Military Review

The fate of "Almaz"


Almost forty years have passed since the Soviet military space station Almaz was put into operation in a manned mode. True, it should be noted right away that the station launched into space is the “Almaz”, as well as what it was actually intended for, the public learned much later. And then, in 1974, an official statement was made about the launch of an orbital station called Salyut-3, at which Soviet cosmonauts were engaged in conducting research and experiments exclusively for peaceful purposes.

Scientists have long dreamed of a time when it would be possible to arrange entire space settlements in orbit around the planet. One of the first scientists who described in detail not so much the space station as the living conditions at this station was K. Tsiolkovsky.

Back in 1923, the German scientist Obert Herman published his article entitled “Rocket in the Planetary Space”. In this work, for the first time, suggestions were made regarding the creation of a manned space station to conduct observations of the Earth and meteorological changes, use it as a communications satellite, and a gas station for spacecraft. The scientist was convinced that it was necessary to create artificial gravity on board the station in order for the crew to work normally.

Five years after the appearance of Hermann’s work, in 1928, a large number of articles appeared in one of the German editions, which were devoted to orbital stations. The author of all these works was Guido von Pirke. Unlike the work of Herman. In these articles there was not a single proposal regarding the design of the station itself, but they presented a serious analysis of the necessary characteristics that a spacecraft must possess in order to make a successful flight to the planets and to near-Earth orbit.

In 1928, even a whole book appeared, completely devoted to orbital stations. Its author was the captain of the Austrian army, Potochnik, who took the pseudonym Herman Nordung. The author was convinced that the station should have in its structure three compartments (residential compartment, observatory and power plant), interconnected by means of air hoses and electrical cables. The book also proposed to launch a space laboratory into orbit with an orbital period equal to 24 hours.

By the way, in most of the books on space flight that appeared in 30-s, space stations were mentioned. But at the same time, most of the authors were confident that the appearance of stations would be possible only if the person was able to go beyond the atmosphere. Therefore, they paid little attention, but the main problem was how to overcome gravity.

Then the Second World War began, which forced scientists to abandon orbital stations for a long six years. And during this period of time references to them could be found only in science fiction books. Thanks to this, after the war, specialists returned to the idea of ​​creating an orbital station. And the real features of these ideas began to acquire with the advent of the space age.

In the Soviet Union, one of the first developments in this area was the program to create a manned orbital station called Almaz, the concept of which was formulated at the beginning of October 1964 during the meeting of the enterprise management by the Designer of the OKB-52 Vladimir Chelomey. It was assumed that the station will solve defense, scientific and national economic problems. However, first of all, the designer saw in it a powerful enough tool for conducting operational space reconnaissance.

On October 27, 1965, an order of the Minister of General Machine Building of the Soviet Union appeared. At the same time, work began on the creation of the system. The project of the station in a draft version was completed in 1966. At the same time, the Ministry of Defense chose Almaz to be implemented as an intelligence system. And the Resolution of the Council of Ministers and the Central Committee of the CPSU of August 14, 1967 determined the timing of development and tactical and technical calculations.

Initially, it was planned to launch the station together with the return vehicle for the crew. This solution had a great advantage, because the work on board could begin immediately. But it soon became obvious that this option also had a very significant drawback - the presence of a heavy vehicle as part of the station significantly reduced the weight of reconnaissance equipment, which was necessary for research.

Therefore, in the end, the final draft design of "Almaz" consisted of a base unit without a returnable vehicle, as well as a transport supply ship, which was equipped with this device. The project was approved in 1967 by the Inter-Agency Commission.

It should be noted that all the equipment that was developed for the complex was the most complex and advanced at that time. So, for example, as the main means of observation, it was planned to make a unique camera, with a diameter of mirrors of the order of 2 meters and a focal length of about 10 meters.

It was assumed that "Almaz" will operate in a manned mode. And the crew will change every three months. Three cosmonauts worked in stages. At the first stage, one of the astronauts worked with a camera, the other one was engaged in training on simulators, and the third rested. A shift took place every 8 hours. In addition, the transport supply ship was supposed to deliver necessary supplies to the station, in particular, food, water, photographic film. While the ship was still in the manufacturing process, these functions were planned to be assigned to the Soyuz ship.

