Military Review

Degradation from reform

20
Transformations in the army should be based on the recommendations of the military expert community.

The main task of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation is to ensure the protection of the sovereignty, integrity and immunity of the territory of the country, in wartime - a reflection of the aggression and the defense of the Fatherland. Therefore, defense reform should be aimed at strengthening the Russian army.



However, in general, serious mistakes were made during the reform. The reformers were probably guided by mercenary goals and interests — to free up more army property and rather sell it at discounted prices.

Many of the activities carried out were unnecessary, contrived, costly and without proper scientific justification, which ultimately led to the weakening of the Armed Forces. Despite the increased danger of war in a number of areas for the Russian Federation, the army’s number was unjustifiably reduced to one million people, a number of districts were eliminated (only four remained), as well as all divisions and regiments.

District and brigade redistribution

The biggest mistake was the elimination of a number of districts. Such a blunder was made by the Minister of War Dmitry Milyutin during the reform of the defense department in the second half of the XIX century, during which they limited themselves to the creation of only four districts. The Russian-Japanese and World War I demanded the creation of 11 military districts, including the Moscow, Orenburg, West Siberian, East Siberian and others. All the army corps he had eliminated were restored, the General Staff was subordinated directly to the Tsar. During the Great Patriotic War, the districts worked on the mobilization, deployment and preparation of reserves for the current army, provided the call and sending 29 million people to the Armed Forces (of course, now there are no such resources). It is difficult to imagine how four districts in the vast territory of our country will be able to accomplish the tasks of mobilizing and preparing reserves.

Degradation from reform

Former chief of the General Staff Nikolai Makarov said that our military districts were on alert and mobilized from several months to a year or more. This was not true. District troops carried out operational and mobilization deployment in one to two weeks. They spent all their war years mobilizing and training resources for the army. You can not mix these concepts.

The liquidation of divisions and regiments in the Ground Forces, their replacement by brigades, and in the Air Force by bases (in imitation of foreign armies) led to a decrease in the combat capabilities of the Armed Forces and significantly impeded command and control. Brigades have fewer personnel and weapons (tanksthan guns, mortars, mortars, air defense, reconnaissance) than the divisions, they do not have rear units for supplying soldiers and officers, providing fuel and lubricants, ammunition, and repairing military equipment. What kind of increase in combat power can be stated if this tactical formation is capable of conducting combat operations at the front of 5-10 kilometers (all existing brigades are 500-1000 kilometers along the front), and the length of our borders is many thousands of kilometers. They will not even be able to cover the state border in the most important areas.

By eliminating the divisions, the former secretary of defense and his advisers did not seem to know that there were 16 divisions in the American army, each with 18 thousands. Now they are being reorganized into light divisions of non-permanent composition and will consist of several brigades and support units.

In addition, the US National Guard, one of the main strategic reserves, has 10 divisions. The American command believes that the divisions will be able to ensure the management of brigades during their combat operations. The presence of divisions, like the armored cavalry regiments, preserves the existing traditions of formations and units and the prestige of the army. And we have renowned divisions, such as, for example, Kantemirovskaya, famous military academies are being liquidated.

We need to return to the divisions. We must not forget that in the years of the Great Patriotic War, about 500 rifle divisions were formed. It was not necessary to refuse all divisions of the reduced structure. They formed the basis for mobilization deployment. In the division you can have three or four brigades, including one reduced staff for the training of reservists and the formation of new formations and units.

Laying mobilization work on four districts will not solve the problem of mobilization. The main activity in this direction was carried out by commanders and staffs of small units and units and military commissariats (the commissioner should be a military man, not a disenfranchised civilian official).

Management miscalculations

The transition to the proclaimed three-unit system of command and control and the liquidation of armies, corps and divisions currently do not provide reliable command and control of troops. The commanders (commanders) and their headquarters with the existing means of communication will not be able to organize the interaction of a large number of brigades in certain areas. Automated systems and the network-centric method of control are still far from perfect and real implementation in the troops. The transition to a three-tier system can not provide reliable command and control of troops. In order not to lose the brigade in combat conditions, it is necessary to restore the former four-link system, primarily in the Far East.

