Military Review

Error Tupolev engineer

Error Tupolev engineer
Few people know that the Soviet torpedo boats of World War II were gigantic floats from seaplanes.

18 August 1919, in 3 hours of 45 minutes, unidentified aircraft appeared over Kronstadt. On the ships struck air raid. Actually, there was nothing new for our sailors - British and Finnish aircraft were based in 20 – 40 km from Kronstadt on the Karelian Isthmus and almost all summer 1919 made raids on ships and the city, although without much success.

But in 4 hours 20 minutes from the destroyer "Gabriel" two high-speed boats were noticed, and almost immediately there was an explosion near the harbor wall. This torpedo from a British boat, passing by the "Gabriel", exploded, hitting the pier.

In response, the sailors from the destroyer with the first shot from the 100-mm guns smashed the nearest boat into smithereens. Meanwhile, two more boats, entering the Middle Harbor, headed: one to the training ship Memory of Azov, the other to the Ust-Kanal Slingshot (entrance to the dock of Peter I). Released torpedoes, the first boat blew up the “Memory of Azov”, the second one blew up the battleship “Andrey Pervozvanny”. At the same time, boats fired machine guns at the vessel wall. When leaving the harbor, both boats in 4 hours of 25 minutes were sunk by the fire destroyer "Gabriel". So ended the raid of British torpedo boats, which entered the history Civil war called Kronstadt wake-up.

13 June 1929 year A.N. Tupolev started the construction of the new ANT-5 planing boat with two 533-mm torpedoes. Tests led the authorities to delight: the speed of other countries could not even dream of such speeds.

Floating torpedo tubes

Note that this was not the first use of British torpedo boats in the Gulf of Finland. 17 June 1919, the cruiser "Oleg" was anchored at the Tolbukhin lighthouse guarded by two destroyers and two patrol vessels. The boat approached the cruiser almost point-blank and fired a torpedo. The cruiser sank. It is easy to understand how the service of the Red Army was carried, if no one noticed a boat on the cruiser, or on the ships guarding it during the daytime and with excellent visibility. After the explosion, indiscriminate fire was opened at the "British submarine", which was seen by the military constables.

Where did the English, with the incredible speed of 37 nodes (68,5 km / h), move from the English? British engineers managed to combine two inventions in the boat: a special ledge in the bottom - a redan and a powerful gasoline engine in the 250 hp. Thanks to the redan, the contact area of ​​the bottom with water was reduced, and hence the resistance to the ship’s course. The boat was no longer sailing - it seemed to crawl out of the water and glided along it at great speed, relying on the water surface only with a shelf ledge and a flat aft tip.

Thus, in the 1915 year, the British designed a small high-speed torpedo boat, sometimes called a “floating torpedo tube”.

Soviet admirals became a victim of their own propaganda. Taking advantage of Western experience did not allow the conviction that our boats are the best.

Shooting back

From the very beginning, the British command considered torpedo boats exclusively as sabotage weapon. The British admirals proposed to use light cruisers as carriers of torpedo boats. The torpedo boats themselves were supposed to be used to attack enemy ships in their bases. Accordingly, the boats were very small: length 12,2 m and displacement 4,25 t.

Putting a normal (tubular) torpedo tube on such a boat was unrealistic. Therefore gliding boats fired torpedoes ... back. Moreover, the torpedo was thrown out of the aft gutter not with its nose, but with its tail. At the moment of release, the torpedo engine turned on, and she began to catch up with the boat. The boat, which at the time of the volley was supposed to go at a speed of about 20 nodes (37 km / h), but no less than 17 nodes (31,5 km / h), sharply turned aside, and the torpedo retained the original direction, while simultaneously taking the specified depth and increasing move up to full. Needless to say that the accuracy of firing a torpedo from such an apparatus is significantly lower than from a tubular one.

In the Tupolev boats created, a semi-aviation origin can be seen. This is the dural lining, and the hull shape, and resembling a float of a seaplane, and a small superstructure flattened from the sides.

Revolutionary boats

17 September 1919 The Revolutionary Military Council of the Baltic Fleet, on the basis of an inspection report of an English torpedo boat raised from the bottom in Kronstadt, appealed to the Revolutionary Military Council with a request to issue an urgent construction of high-speed boats of the English type in our factories.

The issue was considered very quickly, and already on September 10, 25 was reported to the Revolutionary Military Council that “due to the absence of special type of mechanisms that are not yet manufactured in Russia, the construction of a series of such boats is certainly not feasible”. That thing then ended.

But in 1922, the Ostekhbyuro Bekauri became interested in gliding boats. At his insistence, on February 7, 1923, the Main Marine Technical and Economic Department of the People’s Commissariat for Maritime Affairs sent a letter to TsAGI “in connection with the need for fleet in gliders, of which tactical missions: 150 km range, speed 100 km / h, weapons, one machine gun and two 45 cm Whitehead mines, length 5553 mm, weight 802 kg. ”

By the way, V.I. Bekauri, not very much hoping for TsAGI and Tupolev, insured himself and in the year 1924 ordered the French firm Picker a gliding torpedo boat. However, for several reasons, the construction of torpedo boats abroad did not take place.

Gliding bobber

But Tupolev zealously got down to business. The small radius of the new torpedo boat and its poor seaworthiness did not bother anyone at the time. It was assumed that the new gliders will be placed on cruisers. On the "Profintern" and "Chervona Ukraine" was supposed to do for this additional dumping davit.