While developing their station, Soviet specialists were well aware that in the United States of America at the same time they were engaged in the creation of satellite interceptors and satellite inspectors. Therefore, the developers of "Diamond" began to think about the need to create protection against enemy attacks. The station was equipped aviation Nudelman-Richter PR-23 cannon, firing range of which was about 3 kilometers, and rate of fire - about 950 rounds per minute. At the same time, in space, recoil during shooting was compensated by the inclusion of rigid orientation engines or marching engines. This gun was exclusively a defense tool, and use it as weapons no one planned to attack the space stations and ships of the enemy. Besides, it was very difficult to do that. Therefore, in the documents there is only one mention of the real test of the gun. This happened at the end of January 1975, when all the programs were completed aboard the Almaz-2 (Salyut-3) station. Then the only salvo was given.

But this is later, because at the end of 60's, the flight of the Salyut-3 was not even dreamed of. Then the main were a few other questions. At the beginning of the 1970 of the year, two flight and eight stand station blocks were manufactured, and in addition, on-board systems were actively tested. The cosmonaut training for Almaz, which was held at the Cosmonaut Training Center, was started.

The first group of astronauts for the station was formed in 1966 year. Its structure included L. Demin, L. Vorobyev, V. Lazarev and A. Matinchenko. The group was headed by the Soviet pilot-cosmonaut P. Belyaev, who by that time had already been in space on the "Rise-2". However, since at that time Almaz existed only on paper, the preparation was theoretical.

In 1968, V.Rozhdestvensky, V.Preobrazhensky, A.Fyodorov, V.Scheglov, E.Hludeev and O.Yakovlev were also included in the group of cosmonauts for Almaz, and at the end of the same year G.Dobrovolsky and V. Zholobov. The following year, V. Isakov, S. Gaidukov, V. Kozelsky joined the group. P. Popovich became the head of the cosmonaut training center. In 1970, he was replaced by G. Shonin, and V. Alekseev, Y. Glazkov, M. Burdaev, V. Zudov, A. Petrushenko, M. Lisun, G. Sarafanov, N. Porvatkin were transferred to the “diamond” group. , Estepanov.

Thus, at the beginning of 1971, the "diamond" group became the most numerous in the center of military astronauts for the entire period of its existence. This is testimony to the great importance attached to this top-secret military program. In the future, the crews were constantly changing, so there is no possibility to talk about all of them.

As for the creation of the complex itself, it was carried out in difficult conditions. That is why among the main issues that worried the military was the problem of prompt delivery of reconnaissance data to Earth. For such purposes, the use of a transport ship was not very convenient, because the timing of their landings did not often coincide with military needs.

To solve this problem, the development of “information descent capsules” was started, which, as most specialists believed, could become exactly the object for which the entire station was built. The crew had to equip the capsule with a film, and shoot it through the launch chamber at the right moment. Processing of the film was carried out in terrestrial conditions.

At first glance, everything looked as if everything was provided for in the Almaz project: acceptable working conditions, powerful intelligence equipment, and a means of prompt information delivery. Moreover, the rocket, which was supposed to bring the station into space, had long been ready and successfully flown.

But in 1970, at the time when Almaz was almost ready, some work on the complex was transferred to RSC Energia (at that time - TsKBEM). This enterprise hastily engaged in the creation of a long-term orbital station, which, under the name Salyut, opened the era of orbital stations. A work on the "Diamond" stopped. For this reason, the further fate of the complex was not very favorable. However, in 1973, the first orbital station "Almaz" was ready. She was taken to Baikonur. And so that the likely opponents (read - the Americans) did not guess what the true purpose of the device was, he decided to assign the name "Salyut-2".

Initially it was planned that the crew would be sent into space ten days after the flight of the station. However, just before the start of the launch, Energia received an urgent message that the start was postponed for technical reasons. What exactly these reasons were, is still unknown. Since the launch vehicle was already fueled, the management decided not to delay the launch, but instead to extend the duration of the autonomous flight of the station. Thus, 3 on April 1973, the orbital station "Almaz", which was called the "Salute-2", was put into orbit. For two weeks, it was successfully in space, but on the night of April 15 there was a depressurization of the compartments, and soon telemetry data stopped. The unit itself began to rapidly lose height. There are suggestions that the depressurization occurred as a result of the station’s collision with debris of space debris, which arose due to the explosion of fuel residues in the third stage of the Proton-K launch vehicle, by means of which the station was delivered into orbit. Understandably, in the current situation, the start of the crew was canceled. And in late April, the station generally burned down in dense layers of the atmosphere. Therefore, the crew that was preparing to fly to the Salyut-2, began preparations for the flight to the Salyut-3.