The role of the Air Force in modern conditions has increased, they have become the main mobile and striking means of warfare and the use of high-precision weapons... Liquidation aviation divisions and regiments and the creation of eight air bases led to a weakening of the air force, the vulnerability of their basing.

The equipment of the Russian army with modern weapons, especially high-precision weapons, should be accelerated, at present there are about five percent of the required quantity. It is planned to bring it to 2015 percent in 30 and 2020 percent in 70 year. Plans must be fulfilled. But allocations for this are not enough - for 10 22 trillion years (two trillion per year).

Former Russian Deputy Prime Minister Viktor Zubkov estimated the scale of illegal financial transactions in 2011 in the year at two trillion rubles, of which about half came from the illegal withdrawal of funds abroad. It is necessary to cover the loophole for the withdrawal of foreign currency, as well as the plundering of finances in the Ministry of Defense and the military-industrial complex, and increase allocations to accelerate the equipping of the army with modern weapons.

You can not only rely on nuclear weapons. Its use is very problematic and can lead the enemy to preemptive or retaliatory strike, which will cause unacceptable damage and destroy the state and our people.

To wage a regional and large-scale war, it is necessary to have an Armed Forces equipped not only with nuclear weapons, but also with powerful conventional means of destruction.

Calculations for military reform should be clarified.

The statement of the former Minister of Defense Anatoly Serdyukov in the State Duma that 25 billion rubles saved by him was enough for it to take place was irresponsible and showed his incompetence and inconsistency with his position. But none of the deputies even corrected the minister.

As it is known, more than 300 billion rubles have already been spent on providing the dismissed officers with apartments, and, up to now, servicemen, who have been behind the staff for many years, receive money.

The creation of an outsourcing system has worsened the logistics of the troops. Units and units outside locations and in combat will be left without food, fuel, ammunition and repair equipment, will suffer heavy losses in battles and will face the fate of our mechanized corps liquidated in July 1941. Serdyukov created this system in order to dismiss the administrative functions of the minister, to create an atmosphere of irresponsibility and conditions for the plundering of public funds.

Foreign experience of the backup component

In future wars, strategic reserves will continue to play an important role. Therefore, along with the groupings of troops in the theater of operations, it is necessary to prepare and have strategic reserves to strengthen them. They must be mobile, equipped with percussion means capable of defeating the enemy and changing the course of warfare.

The military-political leadership of the United States and NATO countries are paying particular attention to the creation and preparation of strategic reserves.

In local wars, the United States, along with the regular army, made extensive use of reserve components. So, in the war with Iraq in 1991, 200 thousands of reservists were called in and airplanes of the military transport aviation transferred 35 thousands of American soldiers to the war zone. The formations and units of the National Guard took part in all the wars waged by the USA. They accounted for up to 40 percent of the personnel of US troops stationed in Iraq, and up to one-third in Afghanistan.

Similar backup components are available in the UK, Germany, Italy and other countries.

In the People's Republic of China, the construction of the armed forces is carried out in accordance with the concept of "popular war" and the new strategy of active defense of the front lines. China’s policy is aimed at ensuring the implementation of a national development strategy, the goal of which is to achieve the status of a great power dominant in the Asia-Pacific region by the middle of the twenty-first century.

The Chinese Armed Forces consist of regular formations and units - 2,35 million, a reserve - about 500 – 600 thousand and the people's armed police - 1,5 million people. In China, there are up to 20 millions of trained reservists.

Preparation of strategic reserves should be one of the important functions and military leadership of the Russian Federation.

Personnel training

In the Soviet Armed Forces, a well-structured military education system has developed that has stood the test of time: special schools, Suvorov (Nakhimov) schools, secondary and higher military schools, academies (2 – 3-year) and various courses of types and branches of troops. And finally, the General Staff Academy.