The basis of a gliding boat ANT-3 was the float of a seaplane. The top of this float, actively influencing the strength of the structure, went to the boats of Tupolev. Instead of the upper deck, they had a steeply curved convex surface on which it was difficult for a person to hold even when the boat was stationary. When the boat was on the move, it was deadly to get out of its conning tower - the wet slippery surface threw off absolutely everything that fell on it (unfortunately, with the exception of ice, in winter conditions the boats frost down in the surface part). When during the war the torpedo boats of the G-5 type had to carry troops, then people were jabbed into the torpedo tubes, they had no place to be. Possessing relatively large reserves of buoyancy, these boats practically could not carry anything, since there was no room for them to accommodate the cargo.

The design of the torpedo apparatus, borrowed from the English torpedo boats, was also unsuccessful. The minimum speed of the boat at which he could launch his torpedoes was 17 nodes. On a smaller turn and on the foot, the boat could not launch a torpedo salvo, since this would mean suicide for him — an inevitable hit of a torpedo.

6 March 1927, the ANT-3 boat, later called the “Firstborn”, was sent by rail from Moscow to Sevastopol, where it was safely launched. From 30 April to 16 July of the same year, ANT-3 was tested.

On the basis of ANT-3 a boat ANT-4 was created, which developed the speed of the 47,3 node (87,6 km / h) on tests. According to the ANT-4 type, mass production of torpedo boats, called Sh-4, was launched. They were built in Leningrad at the plant to them. Marty (former Admiralty Shipyard). The cost of the boat was 200 thousand rubles. The boats W-4 were equipped with two Wright-Typhoon gasoline engines supplied from the USA. The armament of the boat consisted of two torpedo tubes of the flute type for 450-mm torpedoes of the 1912 model of the year, one 7,62-mm machine gun and smoke-generating equipment. Total factory them. Marty in Leningrad was built 84 boats W-4.

D-3 torpedo boat

ELCO torpedo boat

Torpedo boat G-5

Torpedo boat S-boat Schnellboot

Torpedo boat A-1 "Reached"

The fastest in the world

Meanwhile, 13 June 1929, the Tupolev in TsAGI began construction of a new gliding duralumin boat ANT-5, armed with two 533-mm torpedoes. From April to November 1933, the boat passed factory tests in Sevastopol, and from November to December - government tests. The ANT-22 tests literally delighted the authorities - the boat with torpedoes developed the speed of 5 nodes (58 km / h), and without torpedoes - the 107,3 node (65,3 km / h). The speedboats of other countries could not even dream of such speeds.

Plant them. Marty, starting with the V series (the first four series - this boat W-4), moved to the production of G-5 (the so-called serial boats ANT-5). Later, the G-5 was built at the plant number 532 in Kerch, and with the beginning of the war the plant number 532 was evacuated to Tyumen, and there at the plant number 639 they also began to build boats of the G-5 type. A total of nine series G-321 serial boat (from VI to XII, including XI-bis) was built 5.

Torpedo armament for all series was the same: two 533-mm torpedoes in flute tubes. But the machine-gun armament was constantly changing. So, boats of the VI-IX series had two 7,62-mm aviation machine gun YES. The next series had two 7,62-mm ShKAS aircraft machine guns, which were distinguished by a higher rate of fire. Since 1941, the boats began to be equipped with one or two 12,7 mm DShK machine guns.

Torpedo leader

Tupolev and Nekrasov (the direct head of the experimental design team on gliders) did not calm down on the G-5 and in the year 1933 proposed the project "leader of torpedo boats G-6". According to the draft, the displacement of the boat should have been 70 tons. Eight motors GAM-34 by HP 830. had to provide speed up to 42 nodes (77,7 km / h). The boat could launch a volley with six 533-mm torpedoes, three of which were launched from aft-type torpedo-type torpedo-tubes, and another three from a three-tube rotary torpedo-apparatus, located on the deck of the boat. The artillery armament consisted of a 45-mm semi-automatic 21K cannon, an “aviation type” 20-mm cannon, and several 7,62-mm machine guns. It should be noted that by the beginning of the construction of the boat (1934), both rotary torpedo tubes and 20-mm guns of “aviation type” existed only in the imagination of the designers.

Death pills

Tupolev boats could operate torpedoes in the midst of agitation up to 2 points, and stay in the sea - up to 3 points. Poor seaworthiness was manifested primarily in the flooding of the bridge of the boat, even with the slightest agitation and, in particular, the strong splashing of the very low wheelhouse open at the top, which hampered the work of the boat crew. The autonomy of the Tupolev boats was also a derivative of seaworthiness - their design range could never be guaranteed, as it depended not only on the fuel supply, but on the weather. Storm conditions in the sea are relatively rare, but fresh wind, accompanied by agitation 3 – 4 points, a phenomenon that can be said to be normal. Therefore, every exit of Tupolev torpedo boats into the sea bordered on a mortal risk without any connection with the combat activity of the boats.