The first operational model of the Almaz military station was launched under the name of the third Salyut. This happened on 25 June 1974 of the year. And on July 4, the first crew of Yu.Artyukhin and P.Popovich arrived on board. For two weeks they worked on board the Almaz, and then returned to Earth. The flight went relatively well. The second crew of G.Sarafanov and L.Demin launched 15 July on board the Soyuz-15. They also had to dock with the military station and work on its board for 25 days. However, this time everything went wrong. When the long-distance approach was started on the second day, the astronauts realized that the propulsion system was working with large disruptions: instead of acceleration, braking and vice versa. No attempt to fix the engine failed. In addition, the fuel supply was running out. Therefore, the astronauts decided to start negotiations with the Earth, in the end they received an order to prepare for landing. But further events developed adversely. When the brake motor was already ready to be turned on, the gyroscopes began to spin. The cosmonauts were monitoring the on-board stopwatch and ammeter, when suddenly the ammeter began to go off-scale. People were well aware that the landing might not work, but decided to take the risk. They were lucky: the engine was able to push the ship out of orbit. And even the thunderstorm during landing seemed to cosmonauts a real trifle. As a result, after the landing was conducted debriefing. It is clear that the crew members were made guilty, although in reality they themselves were victims of circumstances. After the failure, the operation of the Salyut-3 spacecraft in the manned mode was discontinued, and the flight on the Soyuz-16 by V. Zholobov and B. Volynov was canceled.

The launch of the new “Almaz” took place on June 22 1976 of the year. This time it was called Salut-5. Two crews worked on board the ship: Soyuz-21, V. Zholobov and B. Volynov, and Soyuz-24, Yu. Glazkov and V. Gorbatko. However, as in the previous time, work on board the ship was not without problems.

The Soyuz-21 ship launched at the launch of July 6 1976. He was supposed to be in space 60 days. Moreover, the military wanted to increase the flight duration to 90 days, but this was impossible to do for objective reasons. The flight of the ship was reconnaissance, so the astronauts' tasks included regular replacement of the film in the camera and its development. During the first month of work, everything was fine, if you do not take into account the unpleasant smell in the branches of the station. The astronauts were confident that the reason for it lies in the release of toxic fumes into the atmosphere, as well as in the material of the ship's inner skin. In addition, it did not affect the daily work. However, troubles soon began. On the 42-th day, an alarm signal suddenly sounded, the lights and most of the on-board instruments turned off. The astronauts did not understand what was happening and how serious it could be. The situation worsened by the minute. The system of air regeneration ceased to work, and the oxygen reserves remained less and less. Despite this, the crew members managed to bring the ship back to normal.

But the accident could not pass without a trace. Zholobova began to torment headaches and insomnia. No drug that was in the first-aid kit did not help. Every day the astronaut was getting worse. For a certain period of time, nothing was reported about Zholobov's illness, but soon in one of the sessions the astronaut himself complained of indisposition. Negotiations began, which resulted in an order to return on the 49 day.

When analyzing the flight, many suggestions were made regarding what actually happened on board the ship. Most were inclined to think that the crew was psychologically incompatible, and that by the end of the second month in space, the crew had quarreled so much with each other that some even began to think about using weapons. Nevertheless, it is always much easier to blame everything on the human factor than to make efforts and secure flights.

The next flight of "Almaz" took place in October of the same 1976 of the year. The crew consisting of V.Zudov and V.Rozhdestvensky was supposed to conduct atmospheric research and also to check the serviceability of the station’s life support systems. And only after that it was possible to start two-month reconnaissance work on board the ship. On the next day after the launch, the station and the ship began to converge. Everything went according to schedule, the equipment worked without fail. But when between objects there were about two hundred meters, what happened was a big surprise for the crew and for the leadership on Earth: the parameters of the ship’s movement relative to the station, included in the program, did not coincide with the real values. All this was the reason for the acceleration of management processes, which required immediate intervention. Since the instrumentation was not working properly, the order was given to cancel the docking and prepare to return. Two days later, the ship, descending from orbit, made a landing on Lake Tengiz (by the way, the only thing history Soviet cosmonautics). For nine hours, the astronauts waited until they were rescued from the descent vehicle, which ran aground.

