control require expansion to perform those functions that are defined by the current state and capabilities of subordinate connections and parts. The structure of the armed forces should be division management reconstituted, because military formations, as a rule, do not fight on their own. And in time, and in the course of hostilities, they are organizationally included in the composition: the regiment is part of a division; division - in the army; Army - in the composition of the front (USC). And the brigade is part of the army, as they say, directly, which in itself is unnatural. Based on this, the need for officers must be calculated, and not in connection with some percentage of the total number.
Officer corps According to tradition, the Russian army is the main guiding, educational and driving element in the country's military organization and depriving it of certain functions and reducing positions only results in the loss and non-fulfillment of combat missions. This has already been confirmed by the results of the involvement of special-purpose units in 2012 for participation in a special operation.
Ensigns, the first after officers, and from 1649, the standard-bearers, appointed from among the most courageous warriors, physically strong and proven in battle, began to be called ensigns. The abolition of warrant officers as a class in the Russian army caused irreparable damage to the combat readiness and combat capability of the army. In conditions when the equipment is constantly being improved and technically military rank becomes more complicated and the position of ensign acquires great importance.
Positions that can be appointed as position ensign, in a modern army there may be: the position of commander tank; squad leader; the commander of a self-propelled gun. Position ensign, this is the position of deputy platoon commander and platoon technician, chief of the control room. Position senior warrant officer, this is the position of a company technician; company foremen; material support platoon commander; the commander of a maintenance platoon; many positions in other services. If we take combat support units, then these are deputy group commanders, deputy platoon commanders, chiefs of control rooms, UAV platoon commanders, instrument operators, instructors, and others. These are the positions that require additional education, a certain period of mastering this position and the period of service in it (at least 5 years). The restoration of this category of servicemen is a top priority.
Sergeants, and the experiment with the replacement of officer posts with sergeants, the abolition of the posts of warrant officers in the course of the reform has successfully failed. The number of trained sergeants, their extended training period do not allow, and they will not allow to staff the army with the necessary specialists, and the thoughtfulness of their service is generally absent. The biggest drawback is that a sergeant who graduated from college does not differ from a sergeant who received a rank in the army neither in behavior, nor mentality, nor special skills and abilities, unlike, say, former warrant officers. And a sergeant cannot completely replace an officer in the conditions of the Russian army, and this has already been proven by practice.
Military service personnel, military personnel who signed the first contract for three years, retrained in the chosen specialty at the military school during 2-6 months and passed the final exams should be appointed to sergeant positions. A sergeant is assigned a primary rank of junior sergeant, and during the service he has an incentive to grow in rank and to increase his salary (annual additional payments). The military rank of sergeant is awarded at the conclusion of a second contract for three years with an increase in salary and receipt of additional benefits. The military rank of senior sergeant and foreman is assigned in the same way after signing the third and fourth contracts. For a senior officer, after two years of service, a military rank of ensign can be given the rank with an increase in salary and benefits.
The approach existing in the modern army to the determination of the official salaries of all categories of servicemen, the order of their growth, the receipt of additional payments and, especially, benefits requires careful processing and clarification. It does not allow, not to select quality personnel for career growth, not to have an incentive to serve and to grow in military positions. And as a result, there is a lack of incentive in the development of military skill, and therefore an increase in the combat readiness of the army. It is necessary to provide for an increase in the official salary by a certain amount, for officers, depending on the period of tenure (10% annually), the rest of the category of military personnel, after the conclusion of the next contract (5%) and in the period between contracts, depending on the development of the position and specialty (five%). Such an approach will allow to have in certain positions for a long time trained, competent specialists who have clear prospects for themselves in service and everyday life. This proposal is connected with a number of prohibitions imposed on military personnel, which prevent them from fully functioning in modern market conditions.
The soldiers can be both on appeal and by contract. In Russia, a compulsory army recruitment system should remain mandatory. The invocation recruitment system allows you to prepare a high-quality mobilization reserve, sending personnel either to a contract or to an existing reserve after military service. This should happen voluntarily.
Life time on appeal in modern conditions should be one year, but the intensity of training and combat training must radically change. This is the most pressing issue in discussions about the impossibility of training a soldier in one year and the impossibility of staffing brigades, and therefore their non-readiness. Indeed, the brigades will be negegotovy with such a service life, and 1,5 will not solve this problem, since the brigade will always have a shortage of more than 30%, especially taking into account the vacations of officers and military personnel under the contract. And adding here both temporary and current incomplete, we get again the staffing of the brigade at the level of 60%.