The rhetorical question: why then hundreds of gliding torpedo boats were built in the USSR? It's all about the Soviet admirals, for whom the British Grand Fleet was a constant headache. They seriously thought that the British Admiralty would operate in 1920 – 1930-s just as in Sevastopol in 1854, or in Alexandria in 1882-m. That is, the British battleships in calm and clear weather will approach Kronstadt or Sevastopol, and the Japanese battleships - to Vladivostok, anchor and do battle in accordance with the “Gosta regulation”.

And here dozens of the fastest torpedo boats of the Sh-4 and G-5 type will fly into the enemy armada. At the same time part of them will be radio-controlled. Equipment for such boats was created in Ostebbyuro under the guidance of Bekauri.

In October 1937, a large exercise was conducted using radio-controlled boats. When the compound, depicting an enemy squadron, appeared in the western part of the Gulf of Finland, more than 50 radio-controlled boats, breaking through smoke screens, rushed from three sides to the enemy ships and attacked them with torpedoes. After the exercise, the division of radio-controlled boats was commended by the command.

We will go our own way

Meanwhile, the USSR was the only leading maritime power that built torpedo boats of the red type. England, Germany, the USA and other countries switched to the construction of seaworthy keel torpedo boats. Such boats were inferior in speed in calm weather, but significantly exceeded them with a wave of 3 – 4 points. Keel boats carried more powerful artillery and torpedo weapons.

The superiority of the keelboats over the Reds became apparent during the 1921 – 1933 war off the US eastern coast, which was led by the Yankee government with ... Mr. Bacchus. Naturally, Bacchus won, and the government was forced to shamefully repeal the “dry law”. A significant role in the outcome of the war was played by speedboats of the Elko company, which delivered whiskey from Cuba and the Bahamas. Another question is that the same company built boats for the coast guard.

The capabilities of the keelboats can be judged at least by the fact that the Scott-Payne boat with a length of 70 feet (21,3 m), armed with four 53-cm torpedo tubes and four 12,7-mm machine guns, passed from England to the USA under its own power and 5 September 1939 was solemnly greeted in New York. In the image of his firm "Elko" began mass construction of torpedo boats.

By the way, 60 boats of the Elko type were supplied under lend-lease in the USSR, where they received an A-3 index. On the basis of the A-3 in 1950-s, we have created the most common torpedo boat of the Soviet Navy - the project 183.

Germans with a keel

It is worth noting that in Germany, literally bound hand and foot by the Versailles Treaty and covered by the economic crisis, in 1920-s they were able to carry out tests of extended and keel boats. According to the test results, an unambiguous conclusion was made - to make only keel boats. Monopolist in the production of torpedo boats became the firm "Lyursen".

During the war years, German boats operated freely in fresh weather throughout the North Sea. Based in Sevastopol and in Dvuyakornaya Bay (near Theodosia), German torpedo boats operated throughout the Black Sea. At first, our admirals didn’t even believe that German torpedo boats operated in the Poti region. Meetings of our and German torpedo boats invariably ended in favor of the latter. During the fighting of the Black Sea Fleet in 1942 – 1944, not a single German torpedo boat was sunk in the sea.

Flying over the water

Dot the i's. Tupolev - a talented designer of aircraft, but why it was necessary not to take up their cause? In some ways, it can be understood - huge funds were allocated for torpedo boats, and in the 1930s there was a tough competition among aircraft designers. Let's pay attention to one more fact. The construction of boats we have not been classified. The gliders flying above the water were used to the full by Soviet propaganda. The population constantly saw Tupolev's torpedo boats in illustrated magazines, on numerous posters, in newsreels. The pioneers, voluntarily-compulsively, taught to make models of wounded torpedo boats.

As a result, our admirals became a victim of their own propaganda. Officially it was thought that Soviet boats were the best in the world and there was no point in paying attention to foreign experience. Meanwhile, agents of the German firm "Lursen", starting from 1920-s, "stuck out their tongues" and were looking for clients for themselves. Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Spain and even China became customers of their keel boats.

In 1920 – 1930's, the Germans easily shared with Soviet colleagues secrets in the field of tank building, aviation, artillery, toxic agents, etc. But we did not even lift a finger to buy at least one Lursen.
41 comment

Subscribe to our Telegram channel, regularly additional information about the special operation in Ukraine, a large amount of information, videos, something that does not fall on the site:

Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. avt
    avt 2 February 2013 10: 20
    The article is certainly interesting, even + put. BUT, I did not understand, the author announced the vendetta Tupolev request laughing ? Where is the mistake ? What the deputy commissar for armament Tukhachevsky ordered, Tupolev did. ------ ,, Let's dot the "i". Tupolev is a talented aircraft designer, but why did he have to take on something else? In some ways it can be understood - huge funds were allocated for torpedo boats, and in the 1930s there was a tough competition among aircraft designers. Let's pay attention to one more fact. The construction of boats was not classified in our country. "_______ Well, this is straight into the case of the pest Tupolev and asks. bully
    1. Mitek
      Mitek 2 February 2013 10: 51
      There are parallels with modernity). Interesting article) Thank you.
    2. nickname 1 and 2
      nickname 1 and 2 2 February 2013 11: 05

      Well, here we sing odes to Kalashnikov and others? And we do not remember the Tukhachevskys and others. Or the Koshkin T-34 - and no one remembers any tanks of the same Fritzes! And the Katyusha -?

      Here it is!
      Inventor, designer must get into the bullseye i.e. please technical specifications, so much so that no issues in the subsequent application!