Next on the station were visited Yu. Glazkov and V. Gorbatko. Later it was planned that another expedition consisting of A. Berezoviy and M. Lisun would go to the station. The start was planned for March 1977 of the year. However, due to certain circumstances, the operation in the manned mode "Salyut-5" was discontinued, and in early August 1977, the station sank in the Pacific Ocean.

So ended the history of the orbital station called "Diamond". Of course, there were projects of the second generation station, stipulated by the decision of the Council of Ministers and the Central Committee of the CPSU of the Soviet Union, but this is a completely different story.

Materials used:
[media = https: // v = kjOA6qwJ9AY]

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  1. ziqzaq
    ziqzaq 15 February 2013 09: 00
    Yes, the USSR was ahead of the rest in space and in science !!! Thanks to our older generation !!
    1. Van
      Van 17 February 2013 00: 43
      Maybe not in the subject, but pleased. laughing
      siju /

      Especially Article by reference ...
      A large number of video recordings gave rise to a rumor that Russia knew about the approach of a meteor shower. “The Russians even know where the meteorites fall. Filmed from different points. Their missile defense system surpasses ours by several decades ", - wrote an American user on one of the forums. A user from Spain also pays tribute to Russian weapons:" Just look at how the air defense system destroyed a meteorite. If such a meteorite falls in Spain, politicians will immediately run up to plunder its remains. ”“ I can't believe they intercepted a meteorite 20 kilometers in diameter, ”wrote user Enrique Antonio Nuñez on a Spanish newspaper forum.

      They say the truth, fear has big eyes. belay
    2. DimerVladimer
      DimerVladimer 23 October 2017 12: 00
      Quote: ziqzaq
      Yes, the USSR was ahead of the rest in space and in science !!! Thanks to our older generation !!

      Well, do not exaggerate - the American “Skylab” was a giant, compared with Salutes / Diamonds. The Americans used the last-stage tank (liquid hydrogen tank) as a habitable and laboratory compartment, placing instruments in it and sealing them to produce fuel.

      "... the first and only US national orbital station, designed for technological, astrophysical, biomedical research, as well as for Earth observation. Launched on May 14, 1973, took three expeditions on Apollo ships from May 1973 to February 1974. , left orbit and collapsed July 11, 1979.

      Length - 24,6 m, maximum diameter - 6,6 m, weight - 77 tons, internal volume - 352,4 m³. The height of the orbit is 434–437 km (perigee apogee), the inclination is 50 °.

      The mass and dimensional parameters (including the net volume) of the Skylab station were many times greater than the characteristics of the Soviet orbital stations of the DOS- Salyut and OPS- Almaz series. Also, the American station was the first where the crews worked repeatedly, and the first was equipped with two docking nodes (although the second was not used).
      Not everything went smoothly at the launch of Skylab, and it didn’t exist for long.

      But at the same time, long-term space expeditions, only ours flew, which gave a huge advantage to our space medicine.

      The photo shows that one solar panel was not released on the Skylab, and the case is covered with reflective material that protects against overheating by the sun's rays.
      1. ccsr
        ccsr April 14 2019 22: 24
        Quote: DimerVladimer
        Well, don't exaggerate - the American Skylab was a giant compared to Salutes / Diamonds.

        And what has SkyLab never flown into space more?
        Quote: DimerVladimer
        The mass and dimensional parameters (including the net volume) of the Skylab station were many times greater than the characteristics of the Soviet orbital stations of the DOS- Salyut and OPS- Almaz series.

        This does not mean anything, except that we did not have a waterway to Baikonur, but only a railway, which is why the size was limited. But the Americans could deliver large-sized stations by water, but for some reason they didn’t launch them anymore.
  2. avt
    avt 15 February 2013 09: 58
    Yes, here truly two bears in one den smile Two Geniuses, Chelomey and Korolev, could not get along with each other, and even Chelomei withUstinov was not very. BUT, they knew their job firmly and achieved real results, not like effective managers with iPhones, iPhones on Twitter and on a fun farm! Great Times - Great People.
    1. ikrut
      ikrut 15 February 2013 17: 36
      Quote: avt
      Two Geniuses, Chelomei and Queens

