Military Review

Gone undefeated: how Odessa fought

38
Gone undefeated: how Odessa fought
Cinematographer Mark Troyanovsky filming the departure of the ships of the Black Sea fleet from Odessa. In the background, the light cruiser Krasny Krym. October 16, 1941


New offensive of the Romanian 4th Army


Pulling up reinforcements, the Romanian army (17 divisions and 7 brigades - a total of over 270 thousand people, up to 2 guns and mortars, 200-100 tanks, 300-400 aircraft) August 20, 1941 resumed the assault on Odessa ("Do not surrender Odessa and defend to the last opportunity"; H. 2). The Romanians were actively supported by the Germans - parts of the 72nd Infantry Division, 2 assault and 4 sapper battalions, 3 battalions of heavy artillery.

The Romanian command planned to hold a parade in Odessa on August 23.

Romanian troops called for a final effort:

“Soldiers! The enemy is weaker than us. Make one last effort to end the fight, do not retreat before the enemy's violent counterattacks. "

The head of Romania, conductor Ion Antonescu gave the capture of Odessa a special meaning, saw in this a symbol of the creation of "Greater Romania". Antonescu and the Romanian king Mihai personally arrived at the Odessa front. The king promoted Antonescu to the rank of marshal. Together they visited several units, met with the commanders. The mood was upbeat: it was expected that the army would soon take over the city.


Conductor of Romania Marshal Ion Antonescu with officers at the map.

True, the Germans doubted the quick success of the Allies.

The Chief of the General Staff of the Ground Forces Franz Halder wrote in his diary about Odessa on August 20:

"It is still questionable whether the Romanian command and its troops have grown to fulfill such a task."

He also noted that Crimea cannot be taken without the Germans. Therefore, the Wehrmacht strengthened the Romanian army with its units. Germanic aviation tried to paralyze the actions of the Russian fleet, the main support of Odessa.

So, on August 29, a detachment of ships of the Black Sea Fleet led by the cruiser Chervona Ukraina (he arrived from Sevastopol and brought a battalion of volunteer sailors) suppressed enemy positions in the Eastern Sector with ship fire and helped repel the enemy offensive. The cruiser supported the Odessa garrison until September 1.


Light cruiser "Chervona Ukraine" at sea during the defense of Odessa

On August 30, the German Junkers attacked the Soviet ships. The leader of the destroyers "Tashkent" was seriously damaged. Several people were killed and injured.

The ship was sent for repairs to Sevastopol. The restoration work was carried out by 100 people who worked day and night, he was taken out of the dry dock on October 10.

On September 21, German planes sank the gunboat Krasnaya Armenia and the destroyer Frunze, which was trying to help her, near the Tendrovskaya Spit. During the raid of 9 Ju-87 dive bombers, the Soviet destroyer was hit by 5 bombs. The ship sank at a depth of 6 meters. 50 sailors were killed, but most of the crew escaped on the destroyer's superstructures and pipes, which remained above the water.


"For fright"


The garrison of Odessa lacked weapons and ammunition.

First, the fleet helped, which sent thousands of rifles, hundreds of pistols, dozens of machine guns and machine guns, a million cartridges for them, 6 thousand hand grenades, 15 thousand shells for cannons to the city.

In the city itself, they showed ingenuity and innovation.

In particular, the troops lacked armored vehicles. Then the chief engineer of the Odessa machine-building plant. In the January Uprising, P.K. Romanov proposed building substitutes for tanks on the basis of the existing STZ-5 tracked tractors, sheathing them with armor and installing light weapons. The details of the towers were made in tram workshops, the armored hulls were made at the plant named after the October Revolution, and the production of vehicles was mastered in the tank repair workshops of the plant named after. January Uprising.

Therefore, the Odessa "tank" was named "Yanvarets".

The upper part of the tractor body was cut off, and armoring was made (the armor plates were supplied by the fleet). The armor could withstand bullets and shrapnel. In the central part of the armored vehicle, a rotating turret with weapons was installed. The first two tractors were armed with 37-mm cannons from T-26 tanks, the next with machine guns (usually two 7,62-mm DT machine guns).

The first three vehicles were produced in ten days, and on August 20 they were thrown into battle in the Southern Sector. A platoon under the command of Senior Lieutenant Nikolai Yudin was at the forefront of the attack of the 25th Chapayev Division. The attack was successful, the enemy fled.

