14 September 1954 in the USSR passed exercises with the use of nuclear weapons. This fact is strongly criticized by the liberal public. Here is one example of such criticism: “On September 14, 1954. The state conducted a monstrous experiment on its citizens, which has no equal in the world stories - testing atomic weapons on their own people - in the center of a densely populated area of the Orenburg region. Of the 45, thousands of soldiers who participated in the trials, less than a thousand survived. ”This is from the official website of Yabloko.
But before starting to expose myths, I would like to highlight the question of why, strictly speaking, such teachings were needed. That's what the historian Alexei Isaev said on the air of the curfew program on the Russian Service radio News":
It was impossible to prepare for a possible nuclear war, because then it was not completely ruled out, blindly, not having any practical skills and not being sure that the troops would be able to act and not letting those troops (I mean not those who participated in the exercises, and the entire Soviet army), without giving them any instructions and some methods of action in the conditions of use of nuclear weapons. Because if the war took place, they would be unarmed and unarmed in terms of information, information, how to act. They would not have the confidence that was acquired after the Tock exercises. When yes, you saw that you can really act, you can overcome the terrain after a nuclear explosion, you can defend yourself in these conditions. Let the first train, yes, destroyed, but you can put a counter-strike. These Totsky teachings were the only major ones in our large-scale teaching. And they gave that experience, those developments that can be said to be used for decades.
And about whether these teachings were unprecedented in world history, and how many people actually suffered during it, we suggest you read in the article by Andrei Rakovsky, originally published on the website "Myths of USSR History."
1. Were the exercises in the USSR something unprecedented?
Military exercises with the use of nuclear weapons were first held not at all in the USSR, but in the United States, during the test of Buster Dog, 01.11.1951. A total of Desert Rock 8 exercises were conducted in the USA, of which 5 was held before the Totskie teachings.
When watching a video about Desert Rock I, pay attention to the mention of soldiers ready to sit out the explosion in open trenches half a mile from the epicenter: during the Desert Rock exercises, indeed, many American soldiers were in open trenches rather close to the epicenter. There are chronicle shots taken by automatic cameras, like they, having received a shock wave shake, slightly contused, rush out of the trenches and rush to the attack, without any means of protection. Also, pay attention as the American soldiers march, without means of protection, half a mile from the epicenter.
In total, more than 50 000 US military personnel participated in these exercises. As for the civilian population, that is, no less numerous film materials showing how American inhabitants come to gaze at nuclear tests and have picnics. In the USSR, only two such exercises have been conducted all the time.
2. Toku exercises 14 September 1954 of the year.
Totsky district was chosen as sparsely populated, corresponding to the relief, vegetation and soils of the European theater of war. Testing in such an environment in the USSR has not yet been conducted, the purpose of the tests was to study the effect of an atomic explosion on engineering structures, military equipment, animals, to identify the effect of the terrain and vegetation cover on the propagation of a shock wave, light radiation and penetrating radiation. Learn how passable will be forest obstructions in a typical European area, the level of dustiness and smoke, etc.
To exclude the destruction of troops by light radiation, the personnel were forbidden to look in the direction of the explosion before passing a shock or sound wave, and the units closest to the epicenter of the atomic explosion were given special darkened films to gas masks to protect the eyes. To prevent shockwave damage, the troops that are located most closely (at a distance of 5-7,5 km) should have been in shelters, then 7,5 km - in trenches while sitting or lying down.
For measures to ensure the safety of the population, the exercise area within a radius of 50 km from the explosion site was divided into five zones: zone No. 1 (restricted area) - up to 8 km from the center of the explosion, zone No. 2 - from 8 to 12 km, zone No. 3 - from 12 to 15 km, zone No. 4 - from 15 to 50 km in the sector 300 - 110 degrees and zone No. 5 - is located to the north of the target along the combat course of the aircraft carrier in the 10 km width, over which the span of the carrier was carried out with an open bomb bay. Zone number 20 completely freed from the local population. Residents of settlements, livestock, fodder and all movable property were taken to other settlements, located no closer than 1 km from the epicenter.
In zone No. 2, 3 hours before the atomic explosion, the population was assigned to natural shelters (ravines, beams) located near settlements; 10 minutes before the explosion at the set signal, all residents had to lie on the ground face down. The public and personal livestock were taken away to safe areas in advance. In zone No. 3 for 1 h before the explosion, the population was taken out of the houses to household plots to remove 15-30 meters from the buildings; for 10 minutes before the explosion, all went to the ground at the signal. In zone No. 4, the population was only protected from possible radioactive contamination of the area along the path of the cloud, mainly in the event of a ground explosion. In 2 hours before the explosion, the population of this zone was hiding in houses in readiness for evacuation. The population of Zone No. 5 was transported outside its borders to safe areas 3 hours before the explosion.