In this system they prepared quite good officers. Of course, not all of them had a sufficient general education and knew one or two foreign languages, but they were trained military professionals. Should not break this proven scheme. It was necessary to carefully calculate the present and future need for officer personnel and, on the basis of these calculations, reduce redundant educational institutions, and combine some. And of course, it is unacceptable to trust the reform of this educational system to random officials who had no relation to this kind of activity before. What a positive result could have been expected from the work of the head of the Department (essentially the head department) of the military education of Ekaterina Priezzhevoy, who previously worked in the tax service.

It is required to restore the old system of selection of personnel, appointments and assignments of military ranks. The main personnel department should be engaged in the selection of senior officers (generals, as well as colonels), and not the designation of contract soldiers and unit commanders.

Soviet example

Statements by the former leaders of the Ministry of Defense about the increase in the intensity of combat training of troops and the conduct of large-scale exercises cannot be considered serious.

I happened to take part in many exercises in the postwar years. Thus, the maneuvers conducted on the territory of the Carpathian Military District under the leadership of the commander of the district Marshal of the Soviet Union, Ivan Stepanovich Konev, involved the troops of two combined-arms and one mechanized armies, the district air army, the long-range air defense army, the air defense army, the missile army and the air defense forces. landing troops. Artillery training (with the participation of 600 guns and mortars) was actually conducted at these exercises at the Lviv training center (Yavoriv training ground). To complete the breakthrough of the main line and the capture of the second line of defense, a mechanized division was introduced, which included 250 tanks. After conditional striking of atomic strikes to capture the army strip and the development of an offensive in the operational depth, a mechanized army was brought into battle and an airborne division was deployed in full force.

The training "Dnepr", held in 1967 year under the leadership of the Minister of Defense Marshal of the Soviet Union Andrei Grechko, was attended by troops of two military districts - Belarusian and Prikarpatsky. They made a nomination for 500 – 600 kilometers, on the move attacked, forced the Dnieper, occupied the defense, put on counterstrikes. Helicopter assault and the landing of the airborne division were carried out.

At one of the exercises in Siberia, three motorized rifle regiments marched under their own power over a distance of more than 1000 kilometers in three days.

Now one or two brigades perform a maneuver at the exercises. One company is being transferred from the central part of the country by plane. Events are often ostentatious. In such exercises, the troops do not increase field training, and commanders, commanders and staffs do not receive good practice in troop control.

The role of professionals

Transformations should help strengthen the combat and mobilization training of the army. The lack of success in this activity is largely due to the fact that the reform was carried out by unprepared militaries, nonprofessionals who do not understand the essence of what is happening and are not responsible for failures, for the state of the Armed Forces and the defense of the state. It is unacceptable for the Minister of Defense to have dozens of advisers, incompetent deputies and assistants, to appoint women acquaintances as heads of departments. This contributed to the creation of conditions for the commission of official abuses, which are currently being investigated by the relevant authorities.

The current situation with the implementation of the military reform extremely negatively affected the mood of the personnel, especially officers, reduced the prestige of service among the citizens of our country. In this regard, the positive assessment of Serdyukov’s work in the post of defense minister, given by some leaders, and the call for respecting the principle of presumption of innocence regarding him are not entirely clear.

Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu quickly figured out and made decisions to correct a number of mistakes made during the reform, so this article does not need to touch them.

Military reform should be amended. It is advisable to entrust a commission consisting of military leaders, war veterans and scientists, to develop appropriate proposals and submit them to the Minister of Defense.
Author:
20 comments
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  1. albert
    albert 31 January 2013 06: 11
    +8
    Taburetkin, Shoigu ... Maybe it is better to appoint old Yazov as Minister of Defense?
    I am sure that he alone is worth all of our current generals. He would have corrected things in
    our military department. what
    1. domokl
      domokl 31 January 2013 06: 40
      +2
      Quote: albert
      Could it be better to appoint old Yazov as Minister of Defense?
      I am sure that he alone is worth all of our current generals. He would have corrected things in
      our military department
      It’s a very controversial statement ... Now, to correct it, it’s necessary to break it down again ... Return units to military camps, restore military schools, restore airfields, marinas, bases ...
      First of all, it is necessary to restore the prestige of service in the armed forces ...
      1. albert
        albert 31 January 2013 06: 55
        0
        Perhaps you're right. Damn, when everything will be fine with us, without hurry
        ki and breaking?
        1. smel
          smel 31 January 2013 07: 13
          +5
          albert,
          when everything will be fine with us
          I’m sure that never. And because I’m sure that no one in our country has ever answered for anything. I haven’t answered for stupid and mediocre decisions, for haste, for deceiving the country's leadership and just people (people, the electorate). It’s easy to even calculate the damage army is impossible, and the damage to defense - even more so. One only comes to mind Ceausescu's example.
          1. Egoza
            Egoza 31 January 2013 11: 31
            +1
            Quote: smel
            when everything will be fine with us
            РЇ уверен, С З С‚Рѕ РЅРёРєРѕРіРґР °.