      And this - "by the way" - "The mistake of engineer Tupolev" - did not spank, and okay! But Stalin could!
      It should: There was no experience! He got out as he could! etc.
      1. Zerstorer
        Zerstorer 3 February 2013 09: 59
        Quote: nick 1 and 2
        Well, here we sing odes to Kalashnikov and others? And we do not remember the Tukhachevskys and others. Or the Koshkin T-34 - and no one remembers any tanks of the same Fritzes! And the Katyusha -?

        I don’t argue there are initiative projects (when a design bureau offers a project to a customer). And then, after considering the proposal, the customer writes a statement of work. Give at least one example when TK was not written, and the sample was adopted.

        Quote: nick 1 and 2
        Here it is!
        Inventor, designer must get into the bullseye i.e. please technical specifications, so much so that no issues in the subsequent application!

        So who will determine how to use the technique? Designer or military? I myself am a designer, but I think that determining what needs to be done is up to the customer. If we are confident in our correctness that it is necessary to change the technical specification, then we must convince the customer of this. Do not forget that all the "fun" is paid by the customer and this is his right to write TK. Without technical assignment, work becomes uncontrollable: for example, a torpedo boat is needed, and I "suddenly" use these funds to start work on "death rays".
    3. Yoshkin Kot
      Yoshkin Kot 2 February 2013 11: 19
      the question is, how did the English boats get on the Isthmus of Korel? to whom to say thanks for this?
      1. Civil
        Civil 2 February 2013 11: 42
        Yoshkin Cat,

        dear Mannerheim thank you ...
        1. Yoshkin Kot
          Yoshkin Kot 2 February 2013 13: 12
          maybe Volodya Ulyanov? Leibu to Bronstein?
    4. lelik613
      lelik613 2 February 2013 17: 47
      What vendetta? The fact is that 10 years of work and an incredible amount of money were spent on mirages. Yes, and the hero himself was not the last person in TsAGI.
      Instead of Francis of Assisi, Father Tuk appeared on the icon wiped from the web.
      The pursuit of records and the development of "interesting theoretical things" 20 years later hit the country with a bloody ricochet.
    5. vikontas56
      vikontas56 2 February 2013 18: 03
      In addition to the G-5, long-range torpedo boats D-39 and SM-3 were built in the USSR since 3, these were seaworthy ships, different from the G-5 and more suitable for transporting troops and disembarking sabotage groups , for which they were used during the war. The difference between the D-3 and SM-3 in the material of the hull: the D-3 had a wooden hull, with a predominance of larch, which does not rot, and the SM-3 had a steel hull. Displacement 32 tons. Length 21,6 m. Speed, depending on the type of engines: from 2 GAM-34 to 750hp - 32 knots, GAM-34VS at 850hp - 37 knots, 1050 each and Rolls-Royce at 1200hp. from up to 48 knots. Cruising range up to 550 miles. Armament - 2DShK (except torpedoes), or 20mm cannon or 2 "Erlikons". The boats of the "Komsomolets" project were also built. Displacement and dimensions are close to the G-5, but the hull shape is more seaworthy ...
    6. Zerstorer
      Zerstorer 3 February 2013 09: 47
      Quote: avt
      Where is the mistake ? What the deputy People's Commissar for Arms Tukhachevsky ordered, then Tupolev did

      Totally agree with you!!! What is written in the TOR is what we do. The conclusion is either the inept writing of TK, or the fleet's needs for this technique are incorrectly defined. Judging by the fact that the boats were adopted, the second option looks more believable.
    7. Voodoo
      Voodoo 3 February 2013 14: 34
      Indeed, according to Tupolev, it is not clear ... What has it to do with "... not their own business"? The same Chernyakov Naum Semyonovich, the creator of the Tempest cruise missile and the famous "hundred" (supersonic attack and reconnaissance aircraft T-4), when he was instructed, created the first Soviet all-metal trolleybus MTB-82. So what???
    8. knn54
      knn54 3 February 2013 19: 43
      A correctly posed task is already 50% of its successful solution. And in the course of the article, I realized: it would be better if this English boat was not raised.
    9. Pushkar
      Pushkar 4 February 2013 00: 50
      avtForgive me, but what kind of aircraft of the "talented designer" Tupolev thundered in WWII like that. like, say, Yak-3, La-5FN, Il-2, Il-4, Pe-2, Po-2? He is a opportunist who made record worthless aircraft.
  2. crambol
    crambol 2 February 2013 11: 11
    Quote: Mitek
    There are parallels with modernity.

    Yes, they cannot be traced, but they climb into all holes in the form of Mistral, etc.!
  3. Rjn
    Rjn 2 February 2013 12: 44
    But how beautiful the G-5s go in films with calm water. Peeping. But, it seems, these are all advantages. In the war there was a case when the G-5 returned to base at full speed with a torn transom.
  4. Chicot 1
    Chicot 1 2 February 2013 12: 52
    No gods burn pots ...

    For all the shortcomings of the G-5 boats, one thing must be said - Tupolev with task assigned to him coped brilliantly. In simple words, he did what he was asked to do ...
    So here there is no mistake of Andrey Nikolaevich and cannot be. Those who gave the technical task were mistaken ...
    1. Vadivak
      Vadivak 2 February 2013 20: 55
      Quote: Chicot 1
      Those who gave the technical task were mistaken ...