      There was also the third, no less brilliant - Mikhail Kuzmich Yangel. He, in fact, mainly for defense and worked. And he made our missiles from 8K63 to Satan. And Korolev worked more for space. As the military said then "Korolyov works for TASS, and Yangel works for us" :)))
      1. avt
        avt 15 February 2013 18: 23
        Quote: ikrut
        As the military said then "Korolyov works for TASS, and Yangel works for us" :)))

        goodThere was a time and people match the time! They gave a rustle to the CENTURY! Here the list goes on. Just here on the topic of the article, these are the key names. And so are the brothers Utkin, Makeev, Glushko, Lozino-Lozinsky, Chertok, but many can be remembered!
      2. Zubr
        Zubr 16 February 2013 21: 33
        So de worth remembering the Utkin brothers ... hi
    2. DimerVladimer
      DimerVladimer 23 October 2017 12: 07
      Quote: avt
      Two Geniuses, Chelomey and Korolev, could not get along with each other, and even Chelomey withUstinov was not very

      Two different concepts - Korolev was against highly toxic components in manned space exploration.
      One can relate to the Korolev in different ways, but if not for him, we would not have had manned space exploration.

      The Chinese of their cosmonauts launch on toxic components (diazotetraoxide / asymmetric dimethylhydrazine) - and this is both a high risk and environmental damage. While they let me out of the desert, they didn’t think about it, but now they want to start the starts south - to Hainan ...
  3. viruskvartirus
    viruskvartirus 15 February 2013 10: 32
    It was not easy to turn orbital stations into an ordinary business, so much work and money, and then they shared this invaluable experience with amers, I hope not in vain ...
  4. avt
    avt 15 February 2013 10: 44
    Quote: viruskvartirus
    It was not easy to turn orbital stations into an ordinary business, so much work and money, and then they shared this invaluable experience with amers, I hope not in vain ...

    It is certainly impossible to share what was done at our stations, and even more so with likely friends. Believe me, it was not for space tourism that the same Diamond Chelomei was developing. Initially, the project for the Ministry of Defense was sharpened.
  5. deman73
    deman73 15 February 2013 10: 59
    such projects should be continued
  6. borisst64
    borisst64 15 February 2013 11: 01
    And so far, apart from Russia, no one can withdraw and operate orbital stations.
    1. Quiet
      Quiet 16 February 2013 11: 36
      Even our ISUs are now flying to the ISS .... Let's hope that "RUS" will soon be "put on the wing" ...
      1. ruton
        ruton 16 February 2013 16: 17
        The ISS base module is ours.
        1. 916-th
          916-th 16 February 2013 20: 23
          borisst64: And so far, apart from Russia, no one can withdraw and operate orbital stations.

          Yes, you, my friend, are an optimist! Modern Russia is not even capable of such a thing, taking into account the fact that before being "withdrawn and exploited", it still has to be designed and built!

          Quiet: Even our ISUs are now flying to the ISS ...

          For a long time "Soyuz" have been flying, however ... since the time of the Queen ... However, there are precedents: the sailing ship "Kruzenshtern" is still floating in the Russian Navy. So the Union has someone to look up to.
          1. 916-th
            916-th 16 February 2013 21: 02
            Tikhiy: Let's hope that we will soon "put RUS" on the wing too ...

            As for "Rus" ... As far as is known, the "Rus" project competes with the project of practically the same class "Angara". Again, as in the past, under Korolev, Chelomey and Glushko, the ambitions of the developers lead to the dispersal of funds and resources ... The Rus rocket is being developed in conjunction with the promising Clipper-type manned transport vehicle (RSC) (RSC Energia). The "Angara" launch vehicle (Khrunichev Center) has no application in the form of a PTC, but it is in the lead in the dispute with "Rus" - a test launch of the first stage module (URM-1) has already taken place.

            So, if the Khrunichev Center defeats RSC Energia, then we risk being left without a new PTC ... Such is the mess going on in Roscosmos fool
            1. Piligrim
              Piligrim 16 February 2013 23: 32
              These are all such "specialists" in Kazakhstan !? or just you, -916?
            2. postman
              postman 17 February 2013 22: 29
              Quote: 916
              As far as we know, the Rus project is competing with the project of practically the same class of Angara.