In total, about 45 thousand people were involved in the training, 600 tanks and self-propelled artillery installations, 500 guns and mortars, 600 armored personnel carriers, 320 aircraft, 6 thousand tractors and cars. 10 minutes before the atomic strike was launched, the signal “atomic alarm” was given, according to which the personnel of the troops participating in the exercises went into shelters and shelters. The crews of tanks and self-propelled artillery units took their places in the cars and closed the hatches. At 9 h 33 min, the carrier aircraft dropped an atomic bomb from an altitude of 8 thousand m; after 45 s, an explosion followed at an altitude of 350 m from the surface of the earth. 5 minutes after the atomic explosion, artillery preparation began, then a bomber hit aviation.
In total, during the exercise, three bombs were dropped, of which one was a medium caliber (atomic bomb with a capacity of about 40 kt) and two small caliber imitator bombs. At the end of the artillery preparation, in the direction of the epicenter of the atomic bomb explosion, radiation reconnaissance patrols were sent to the tank (whose armor reduced radiation by 8-9 times), arrived in the epicenter area 40 minutes after the explosion. They found that the radiation level in the area through 1 h after the explosion was 50 P / h, in the zone with a radius of up to 300 m - 25 P / h, in the zone with a radius of 500 m - 0,5 P / h and in a zone with a radius of 850 m - 0,1 R / h. The team marked the special flags of the zone “more than 25 P / h”, “0.5-25 P / h”, “0.1-0.5 P / h”. The designation of the boundaries of the infection zones was completely completed in 1,5 h after the explosion, i.e. before the advent of the troops in the areas of infection
The data of the patches were also verified by a remote gamma x-ray analyzer installed at a distance of 750m from the epicenter. Only this team was in the infection zone for more than 25 P / h and only this team could theoretically receive any noticeable dose of radiation. However, it was located in the epicenter for less than half an hour, did not leave because of the tank’s armor (the flags were set automatically, by shooting) and even theoretically could not get a dose of more than 2-3 X-rays. I would like to remind you that radiation sickness of the 1 degree occurs when a single dose of 100-200 X-ray exposure is received.
Around 12, the forward detachment of the "Eastern" mechanized division, moving ahead of the first-echelon combat formations and overcoming the centers of fires and debris, went into the area of an atomic explosion. Through 10-15 mines behind the forward detachment, units of the rifle regiment advanced to the same area north of the epicenter, and south of the mechanized regiment. The troops moved along the roads in columns. Ahead of the columns was troop radiation reconnaissance, which established that the radiation level on the ground at a distance of 400 m from the epicenter of the explosion did not exceed 0,1 P / h by this time. The troops overcame the atomic strike area with a speed of 5 km / h, and the forward detachment of the mechanized division in the epicenter area was even faster - 8-12 km / h. At the time of the explosion, fighter aircraft were located at a distance of 30-35 km, and the bombers were in 100 km from the epicenter of the explosion. By the time they reached the target, the radioactive cloud had moved 30 km from the epicenter of the explosion. In total, around 3 thousand people were involved in the area of a real nuclear explosion, that is, no more than 10% of the total military personnel involved in the training, while about 500 people passed directly through the epicentral zone.
Some planes, striking ground targets in 21-22 min. after the atomic explosion, they crossed the leg of the “atomic mushroom” - the trunk of a radioactive cloud. Dosimetry control of pilots and equipment after landing showed a very low level of infection. So, on the fuselage, he made 0,2-0,3 R / h, inside the cabin - 0,02-0,03 R / h. To carry out the sanitary treatment of personnel, as well as the decontamination of military equipment, weapons, uniforms and equipment in the troops, it was planned to deploy washing and decontamination points in prearranged areas. After 6 hours after entering the area of infection, a complete decontamination of the equipment, washing of personnel and total change of outer clothing began. Prior to this, the troops were partially decontaminated and sanitized.
3. Semipalatinsk teachings 10 September 1956 of the year
The theme of the exercise was designated "The use of tactical airborne assault following an atomic strike in order to keep the zone of destruction of the atomic explosion until the approach of the advancing troops from the front." The main task of the exercise was to determine the time after the explosion, when an airborne landing force could be landed, as well as the minimum distance from the landing site from the epicenter of the air explosion of a nuclear bomb. In addition, this doctrine contributed to the acquisition of skills to ensure the safe landing of a landing force within the zone of a nuclear explosion.
In total, one and a half thousand servicemen were involved in the exercise. Directly to the epicenter of the explosion, an 272 man was landed: the second paratroop battalion of the 345 regiment (without one company), reinforced by a squad of 57-mm regimental artillery guns, six recoilless B-10 guns, a squad of 82-mm mortars, and a chemist’s chemist’s chemist’s chemist’s chemist’s chemist’s chemist’s chemochemist chemist’s chemist’s radiation and chemical reconnaissance. For the delivery of troops to the landing area, a regiment of Mi-4 helicopters was used as part of 27 combat vehicles.
For dosimetric support and monitoring of the radiation situation, four dosimetrist officers were assigned and acted together by the troops, one for each landing company, as well as a senior dosimetrist who accompanied the regiment commander's lead vehicle. The main task of the dosimetric officers was to exclude the possibility of helicopter landing and landing on the ground with radiation levels above 5 X-rays per hour and, in addition, monitoring the implementation of radiation safety requirements by the personnel of the landing force.