      Hi Vasily. All are good. The Maritime Department, which had no experience in the construction of such ships, could not immediately make clear demands on the contours of the boat, nor on its layout and equipment. TsAGI generally first encountered, albeit with a small, but still a sea ship.
  5. washi
    washi 2 February 2013 15: 32
    Conclusion: if you copy, then the best, as China is now doing. Better yet, have your own design school. To do this, have education and agitation, financing - Do useful for the Motherland, and clowns and singing women will sing to you, and not only
  6. AlexMH
    AlexMH 2 February 2013 16: 28
    Tupolev’s boats were in line with the TK and indeed IN THEIR CLASS (small edan speedboats) were the best in the world. And why was TK formulated in this way? Because Soviet boats were supposed to be used in the coastal zone, in the skerries of the Baltic Sea or from large ships. That is, the emphasis was on speed, small size and relative cheapness. Americans and Germans built larger sailing boats for operations in the North Sea and the Pacific / Atlantic Ocean, their sizes were much larger, their armaments were more powerful, in fact they were not torpedo boats in the classical sense, but they were approaching destroyers of the early 20th century (the presence of small-caliber guns , 4 torpedoes, depth charges). Such boats were considered as small universal ships. Actually, if the task for our shipbuilders were set in this form, they would solve it (although problems with engines would still arise).
  7. 8 company
    8 company 2 February 2013 18: 13
    Design engineer Bekauri is little known today. Vladimir Ivanovich Bekauri was born into a nobleman's family near Tbilisi. In 1905 he graduated from the Mikhailovskoye Technical Railway School in Tiflis. From 1907 he lived in St. Petersburg, was engaged in the design and manufacture of metal safes. Author of several inventions in the field of telegraphy and railway transport. At the end of 1920, V.I.Bekauri, together with academician V.N. Ipatiev, organized an Experimental workshop on the latest inventions (Exmani) at the State Scientific and Technical Institute. When, in 1921, by order of the government, Ostekhbyuro was organized - the Special Technical Bureau under the Supreme Council of National Economy of the RSFSR - Bekauri was appointed its chief. Under his leadership, Ostechbyuro became the largest center for the development of areas of great defense importance. The bureau specialized in the development of mine and torpedo weapons, telecontrol systems, radio-controlled mines, etc. These were works at a high level, literally ahead of their time. Radio-controlled mines were actively used during the Second World War. In 1937 "Ostekhbyuro" was literally destroyed, many specialists were arrested, some were shot. On February 8, 1938, Bekauri was shot on charges of spying for Germany. He was rehabilitated by the determination of the Supreme Court of the USSR dated June 9, 1956. Awards: Certificate of honor of the Revolutionary Military Council, Order of Lenin, Order of the Red Banner, Order of the Red Star.
    1. Vadivak
      Vadivak 2 February 2013 21: 09
      Quote: Company 8
      Under his leadership, the Ostekhbyuro became the largest center for the development of areas of major defense importance.

      Well, huge

      For the financial year 1925/26, Ostekhbyuro allocated 3571 million rubles, including 1 million paid personally by Bekauri. As of February 4, 1927, there were 447 people in the Ostekhbyuro, of whom 78 were members and candidates for party membership. In parallel with work on remote-controlled torpedoes, Bekauri was engaged in the design of remote-controlled ... submarines. The nuclear submarine, the autonomous submarine Pygmy, was built at the Sudomeh plant in Leningrad. Tests showed that radio control of the Pygmy from an airplane was practically impossible, and they began to test it like a regular ultra-small submarine with a crew on board.

      On the basis of the high-speed tank BT-7 in 1938-1939 the A-7 remote-controlled tank was created. Tests of the A-7 tank revealed a lot of design flaws, ranging from numerous failures of the control system to the complete uselessness of the Silin machine gun: it could not be remotely controlled, and there was no sense from firing "on the squares" The first case of combat use of Soviet television tanks occurred on February 28, 1940 in Vyborg area during the winter war with Finland. Before the advancing line tanks, the TT-26 TV tanks were launched. However, all of them quickly got stuck in the funnels from the shells and were shot by the Finnish anti-tank guns Bofors. The Soviet government complied with all the wishes of Bekauri. The country was starving, and Ostekhbyuro released millions of rubles. So, the “fleet” of Bekauri was significantly stronger than the Bulgarian fleet, but slightly weaker than the Romanian one.
      But already in the second half of the 1930s, the military began to realize that the vast majority of Bekauri’s “television products” were expensive, but absolutely useless toys. In addition, insiders of the Ostekhbyuro were active informers who sought to dump Bekauri. So, E. N. Shoshkov in the book “Repressed Ostekhbyuro” (St. Petersburg: Memorial, 1995) writes that from June 23, 1934 A.I. Berg regularly informed the OGPU (and later the NKVD) about the activities of the employees of the Ostekhbyuro. In a letter dated July 21, 1936 to the special department of the NKVD of the Baltic Fleet, Berg called the work of Ostekhbyuro anti-Soviet.
      On September 8, 1937, Bekauri was suddenly arrested in Leningrad by officers of the NKVD and on the same day was transferred to Moscow.