              They can not compete
              The hangar is not intended and is not certified (and most likely will not) for manned launches.
              Even as part of the Baiterek.
              The ability of the launch vehicle to leave the start, even if one of the engines fails, is not provided

              Quote: 916
              So if the Khrunichev Center

              GKNPTS M.V. Khrunicheva: LV Angara and KSLV-1 (commissioned by KARI) / tests at the expense of Koreans.
              The second step is made by RKK Energy (Korolev)

              The main developers of the Rus-M launch vehicle:
              TsSKB-Progress - development of the second stage and the leading role for the LV as a whole
              GRC - development of the first stage
              KBHA - second stage engines
              Energomash - first stage engines
              TsENKI - ground infrastructure
              NPO Automation - Management System

              RKK Energy DOES PTK.

              how, who, and why, MUST beat someone?
              1. 916-th
                916-th 18 February 2013 22: 41
                Thank you, Vasily. The layout of the developers is clear.

                But, speaking of the competition between the two projects, I first of all had in mind approximately the same range of masses of the output payloads. The question that will inevitably arise: why have two launch vehicles designed for the same PN masses? And, most likely, it will be decided in favor of one of them. If the "Angara" was certified for manned launches, then the question would not have arisen - the PTK would have found a "cabman" anyway.

                And so ... if the "Angara" is accepted, the PTC will remain "horseless". Or am I wrong, and there is a chance (i.e. money) to see both transport systems in action?
                1. postman
                  postman 19 February 2013 03: 31
                  Quote: 916
                  Why have two LVs designed for the same mass of MONs?

                  for manned flights, in connection with the above restriction) the mass of aircraft will be less. Accordingly, less cost-effective.

                  Quote: 916
                  If "Angara"

                  There will be no hangar. it's impossible.
                  and KRK “Baiterek the same and KSLV-1 will not.
                  This is the "burp" of a combat missile: approach, technology, plant (power)

                  It is laid at the stage of research and development. Now is not 1956.
                  I'm already silent about the long-suffering RB "Breeze-M"
                  And they will not succeed:

                  At the time of launch of the LV, helicopters are located at an altitude of 3 ... 3,5 km at the borders of the proposed pickup zones, the coordinates of which can be determined by calculation before the launch of the LV. For 9,5 ... 10,5 minutes from the start to the moment the PS is activated, the coordinates of the pickup zones can be verified by telemetry.

                  TK no scold.
                  / I myself was looking for "spare parts" in the steppes /

                  Know how much each RD-191 is buying? And that the government is FORCED to intervene in the dispute of two business entities

                  240 000 000, 00 rubles apiece !!!
                  And THEIR IS NEEDED 5 for a heavy-duty LV
                  PROTON -M launch of $ 80 (turnkey)

                  Quote: 916
                  And so ... if the "Angara" is accepted, the PTC will remain "horseless".

                  Now, if Roskosmos and other "shustriki" did not stagger in thoughts, they would have accepted and decided long ago. (From Makeev, you know the story)
                  And so:
                  1. TWO PH is not bad to have (do not sit in a puddle like the Americans with the shuttle)
                  2. Most likely they will do this:
                  THE FIRST STEP OF THE PH will be finalized (developed) separately in order to be certified, and the rest will be from Angrara.
          2. lazy
            lazy 20 February 2013 13: 02
            But is Kruzenshtern part of BMF RUSSIA? he’s kind of like a fisherman you are lying. Aurora before Serdyukov was part of the fleet, but in general the oldest ship of the Russian Navy is the catamaran ship Commune and longevity is not a sign of backwardness, but a sign of successful and high-quality development, you can still remember the Tu-95 and Amerov V-52, but shuttle kirdyk because shit and not development
      2. DimerVladimer
        DimerVladimer 23 October 2017 14: 49
        Quote: Quiet
        Even our ISUs are now flying to the ISS .... Let's hope that "RUS" will soon be "put on the wing" ...

        You wanted to say "only unions" in a manned version.

        The rest are driven in the cargo version, which would roll statistics for manned flights:
        cargo ships visited the ISS:
        - ATV - 5 missions to the ISS (approximately 6,5 tons of mon) (European Space Agency, ESA)
        - Cygnus - 7 missions (2,5-3,5 tons bp) (USA, private - Orbital Sciences Thales Alenia Space) under the Commercial Orbital Transportation Services program and the sixth commercial flight to the ISS - the first version of the Antares-230 launch vehicle with the modified first a stage equipped with new RD-181 engines (Russian) and the seventh mission to Antares-5 (RD-180 marching engine)
        - HTV - 6 missions (Japan Aerospace Research Agency JAXA)
        - Dragon - 11 missions (1,5-2,0 tons bp) USA (SpaceX private) under the Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) program

        On January 14, 2016, NASA identified SpaceX as one of the winners of the second phase of the ISS Commercial Resupply Services 2 (CRS2) procurement program, which provided the Dragon spaceship with at least 6 cargo missions with the possibility of an extension of the contract.