Ensuring constant alert can be achieved by the following measures:
- to have in the structure of the armed forces divisions of the regimental composition, constant readiness. This will allow, even with partial non-readiness of one of the three motorized rifle regiments, to consider the division fully operational;
- to have in the structure of the armed forces of the division of reduced strength and division of the frame;
- to return to the army of the institute of ensigns, revising the positions to be replaced by them, the conditions of service, benefits, the growth of titles and monetary allowance. To introduce the positions of sub-ensigns, ensigns, senior ensigns and the possibility of growth in a particular position by rank, to officer;
- to revise the principles of recruiting troops, having decided on the delivery to certain parts of the complete set of personnel of the same recruitment period, taking into account the presence in part of the rest of the category of servicemen (contract soldiers). This will allow to approach the acquisition, the preparation of the parts themselves in a complex. With this approach, in the division (regiment, battalion), one regiment will begin initial training, one will begin a step-by-step general training and, taking into account the presence of contract servicemen, will be able to perform combat tasks in full force, and one will be in the final stage of combat reconciliation perform any task set by the command;
- to revise approaches to the training of military personnel in the training units, having disbanded district training centers, and on their basis formed military units. For training for four months, the incoming military personnel in selected military specialties, return to the regiments and battalions regimental (battalion) training schools. According to the combat schedule and in the intervals between teaching and vacations, the teaching officers from these schools fulfill their duties in accordance with the purpose of the reduced divisions, participating in exercises with the involvement of an organized reserve. Plans, schedules, and everything connected with it is easy to create. The peculiarity of service in such schools is determined by the special situation and the need for growth, so the officers are moved from school to military units and back. Thus, a company commander and an abbreviated regimental commander can be a teacher, which qualitatively enhances the primary knowledge of the incoming draftees.
- with such an integrated approach to recruiting and training in a division, always two regiments (battalions, companies) will be fully combatant, and one partly. Partial combat readiness of this regiment (battalion, company) will be due to the absence of two to three days of young recruiting, the young replenishment from the young during the first two weeks of skills in a single training, and during the remaining three months its combat readiness will constantly increase. The bulk of the vacations of the officers of the regiment are distributed so as to invest in four months of the immediate training of the soldiers in the regimental school with the regiment. In the event of a sudden exacerbation of the situation, officers of training schools replace vacant posts, and personnel are called up from the current reserve, the arrival of which may be limited to 10-24 for hours.
- a temporary shortage in officers, warrant officers when they are dismissed on vacation from any military unit, at another time, if necessary, replaced by officers of the regimental schools, and contract servicemen calling for an organized reserve;
Such an approach will allow solving the main and unresolved problem with the existing approach in organizing combat training and the daily activities of the army with combat readiness, training, fighting ability of associations, formations and units of the army.
In order to solve this problem it is necessary to solve a few more. organizational and combat issues for the correct existence of the army:
- to abandon two periods of combat training, switching to an annual cycle of continuous training of a specific formation, unit, removing the preparatory periods and everything connected with this;
- transfer of equipment to various modes of operation is carried out in a planned manner by the forces of the repair teams of the outsourcing and the respective crews without stopping the educational process;
- to outsource training grounds, shooting ranges, training centers and other property to private military companies specially created and approved in accordance with the law by the President of the country, which are able to carry out maintenance of the relevant equipment and equipment at a high professional level. In addition to these responsibilities, in the conditions of the unresolved issue of the protection and defense of military camps, when leaving them by formations and units, both during exercises and during the conduct of hostilities, and preventing the looting and loss of stocks of weapons and other means, in everyday peaceful life and in the conditions of hostilities, the protection of military camps and towns with families of military personnel will be assigned to the established private military companies, in which retired military personnel will mainly serve. This is a kind of solution to the social problem of discharged servicemen. The same private companies in war conditions can be used to solve other important tasks, from ensuring territorial defense to acting as part of partisan special detachments.
As for the direct training of conscripts, it may look like this.
Primary general training recruit should take place at school or in DOSAAF, and where the deployment of reserve formations will allow, and at their base, in their free time, or in the evening.
Initial training in military specialty calling up a military unit or in a training unit must be carried out during four months of study including two weeks of single preparation.
General training in military specialty, includes training conscripts and improving the skills of a contract serviceman. After that, the soldier enters the unit, he is given weapons, equipment, and he, the rest of the time of service, does not part with him. Further classes are held, which include: combat reconciliation as part of the crew - 1 month, as a part of the platoon -1 of the month, as a part of the company - 1, month, as a part of the battalion - 1 of the month.
Final training during combat reconciliation, includes training conscripts and improving the skills of a soldier under the contract, and may consist of training as part of the regiment - 2 month, as part of the division - 1 month, in the army - 1 month.
Contract service, requires a separate justification and extended consideration, especially in terms of providing money allowances, providing various benefits and advantages, determining the minimum and maximum service life in the active army, being in the existing reserve and stock. An important role will be played by resolving the issue of further employment of a soldier under a contract who has served as a full-time officer for the entire service life (up to 35 years) and has an even larger temporary reserve for service in an organized reserve (up to 45 years for an ordinary position) and in the reserve (up to 60 years). Here, a private military company can partially resolve the issue of its employment, about activities that have already been mentioned in the interests of the Ministry of Defense.
The crown of all operational combat training, in the course of a one-year service as a conscript soldier and a contract soldier for one year, may include carrying out various exercises, exercises, training, different in scale, time, place, method, both independently and with the attracted forces and means, including interacting ones, and may include working out several options, themes and continuous real episodes, including those with live firing mandatory at each exercise, and may include:
- Tactical and tactical-special exercises in the squad, platoon, battalion company, regiment.