            RўRѕR "SЊRєRѕ RєRѕRіRґR ° F ± SѓRґRμS, R¶RμSЃS,RєRoR№ Ryo RїRѕSЃS,RѕSЏRЅRЅS <R№ RєRѕRЅS,SЂRѕR" SЊ P ± RμR · RІSЃSЏRєRoS ... SЃRєRoRґRѕRє! RS‚Рѕ ОЧР• РќР¬ трудно, РЅРѕ РІРѕР · можно!
            1. S_mirnov
              S_mirnov 31 January 2013 11: 52
              +1
              Funny little article!
              "Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu quickly figured out and made decisions to correct a number of mistakes made during the reform, so there is no need to touch on them in this article." - all the boys! You don't need to do anything :)! Wise leaders have already corrected everything laughing
              The size of the army is reduced, the command structure is broken, training facilities are destroyed, the repair and maintenance of weapons is in chaos, and they are fine!
        2. NKVD
          NKVD 31 January 2013 14: 08
          +2
          It is necessary in the Far East to increase the number of armed forces, equip the Russian-Chinese border ... because after the announcement of the Americans that they will transfer their attention and interest to the Asia-Pacific region, where China also has its own interests, then all this is alarming, we are on the verge big schucher gentlemen recourse
    2. predator.3
      predator.3 31 January 2013 09: 14
      +3
      Quote: albert
      Taburetkin, Shoigu ... Maybe it’s better to appoint old Yazov as the Minister of Defense? I am sure that he alone is worth all of our current generals. He would have corrected matters in our military department.

      Quote: albert
      Taburetkin, Shoigu ... Maybe it’s better to appoint old Yazov as the Minister of Defense? I am sure that he alone is worth all of our current generals. He would have corrected matters in our military department.


      Yes, Dmitry Timofeevich would make a rustle! yes to age already, still a participant in the Second World War.
      "... At these exercises in the Lviv training center (Yavoriv training ground) ..."
      I remember this training ground very well, if memory fails, then in two years we conducted 6 exercises here (2 divisional and 4 regimental + went out with a mountain hospital once) and the training ground is large, about 40 to 70 km.
  2. lars
    lars 31 January 2013 06: 13
    +3
    Rake and rake !!!
    There is practically no military science. Analytics rests on enthusiasts. But, apparently, the ice has broken!
    Remember what a mess it was in August 2008!
  3. valokordin
    valokordin 31 January 2013 06: 23
    +3
    Quote: albert
    Taburetkin, Shoigu ... Maybe it is better to appoint old Yazov as Minister of Defense?
    I am sure that he alone is worth all of our current generals. He would have corrected things in
    our military department. what

    Well, the marshal has been suitable as adviser to him for about 90 years and has been in prison. Almost every reform leads to a weakening of defense. Well, if you become an ape, then you should invite Robert McNamara, or the current chairman of the joint chief of staff, to the post of Minister of Defense. And our Army will become invincible. The United States Marine Corps will not shoot at its leaders.
  4. domokl
    domokl 31 January 2013 06: 46
    +2
    In the article, everything is correct .. The army was destroyed in full program .. Only now I had an seditious thought, but maybe this is for the better?
    We will begin the formation of a new army from scratch ... New military camps, new equipment, a new officer corps, etc. Oh, how do you want the soldiers and officers to be pulled up again on the streets (and not this in all situations life), in good shape .. So that military service would be desirable, and those who did not serve would be envious of the soldiers ...
    1. Kyrgyz
      Kyrgyz 31 January 2013 07: 01
      +2
      Quote: domokl
      . The army was destroyed in full. .. But now I had a seditious thought, but maybe this is for the better?