        Well, in addition, 37 Space Shuttle missions (Shuttle Orbiter, could deliver 20-25 tons of cargo in one flight to the ISS, including ISS modules, plus 7-8 astronauts).
        52 Union missions (manned / transport)
        and about 66 Progress missions (about 2,5 tons of mon to the ISS)

        Well, in the future, they will fly to the ISS:
        "Federation" Roscosmos of the Russian Federation
        "Orion" Lockheed Martin USA
        Dragon V2 SpaseX USA
        "Starliner" (CST-100) Boing USA
        "Dream Chaser" (Dream Runner) - US SpaceDev Space Shuttle
  7. gregor6549
    gregor6549 15 February 2013 11: 37
    Another interesting video clip on the same topic.
    And this is not the only such development made in the USSR.
    More interesting and modern was the military space station
    "Skif-DM", designed to test the design and onboard systems of a combat space complex with laser weapons, received the index 17F19DM,
    The Skif-DM station had a total length of almost 37 m and a diameter of up to 4,1 m, a mass of about 80 tons, an internal volume of approx. 80 cubic meters, and consisted of two main compartments: a smaller one - a functional service unit (FSB) and a larger one - a target module (CM). The FSB was a long-established design bureau "Salyut" and only slightly modified for this new task a 20-ton ship, almost the same as the supply transport ships "Kosmos-929, -1267, -1443, -1668" and modules of the station "Mir ".
    It housed traffic control systems and on-board systems, telemetry control, command radio communications, thermal management, power supply, fairing separation and discharge, antenna devices, and a scientific experiment control system.
    All devices and systems that do not withstand vacuum were located in a sealed instrument-cargo compartment (PGO). Four main engines, 20 orientation and stabilization engines and 16 precision stabilization engines, as well as tanks, pipelines and valves of the pneumohydraulic system serving the engines, were located in the engine installation compartment (ODE).
    Solar cells were deployed on the lateral surfaces of the ODE, which open after entering orbit.
    The central unit of the Skif-DM spacecraft was adapted with the Mir-2 ACS module.
    The DU module "Skif-DM" consisted of 11D458 and 17D58E engines.
    1. avt
      avt 15 February 2013 16: 29
      Quote: gregor6549
      Another interesting video clip on the same topic.

      Dont spoil spirit !!! He killed a hunchbacked project, stupidly killed ... am
      1. Oberon
        Oberon 16 February 2013 00: 55
        This one killed and broke everything he could.
        he was from ai
      2. kosmos44
        kosmos44 16 February 2013 19: 17
        Quote: avt
        Dont spoil spirit !!! He killed a hunchbacked project, stupidly killed ... am

        More than 20 years have passed. With us, everything remained in place. What prevented everything from being restored? Nothing comes to mind?
        1. lazy
          lazy 20 February 2013 13: 08
          12 years have passed, because the fact that he didn’t kill the tagged one, the wino Boriska almost finished
        2. ccsr
          ccsr April 14 2019 22: 28
          Quote: kosmos44
          More than 20 years have passed. With us, everything remained in place. What prevented everything from being restored? Nothing comes to mind?

          Unfortunately, it turned out to be economically impractical to use the orbital station for reconnaissance purposes, and the project was abandoned by switching to unmanned reconnaissance satellites.
    2. Oberon
      Oberon 16 February 2013 00: 53
      There were people in our time ....
      Nostalgia has struck ....
  8. cumastra1
    cumastra1 15 February 2013 18: 35
    Thank you for the article. Interesting, but now there is something like that? even in projects?
  9. crambol
    crambol 15 February 2013 20: 03
    Therefore, in the documents there was only one mention of a real test of the gun .... Then a single salvo was given

    The shot was fired when the astronauts had already left the station. And they did it right, because the effect was terrifying. There was a terrible roar in the speakers on the ground, and according to telemetry data, the station vibrated so that it was about to fall apart!
  10. Captain45
    Captain45 15 February 2013 20: 29
    And in addition to these projects, there was also a project of the Spiral space fighter to combat enemy spacecraft, which could independently return from orbit like Buran. Development of the 60s, in the 70s was tested, but the topic was abandoned after the death of the GK, I unfortunately forgot my family name, an interesting double surname, something like Polish, well, like Breshko-Breshkovsky.