The entire personnel of the landing force and the crews of the helicopters were provided with personal protective equipment. decontamination and the required number of dosimetric devices. In order to prevent the ingress of radioactive substances into the body of soldiers, it was decided to parachute personnel without food, supplies of drinking water and smoking accessories.
The explosion of a nuclear aerial bomb dropped from a Tu-16 aircraft, which rose to an altitude of eight km, occurred 270 meters from the ground. TNT equivalent of an explosion amounted to 38 kt. After 25 minutes after the explosion, when the shock wave front passed and the explosion cloud reached its maximum height, the neutral radiation reconnaissance patrols left the vehicles from the initial line and explored the area of the explosion. marked the line of landing and reported on the radio about the possibility of landing in the area of the explosion. The landing boundary was designated at a distance of 650-1000 meters from the epicenter. Its length was 1300 meters. The radiation level on the ground at the time of the landing was from 0,3 to 5 X-rays per hour.
Helicopters landed in the designated area 43 minutes after a nuclear explosion. After 7 minutes after landing, the helicopters took off to go to the point of special processing. After 17 minutes after landing, the assault forces reached the line on which the enemy’s counterattack was fixed and repulsed. After 2 hours after the explosion, it was announced that it had been discontinued, after which the entire personnel of the landing force with weapons and military equipment was delivered for sanitization and decontamination.
Unlike the same Desert Rock exercises, the Totskys and Semipalatinsk exercises were conducted with much more stringent security measures. Strict dosimetric control, long waiting time after the explosion, shelter for personnel, means of protection were monitored for safety at a higher level.
Of course, during the exercise, various accidents related to human factors were possible. They say that during the Totskie teachings a group of soldiers, sorting out the rubble, refused to put on protective equipment. Another group of soldiers allegedly kept uniforms. It is said that part of the local residents who were evicted from the villages hit by the explosion were built into new homes specially built for them, which later moved these houses to old places. Perhaps - we will not discuss whether this is true. In any case, this is no longer the fault of the state, and certainly not its evil intent, but the result of ordinary human sloppiness. On the part of the state, everything was done reasonably and with the strictest observance of security measures, with security measures being more stringent than in the most democratic country in the world. So to speak about “human trials” is a pure lie, absolutely anti-historical.
People who are confident that there is molten sand in 10 km from the epicenter of the 40 kiloton explosion, you can only advise to try to remember what they were taught in school during the time of military training and military education.
As for the "killed 43 000 soldiers", then again we are dealing with a frank lie. Naturally, no one died during the exercise, and the authors of this roaring sensation, knowing this very well, just boldly formulated their idea, implying that 43 000 soldiers allegedly died later as a result of the effects of radiation. However, in reality, we are talking about a perverted interpretation of the fact that by the year 2004 there were only about 2 000 participants in these exercises alive. The exercise was attended by people of the 20-40 age group, 50 years passed, and the age of former participants ranges from 70 to 90 years. Even the youngest of those who participated in the exercises became very old men. In modern Russia, alas, very few men live to 70 years - and the point here is not at all in the Tock exercises.
“Results from the 1994-1995 years. Russian and American specialists studying the radioecological situation on the territory of the Totsky test site and in the areas adjacent to it fully confirmed the radiation parameters previously obtained by experts of the Leningrad Research Institute of Radiation Hygiene and other scientific institutions. The results of the latest radioecological survey of the Totsky test site indicate that the radiation situation on its territory is characterized by the parameters of the natural background radiation. ” [Lieutenant-General S.A. Zelentsov. Totskoe military doctrine.]
As for the exercises living near the district, their health does not differ from the national average “The average increase in mortality in the region from malignant tumors (in 1970 g. - 103,6, in 1991 g - 173 per 100000 inhabitants), equal to about 35% in year, corresponds to the average in the Russian Federation and in other European countries. ”[Lieutenant General S.A. Zelentsov Totskoe military doctrine.] It is also worth noting that a comparison of such exercises in the United States and the USSR clearly shows that the USSR has never reached such a disregard for the participants' security measures as in the United States.
1. “Totsky military exercises with the use of atomic weapons” (http://www.iicas.org/articles/libr_rus_9_12_99_dog.htm) 2. "Nuclear tests of the USSR. Volume 1. Goals. General characteristics. Organization of nuclear tests of the USSR. First nuclear tests" (http://npc.sarov.ru/issues/testing.html) 3. Gallery of US Nuclear Tests (http://nuclearweaponarchive.org/Usa/Tests/) 4. Portnov A.A. Fedotov D.D. Mental disorders in radiation sickness 5. Combat operations in the use of atomic weapons (album for official use 1959 of the year, compiled from materials of military exercises 10 September 1956 of the year at the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site) 6. S.A. Zelentsov Totskoe military doctrine (scientific and journalistic monograph) (http://www.iss.niiit.ru/ksenia/tockoe/6.htm)