      During the investigation, Bekauri gave several conflicting testimonies. According to one of them, he was recruited by German intelligence during his stay in Berlin in 1932, and according to other indications he was recruited through Tukhachevsky and Yenukidze. Bekauri admitted that he was engaged in "fraud", and Tukhachevsky personally covered his activities. No doubt, the Ostekhbyuro led by Bekauri largely contributed to the development of domestic military equipment. But if you approach by the criterion “efficiency - cost”, “Ostekhbyuro” is associated with the mountain that gave birth to the mouse.
      1. Zerstorer
        Zerstorer 3 February 2013 10: 03
        Historical parallels: "This is the Skolkovo of those years" !!
      2. YuDDP
        YuDDP 4 February 2013 00: 54
        Something the chronology does not fit:
        in 1937 he was arrested, shot in 1938, and created in a telecontrol tank in 1939, military use in 1940.
    2. AK-47
      AK-47 2 February 2013 22: 23
      Quote: Company 8
      Design engineer Bekauri is little known today.

      Vladimir Ivanovich Bekauri, a very interesting person, if he had not been arrested in 1937 and shot, Before the war, the Soviet Union would have possessed unmanned aerial vehicles.

      «On August 9, 1921, the former nobleman Bekauri received the mandate of the Labor and Defense Council signed by Lenin: “It was given to inventor Vladimir Ivanovich Bekauri that he was entrusted with the urgent implementation of his, Bekauri, secret military invention.”
      To create remote-controlled aircraft Bekauri required a heavy aircraft. At this time, the Tupolev bureau was working on the heavy bomber ANT-4 (TB-1), and later on TB-3 (ANT-6).
      For the robot aircraft in Ostekhbyuro, the Daedalus telemechanical system was created. Raising a telemechanical aircraft into the air was a difficult task, and therefore the TB-3 took off with the pilot, but when approaching the target, the pilot either threw himself with a parachute or transferred to the I-3 or I fighter suspended from the TB-15 -16 "and it returned home. Further, the aircraft was controlled by radio from the “lead” TB-3. When the remote-controlled bomber reached the target, a dive signal came from the host machine. In 1937, the bureau was dispersed, and the leadership was repressed. Nevertheless, work on the creation of aircraft robots was not stopped, they continued, but by a different team.
      In 1942, even troop tests of the Torpedo remote-controlled aircraft, based on the TB-3 bomber, were held. The aircraft was loaded with 4 tons of high-impact explosives. The guidance was carried out by radio from the DB-ZF aircraft.
      This plane was supposed to hit the railway junction in Vyazma occupied by the Germans. However, when approaching the target, the antenna of the DB-ZF transmitter failed, the control of the Torpedo aircraft was lost, and it fell somewhere beyond Vyazma.
      The second pair of “Torpedo” and the SB control plane in the same 1942 burned down at the airfield when an ammunition exploded in a nearby bomber ... ”
      1. Vadivak
        Vadivak 2 February 2013 23: 21
        Quote: AK-47
        control of the Torpedo was lost, and it fell somewhere beyond Vyazma.

        Effectively well, at least not in our position, set + did not know about this miracle
        1. avt
          avt 3 February 2013 14: 50
          Quote: Vadivak
          Effectively well, at least not in our position, set + did not know about this miracle

          This miracle was "experienced" by Endel Puseps, a long-range aviation pilot, while he was waiting for a PE-8 car from Kazan. I sat in the cockpit, just in case, when we practiced automatic takeoff and landing. True, when they were sent to combat, the pilot lifted the plane, then jumped. The British tried the same thing, the result is the same - loss of control and failure to fulfill the task and, as a result, abandonment of the project. The Germans nevertheless took a more productive path in their guided weapons. Yes, Puseps is the same crew commander who flew with Molotov to England, America and back.
      2. 8 company
        8 company 2 February 2013 23: 44
        Quote: AK-47
        Before the war, the Soviet Union would have possessed unmanned aerial vehicles.

        It is possible that the Germans managed to create a FAA, and Bekauri worked in the same direction
        1. Zerstorer
          Zerstorer 3 February 2013 10: 07
          All is well but in due time. The fact that the designer takes a big technical risk is normal, it is in his nature. But the fact that the customer went for it - I think is wrong.
          1. Igarr
            Igarr 3 February 2013 10: 49
            This is where the Focke-Wulf and Junkers hybrids grow from, it's too lazy to just look in detail for the name of these units.
            Junkers stuffed with explosives, on top of them - a pilot on a Fokker ... Pokryshkin in "The Sky of War" wrote about such miracles-yuds.
            And we have TB-3, like a ship-piguterus, oh ... with I-15 as an emergency flying capsule.
            Here are the miracles.
            Either flying tanks, or diving planes (submarines with wings), or some crap. I recall even a caterpillar cruiser ...
            Having fun, having fun ... then shoot ... each other.
            Jokers, damn it.
            1. avt
              avt 3 February 2013 14: 57
              Quote: Igarr
              This is where the Focke-Wulf and Junkers hybrids grow from, it's too lazy to just look in detail for the name of these units.

              They are from hopelessness! Just guided bombs "Fritz" and Henkel radio-controlled missiles, allied in large quantities grabbed them in France. The Hans tightly spoiled their ships' ships with them, amers even developed and built cruisers with universal 152-mm guns - the carriers got it, oh, how.
        2. Vadivak
          Vadivak 3 February 2013 15: 17
          Quote: Company 8
          It is possible that the Germans managed to create a FAA, and Bekauri worked in the same direction.