- tactical exercises in the division.
- operational exercises in the army.
Participation in operational and strategic exercises It is carried out according to a separate plan and can occur both in the period of fixed-term service (contract) and during the period of being in an organized reserve.
The peculiarity of combat coordination, in the structure of the new approach, is that the soldier works out the elements of tactical training in cooperation with other disciplines in the complex in the form of tactical exercises on all possible options for conducting combat operations.
The second feature is that in the course of combat training, all practical actions are worked out on standard equipment after they have been worked out on stands, programs, and simulators.
For an example of an understanding of the scope of necessary tasks, workload of personnel, officers, equipment and weapons, the required volume of tactical and training fields at training grounds and shooting ranges, based on the experience of conducting combat operations in various armed conflicts, we present the subject of training for the crew of a combat vehicle (squad).
Approximate list of occupations for the department (crew):
- "The action of the department when making a march as part of a unit and independently under its own power";
- "The actions of the department in conducting reconnaissance during the march";
- "The actions of the department when advancing to the line of defense occupation";
- "The actions of the department in the organization of defense in the platoon";
- "The actions of the department in the organization of defense at the forefront";
- "The actions of the department in the organization of defense in isolation from the main forces of the platoon or in a separate direction";
- “Branch actions in repelling enemy air strikes in various types of combat”;
- “Separation actions during the withdrawal from the forward position, during the withdrawal in the platoon composition and during the withdrawal in the platoon rearguard”;
- "The actions of the department during the transition to the offensive, on the defense prepared in engineering terms";
- "The actions of the department in case of a sudden meeting with the enemy during the march";
- “The actions of the squad in the depth of the enemy’s defenses, when advancing into the flank and rear, while making a detour”;
- “The actions of the squad in the rear of the enemy when meeting with superior forces, reserves of the enemy and the destruction of uncovered objects in the rear”;
- "The actions of the department in overcoming the water barrier by swimming, on the ferry, on the pontoon ferry";
- "The actions of the department in repelling helicopter strikes and the destruction of the airborne forces in the rear of the defending troops";
- "The actions of the office in the GPP, TPZ, BPZ";
- “Branch actions during movement as part of a military echelon”;
- "The actions of the department in the assault of the settlement and the designated object";
- "The actions of the department in the defense of the village";
- "Branch actions during the defense in the forest";
- “Branch actions during an offensive in a forest and on rough terrain”;
- "The actions of the department when blocking a terrain during the CTO";
- "The actions of the department during the cleaning of the area, the object during the CTO";
- "The actions of the department when located at the checkpoint";
- “Branch actions accompanied by a military column and repelling an attack by militants”;
- “Branch actions during the defense of a large settlement within a platoon and independently in a separate direction, in a separate building”;
- "The actions of the personnel of the department upon hovering their aviation";
- "The actions of the personnel of the department in the adjustment of artillery fire."
They designated only the main 27 topics, only for the squad (crew), but this is not a complete list of topics for training, which objectively shows that during properly organized combat training, all these topics are first worked through by the squad on their own within the allotted time. Therefore, during a month, the soldier can have free time only for servicing equipment on Saturday and rest on Sunday, the rest of the time is devoted to complex exercises, which include tactics and fire and engineering training and all other subjects not separately, but in combination.
Here, the main burden falls on the officers, on the command, which, by virtue of its professionalism, must clearly plan everything, in essence, the daily combat operations of the subunit, unit, and compound. With the right approach, the whole mass of existing problems disappears, which do not seem to be solved. This method finally resolves the issue of hazing and non-statutory relations. An equal load on the entire staff erases the possibility of superiority and a curved individuality.
In the future, these same themes are already being worked out as part of a platoon, company, battalion, regiment, division and army, in cooperation with other divisions, units and formations.
It is necessary to take into account that each topic with a department should be worked out theoretically, then on different layouts of the area and on interactive maps, then on simulators. After mastering and working out theoretical issues, practical actions are practiced, on a machine-side pesy, on a fixed combat vehicle, using imitation, on a fixed combat vehicle, using full ammunition (combat ammunition). With such an integrated approach to training, one can raise the question of real combat readiness both individually for each soldier and for the collective as a whole.
In this way, during the year, all topics are completely closed for a military serviceman, practicing not theoretically and on the fingers, but practically in the field with a phased increase in combat shooting. Such an intensity of combat training, on the one hand, is guaranteed to prepare a soldier and allow him to master his specialty in full, on the other hand, will allow not to call this soldier for training during the next few days. three - five years.
But such intensive training, without which the army will not be an army, requires a different approach to the deployment of troops, to the equipment of landfills and shooting ranges, to the functioning of the administrative apparatus, to the functioning of service structures, to the functioning of the military industrial complex, carrying out timely repairs, upgrading old equipment and supplying in the troops of the new technology and the integrated solution of other tasks.