      I completely agree and add that they ruined the army a long time ago and now they have broken its layout, and this really seems to be the best since most painful moments have been passed and now you can just build a new army
      1. KamikadZzzE1959
        KamikadZzzE1959 31 January 2013 08: 05
        0
        I disagree with all of you. In your opinion, it turns out as in the "Internationale". We will destroy the entire army to the ground, and then ...
        And then now we have almost a donut hole
        1. Shkodnik65
          Shkodnik65 31 January 2013 14: 55
          +3
          they ruined the army a long time ago and now they have broken its layout, and it really seems to be the best since most painful moments have been passed and now you can just build a new army

          Stop fooling around! Army over the centuries being built, honed. You can’t erase the army, and then draw a new one at this place. The army is a very complicated mechanism. Even after 1917, the new army was built on the experience of the Imperial ... Such a concept as military honor cannot be introduced into the troops as a directive. Serdyukov, by the way, was on fire and thought that he thought he was, in three jumps, the whisker will heal into the lungs. So what happened as a result?
  5. lewerlin53rus
    lewerlin53rus 31 January 2013 07: 30
    +3
    How can the Russian Army be formed according to the Western, American model, if the strategic objectives are completely different. If our army is protecting the borders of our country, then the American is protecting its own interests in different regions of the world, i.e. occupation.
  6. military
    military 31 January 2013 09: 43
    +4
    "... Former Deputy Prime Minister of Russia Viktor Zubkov estimated the scale of illegal financial transactions in 2011 at two trillion rubles, of which about half accounted for the illegal withdrawal of funds abroad ..."
    at the same time, he modestly kept silent about the fact that the second half was a personal "contribution" of his own son-in-law ... feel
    1. Iraclius
      Iraclius 31 January 2013 10: 52
      +2
      Quote: military
      personal "contribution" of his own son-in-law ...

      I also had a pattern break. belay They talk so calmly about it that you just wonder. It seems that people at the top do not understand what happened at all. The LADY says that Stooltkin is an effective leader, Zubkov calmly states: "Yes, sir! Well, they stole, sir. Well, they say, it happens, choushtam" ... Stooltkin himself stupidly and decisively refuses to give any explanation.
      The question arises - what was the colossal money and 5 (five !!!) years of time spent on? The uniform turned out to be not the same, there was no equipment, and still no, they didn’t provide housing, and there are thousands of managers who are not provided with housing, they added money with one hand, and immediately removed all the benefits with the other ... each accident has a surname, name and patronymic. " Yoba, and our disaster there is nothing but billions sawn. So draw conclusions about the "efficiency" of the country's top leadership! request
      1. military
        military 31 January 2013 11: 06
        0
        Quote: Iraclius
        Lazar Kaganovich said: "Every accident has a surname, name and patronymic."

        Lazar Moiseevich was rarely mistaken ... drinks
  7. understudy
    understudy 31 January 2013 11: 09
    +3
    Quote: domokl
    We will begin the formation of a new army from scratch


    Without tradition, without experience, there is a baby without parental supervision.