          Damn yourself, is this the FAA’s news was tele (radio) controlled? It had an autonomous, inertial control system, but you don’t need anything on the site you are fighting with the dead only people went to battle for their homeland for Stalin, and what they You didn’t think of death before the leader? Oh, the young Gorbachevites-Yeltsins, political defectors
      3. avt
        avt 3 February 2013 10: 53
        Quote: AK-47
        Vladimir Ivanovich Bekauri, a very interesting person, if he had not been arrested in 1937 and shot, the Soviet Union would have had unmanned aerial vehicles before the war.

        Not less outstanding aircraft designer Cheremukhin even before Sikorsky almost on his knee made a helicopter {with a wooden rotor!} And climbed 500 meters. Having seen Tukhachevsky, he joyfully declared that the Red Army needed hundreds of such apparatuses. And today. As Tupolev recalled {the tape with the record was stored in the Zhukovsky Museum, if not stolen} -Stalin, in a conversation with him he said that we could not develop this outstanding invention, we had neither the strength nor the means, and if we started, our opponents they will overtake us. Here are two approaches for you, then decide for yourself.
        Quote: AK-47
        Vladimir Ivanovich Bekauri, a very interesting person, if he had not been arrested in 1937 and shot, the Soviet Union would have had unmanned aerial vehicles before the war.

        The Germans have been engaged in this subject since 1912. Question to you. When did they, in a country not ravaged by a fratricidal civil war, have managed guided aerial bombs with which the Italian battleships drowned and radio-controlled missiles ??? I suggest you drinks for the possibility of meeting the wishes laughing
        1. AK-47
          AK-47 3 February 2013 11: 40
          Quote: avt
          Question to you. When they have, in a country not ruined fratricidal ...

          Their position until the mid-30s was no better.
          Guided missiles and more - this is already during the Second World War. Bekauri’s work was aimed at reducing the losses of the USSR in manpower, to which the world trend has come only now.
          Among his developments, in addition to remotely controlled aircraft, there were radio-controlled tanks, a radio-controlled submarine, radio-controlled landmines for hundreds of kilometers, and everything was brought to prototypes. By the way, the latter were actively and very successfully used during the war. Military science should be developed on such far-sighted scientists, and you are desires - possibilities.
          1. avt
            avt 3 February 2013 14: 11
            Quote: AK-47
            Their position until the mid-30s was no better.

            laughing Yeah, it was they, for gold and the sale of bread, who bought locomotives, rolled metal, entire factories, including the chemical industry. In hard currency paid to specialists. Well, they learned very carefully about flying, tank and chemical work in schools with Soviet instructors! laughing Welcome to the Destalinizers Club. Hold the banner of the fight against common sense tightly! good laughing Well, maybe you can read at least VADIVAK's comments on the article and analyze without emotion? At one time, I came across this expression - science, this is an opportunity to satisfy my curiosity at the expense of the budget. It’s rough, but true. But how to find a middle ground? request And if you also live in difficult times, when life itself is depreciated?
    3. YuDDP
      YuDDP 4 February 2013 01: 06
      and Bekauri also invented the BEMI mine, which used to blow up objects in Vyborg occupied by Finns
      here is the link -
      and quote:
      Help about BEMI mines
      According to the first syllables of the names of its creators Bekuari and Mitkevich, the device that the Finns encountered was called BEMI.
      The talented inventor and engineer in the field of electrical engineering and precision mechanics, Vladimir Ivanovich Bekauri, was recognized by the Soviet government and invited by V.I. Lenin, who signed a decree stating that “urgently, his Bekauri, military-secret inventions are to be implemented ". Bekauri became the initiator of the creation and director of the Special Technical Bureau for Military Inventions of Special Purpose (Ostekhbyuro). The Bureau dealt with many issues - communications, aviation, mine and torpedo business, in particular radio-controlled torpedo boats. The technical director of the Ostekhbyuro was V.F. Mitkevich. In January 1923, the Ostekhbyuro began to develop explosives radio control. Great importance was attached to this by the chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council, M.V. Frunze, who was present during the first test of the model in 1925 in the port of Leningrad. The blast control system was located on the Mikula minesweeper and operated from a distance of 25 km. In March 1927, radio actions were demonstrated to the country's leadership at a training ground near Moscow, and in 1929, mass production began in Leningrad. By 1939, mines were so advanced that explosive commands were issued from a distance of 170 kilometers. By the beginning of 1941, special units were formed in the South-Western, Belorussian and Leningrad military districts, which were armed with radio-controlled land mines
      1. carbofo
        carbofo 5 February 2013 13: 16
        I don’t understand why they settled on Bekauri, a talented person, engaged in even expensive but progressive developments, not everyone can do such things, and then some of the developments still settled in industry or other design bureaus.
        Feeling high-tech ideas is often the way to a dead end, but the easier it is to go along the beaten track to others.
        Not for nothing that in America there is DARPA now! And they are far from idiots to push so much dough into the empty.
  8. Mik rybalko
    Mik rybalko 2 February 2013 19: 42
    He thoroughly read about G-5 boats, they still had such a drawback due to the use of duralumin to create a hull, severe electrochemical corrosion occurred on the hull, they had to periodically lift the boats out of the water and carefully clean and paint the bottom of the boats ..
    And of course the German "Schnelbotts" were superior to these boats, but the sizes are completely different ..
    And besides, after all, the admirals that ordered and received it, cannot Tupolev be accused of incompetence, who before the war was going to transport paratroopers on torpedo boats?
    For the defense of the coast and bases, these boats were generally not bad at all ..
    Comparing with German or American boats is generally stupid, they are different in size and the ideology in their design was different.
  9. 8 company
    8 company 2 February 2013 22: 29
    The very title of the article suggests that the author is very bad at getting into the situation. It is not the designer who decides what the army needs, he simply fulfills the order. The military decides everything: what to order and how much money to allocate. But the author is not alone, even before him there were people who shot the designers of weapons and military equipment. Although it is not worth calling such "people". And boats G-5 fought successfully: for example, on October 30, 1943, a group of boats under the command of V.P. Gumanenko went to Narva Bay to cover the Soviet minesweeping boats working there. Here the torpedo boats took up a battle with 6 German ships. One of the high-speed gliders, having received an impressive hole in the ramming compartment, not only remained afloat, but also managed to sink the enemy minesweeper. To keep the torpedo boat combat-ready was made possible by the quality inherent only in the planing G-5 - the ability to go to the redan with an increase in speed. At full speed, the bow of the ship rose strongly upward, and the flow of outboard water into the forepeak (ram compartment) immediately stopped.
    By and large, if someone from the Soviet Navy drowned German ships and ships, then these are submarines and torpedo boats.
    1. Vadivak
      Vadivak 3 February 2013 15: 29
      Quote: Company 8
      It is not the designer who decides what the army needs, he simply fulfills the order.