    In remembered: Lozino-Lozinsky!
    1. gregor6549
      gregor6549 16 February 2013 07: 33
      Full name GK "Spirali" Gleb Evgenievich Lozino-Lozinsky. More information about the project on the website
    2. Alex
      Alex 16 February 2013 21: 41
      On the topic "Spiral", aka EPOS (experimental manned orbital aircraft) in the 70s, a subsonic prototype was tested. It did not come to a supersonic, hypersonic and orbital vehicle itself. Also, the booster plane was not worked out. In addition to the technical complexity, the project had very strong opponents. Suffice it to mention Ustinov ("We will not be engaged in fantasies"). And the military did not show interest. Work began in the Mikoyan Design Bureau under the leadership of his deputy G. Lozino-Lozinsky, for which a branch was created that later became the NGO "Molniya". In the mid-70s, the temuz was closed - work began on the reusable ship as opposed to the shuttle, which culminated in the creation of the Energia-Buran system. Buran's chief designer is Lozino-Lozinsky.
      1. washi
        washi 16 February 2013 22: 02
        Thanks to Gorbachev, who closed the Energy Directly into orbit of 200 tons. Yes, everything could be entered into this mass
  11. Mikhail3
    Mikhail3 16 February 2013 10: 52
    The troubleshooting technique has not been worked out. Installation and design failures destroyed the project. Exactly the same thing is happening now. When will our space technologists work out the quality management service? The toad smothers unbearably - how many resources are destroyed? How much work has not been done ... To whom achievements, to whom shame is shameful ...
    In terms of "competition between the two systems" all chocolate - Americans and a third of this do not know how. But in terms of the work itself ... what is this childish babble - the ship does not have the speed that was expected ?! Where is the set of sensors that allows you to read the speed in real time ?! Computing power was already in abundance then. The sensors weigh less than a gram. Well, even with a kilogram or two cables ... Shame, damn it!
    1. gregor6549
      gregor6549 16 February 2013 11: 56
      If everything came down to a bad methodology, a quality management system or "the largest microcircuits in the world." All the promising projects of the USSR in the field of weapons and military equipment were then buried at the very top with the intensified assistance of "foreign" friends who did not at all smile at the prospect of a possible meeting of their "shuttles", etc. "lethal" with the Soviet "space IL 2" with a very predictable outcome of such a meeting. And these friends clearly understood that even with the technologies existing in the USSR and other problems, the output turned out to be, albeit sometimes cumbersome, but very effective weapons systems.
    2. washi
      washi 16 February 2013 21: 55
      Everything was promised to be restored.
  12. Zubr
    Zubr 16 February 2013 22: 06
    Recover and no longer in the form in which WAS, groundwork we have quite serious, A MATTER OF TIME AND MONEY, NOW THE MAIN ARMY pretty strengthened reservists PREPARE and solve economic problems, that was what to wear, eat, LIVE AND much fruitful work .. ......


    1. ARMY AND Navy

    IN THE SOVIET UNION ALL THIS WAS. There were many misses of omissions but the idea was correct!

    1. Dmitry T.
      Dmitry T. 21 February 2013 18: 43
      The state is based on three public institutions:
      1. family;
      2. army;
      3. and, no matter how wild it sounds (not for everyone) - the church.
      There is no need to explain anything about the army, everything is so clear.
      I will say one thing about the family: if there is no institution of the family (this is especially true for Russia), then there will be no army, no medicine, no education; nothing. By the way, this is understood by all our likely friends, hence the juvenile, and the struggle for the rights of sexual perverts, etc.
      I’ll say only one thing about the church. Anticipating that this will cause rejection for some, I still dare to assert that the church is a source of intangible goods for its members, who voluntarily or involuntarily project them (goods) onto their external life and daily activities.
      Therefore, at all times, the strongest families and the best soldiers have always been closely associated with the church.
  13. 7 March 2013 09: 03
    They said this: Korolev works for TASS, Chelomei for the toilet. Professionals did not respect Chelomey, probably there was nothing to judge for. And the heyday of his design bureau fell on the period when the son of Khrushchev worked there. By the way, papa also named Mikhalkov in honor of Khrushchev. Our elites were able to survive.
  14. kgbers
    kgbers 17 February 2014 19: 29
    What ambitious developments !? Sorry, everything is fucked up.