    But, as a matter of fact, I'm not talking about that ... who the hell will dissuade me that all the activities of the "apparatus" of Urfin Dzhus and himself are not betrayal and outright treason. The phrase of the author that " The reformers were probably guided by selfish goals and interests - to free up more army property and soon to sell it at reduced prices.... "is the most acceptable for those who try to hide the ends leading to the" regional committee "we know.
    In general, I support the author with my "plus", because this is what the overwhelming majority of the Forum participants spoke about. "Reforms", a la "an elephant in a china shop," were admired exclusively by "short women" and other uryakalka sitting on official propaganda. By the way, if you noticed, some very odious nicknames disappeared or went into incarnation under a different name. Language does not dare to call this political weathering ... prostitution according to the works of Vladimir Ilyich. Moreover, it is so primitive that one just has to wonder where the professionalism of the "political fighters" has gone?
  8. goody
    goody 31 January 2013 11: 55
    0
    Still interesting, they will plant or, as always, threaten with a finger ... in full view of the whole country?
    1. kostella85
      kostella85 31 January 2013 13: 15
      0
      Nea to go to increase in RUSNANO or RAO EU!
  9. washi
    washi 31 January 2013 13: 25
    0
    breaking is always easier than creating. So that normal sun we will not see soon. The saddest thing is the broken training system.
    About the military districts.
    The districts were created not so much to control the military as to interact with the civilian authorities, including in case of mobilization. Unfortunately, all mob. planning, thanks to a market economy, is poached. Governors and half representatives do not want to do this - not profitable. Result - Zhzhzhzhzhzhzhzhzh
  10. evil hamster
    evil hamster 31 January 2013 13: 25
    -1
    there are fewer brigades and personnel (tanks, guns, mortars, air defense systems, reconnaissance) than divisions, they do not have rear units for supplying soldiers and officers, providing fuel and lubricants, ammunition, and repairing military equipment.
    After that, you can not read. Here is a sample state from 2008 http://specnaz.pbworks.com/w/page/17658152/%D0%BE%D0%BC%D1%81%D0%B1%D1%80%20%28%

    D0%BD%D0%B0%20%D0%91%D0%A2%D0%A0%2C%20%D0%9C%D0%A2-%D0%9B%D0%91%D0%92-%D0%9C%29.


    But from Murakhovsky for 2012
    Separate motorized rifle brigade (heavy, type "A")
    Management and headquarters (73 people)
    2 SMEs (534 people, BMP - 52):
    - 3 MCP (BMP - 15);
    - GSABATR (2C34 - 6);
    - support company (BREM - 8);
    - anti-tank platoon (9P162 - 6);
    - control platoon (R149BMRG - 3, BMP-K - 2).
    2 TB (214 people, tanks - 42):
    - 4 TR (tanks - 10);
    - support company (BREM - 5);
    - platoon control (commander tanks - 2, R149BMRG - 3, BMP - 1).
    2 GSADN (2C19 - 18)
    REABATR (BM-21-1 - 6)
    PTBATR (9P162 - 12)
    ZRADN (SAM 9K330M2 - 12, SAM 9K35M3 - 6, ZRAK 2S6M2 - 16, MANPADS 9K38M - 9)
    RB (442 people):
    - reconnaissance (LBA type "Iveco");
    - reconnaissance (BMP / BRM - 14);
    - reconnaissance support of MSB and TB (BMP / BRM - 12);
    - RERR (R-381T - 1, MASRR - 3);
    - reconnaissance platoon UAV BD (BKBD25 - 26, BKBD100 - 5);
    - reconnaissance platoon UAV MD (BKMD - 4);
    - control platoon (R149BMRG - 2, BMP - 2);
    - platoon control HP;
    - BMP.
    Control battalion
    Engineering Battalion
    Logistics Battalion
    Rota EW
    Rota RHBZ
    Medical company
    ROUP
    Polygon
    Club
    Orchestra
    Editorial and printing
    Total l / s - 4618 people.


    As you can see, the Author either does not know what he is talking about or deliberately lies, further down the text there are still a number of the same kind of pearls. Criticism of reforms undoubtedly should be, but the goal of any criticism is to improve the system, and in order to improve the system, you need to objectively evaluate, and if the critic cannot or does not want to do this, then his position is not worth the time spent reading it. The article is one of these cheap populism on the wave of denial of "Serdyukovshina". Article minus
    1. tupolev-95
      tupolev-95 31 January 2013 19: 37
      +2
      And how many such brigades have been created? Are they fully equipped with everything? All reforms since 1991, under various plausible pretexts, boiled down to one reduction and plunder.