      What are you speaking about? So, like Serdyukov in FIG, then he is generally needed. We’ll buy all the good over the hill, and what’s the brain go there is to hell with us at the Unified State Exam, in some Moscow universities, some Caucasians will study, so they’ll build everything.

      The designer does not stupidly fulfill the order, Mil cheated by "modernizing" the Mi-4 and issued the immortal Mi-8, but how many vehicles were built on an initiative basis? Tanks T-70, IS, Object 430, Object 167, (if this tells you something) The same Mi-24. And they also served in the army, like
  10. Jarserge
    Jarserge 3 February 2013 18: 22
    This is how a smart person always seems to know a lot, and can convey this knowledge to others in a digestible form. And here’s how it goes beyond the scope of this knowledge, well, a cross between a Soviet Soviet intellectual and a psychic in the kitchen is clever .... He knows who he was thinking about from the Soviet admirals and what they were afraid of ... And I’m not afraid of this word, a brilliant designer Tupolev’s mistakes are being blamed .... Yes, normal boats conquered the whole war and even more .... and in some places there wasn’t any alternative at all .... How easy it is to criticize yourself without creating anything other than a word
  11. studentmati
    studentmati 3 February 2013 23: 59
    The article clearly shines with "yellowness". At least the approach to assessing the role of the Great Designer is careless and unprofessional. Of course, Andrei Nikolaevich had many mistakes. But "the one who does nothing is not mistaken."
  12. motorized rifle
    motorized rifle 4 February 2013 01: 24
    Tupolev was right or wrong, it’s hard to talk now, because we didn’t go on those boats and we don’t know this. Here I recall his mother’s grandfather, he served in the Pacific Fleet all the war and it was on such a boat, he had a seven-string guitar hanging over his bed and a photograph of the crew. There, in the photo, the boat was depicted in full ink, well, the crew, the lieutenant and five or six people, all of whom were foremen, i.e. not a single sailor. my grandfather died in 1968, I naturally was very small, but I would ask him about the boat, I think the situation would be clearer.
  13. Ols76
    Ols76 4 February 2013 03: 11
    The weapon of the Second World War. Speedboat shock boats.

  14. qwert
    qwert 4 February 2013 11: 33
    Oh, these judgments from the height of today, on the basis of truncated sources, and even taking into account the most important factor today: THERE WERE SMART Germans, Americans, British, and others did not. And it seems indeed that our sailors would have had large sailing boats, with miracle weapons - tubular torpedo tubes. Yes, they should go at a speed of up to 20 nodes, so there would be no loss. Slowly, they approached, they threw a torpedo, unhurriedly turned around and went to their skerries. It only seems to me that the sailors would prefer their ship to be the least vulnerable target, well, it would be smaller, faster, and more maneuverable, even if salt spray in the face, but the chances of survival are higher. And in the attack and in the attack of AVIATION !!!!, It would be nice to blink a torpedo when it is already turned from the enemy ... Although of course this is nonsense, it can be agreed that Tupolev boats were not bad, and God could even be better than foreign ones. And this is exactly nonsense. In Russia in our country, finally, nothing can be better than the western one, for we are poor and undemocratic ...

  15. _KM_
    _KM_ 21 October 2013 16: 37
    Delivered to the material a plus, but:

    - Soviet designers were pressured by the obligatory requirement of the possibility of transporting railway boats. by transport. Hence the maximum dimensions of 25x4 m and the corresponding displacement;

    - boats "lursen" are not only large hull sizes, but also magnificent MAN and Mercedes-Benz diesels. There was nothing of the kind in the USSR at that time and it did not appear very soon.
  16. The comment was deleted.