The Romanians were shocked by the appearance of Soviet tanks. Therefore, armored tractors have a new name "Fear" (NI).

The test was successful and production continued.

The command ordered the plant to produce 70 vehicles. Production was complicated by constant air raids. In total, during the defense of Odessa, more than 50 NI-1s were produced (according to other sources, more than 60). They were armed with a tank battalion under the command of Yudin.

On the night of September 20, NI carried out a massive attack (20 vehicles). Odessa tanks with headlights and sirens on moved to the Romanian positions. In addition, as veterans recalled, the armored tractors made a terrifying clang and rumble. Romanian soldiers fled in panic.

On October 2, Odessa tanks again successfully attacked the enemy near the village. Lenintal. 24 guns, mortars and machine guns were captured. During the attack, 6–7 vehicles were lost (knocked out or out of order due to a technical malfunction).

On October 15, a tank battalion covered the evacuation of the Odessa Defense Region (OOD). Some of the tanks were blown up by the crews before boarding the transport, others were abandoned. Part of the machines Romanians adopted into service with their army.


Armored tractors "NI-1" ("Fright") leave the gates of the Odessa plant. January Uprising. Reconstruction: filming of the film by R. Carmen "The Great Patriotic War" (11th episode) in the 1960s


An early version of the NI-1 based on the STZ-5 tractor. August 20, 1941

"Land battleships"


Also in Odessa in August, thanks to the efforts of the workers of the January Uprising Plant and the railroad workers, depots Odessa-Tovarnaya and Odessa-Sortirovochnaya built 3 armored trains - No. 21, 22 and 23. They were armed with 45- and 76-mm (No. 21) guns, hand-held, easel and anti-aircraft machine guns.

Armored train number 22 "Chernomorets" was commissioned first, it consisted of an armored steam locomotive, two armored gondola cars, on the sides of which heavy machine guns were placed and on the edges of the platform - 4 guns on wheels (four 45-mm cannons). In the middle there was one gondola car for the team and two open platforms with sleepers and sandbags. Also, work began on two more armored trains, but they did not have time to put them into operation before the evacuation.

The armored trains were the mobile reserve of the Primorsky army, provided artillery support to the troops and made raids deep into the territory captured by the enemy.

So, the first such raid was made on August 22 by armored train number 22 "Fortress on Wheels".

On this day, a difficult situation developed on the left wing, where the 95th Division held the defensive. Our positions were attacked by the regiments of 4 Romanian divisions. From the Vygoda station captured the day before, the enemy tried to break through further to the southeast. Armored train number 22, commanded by Commissar Vyshinsky and Commander Lieutenant Belyakov, proceeded without much hindrance along the Dachnaya station and crossed the front line.

The Romanians did not think of dismantling the railroad tracks and paid for it. Vyshinsky recalled that on a parallel road, they noticed several thousand soldiers (a divine service or an oath took place). They landed a landing party, which took up a perimeter defense, and covered the enemy with machine-gun and artillery fire. The effect was overwhelming, the Romanians suffered heavy losses. Then the armored train, which the enemy artillery and aviation had already tried to cover, returned safely.


Romanian fighter of German production He-112В-2, shot down by Soviet troops over Odessa

On August 23, the same raid was made by armored train No. 21 "Chernomorets" (2 45-mm and 2 76-mm guns, 12 heavy machine guns) under the command of Lieutenant Kirpin.

The team of the armored train received an important task: at the Karpovo station, after the Red Army retreated from there, an echelon with damaged tanks remained, it was planned to overtake it to Odessa. The attack was supported by a tank platoon of political instructor Ivan Krivuli. An armored train approached the station and opened fire, the tanks went into the rear of the Romanian troops. The roar of Soviet tanks completely paralyzed the will of the Romanian soldiers, they laid down their arms. The prisoners were 4 times more than the crew of the armored train.

The repairmen restored about 100 meters of destroyed tracks, the echelon with tanks was attached to the armored train and moved back. With. The gains stalled as enemy aircraft damaged the tracks. The armored train was taken in the direction of the forest plantation, camouflaged. The track was repaired and, under the cover of their fighters, they successfully returned to the Odessa region. Some of the damaged tanks were repaired and put into operation.

Armored train "For the Motherland!" (apparently, armored train number 23) under the command of Lieutenant MR Chechelnitsky took part in the battles on the near approaches to Odessa. He covered the area from the 1st outpost to Sukhoi Liman and Tatarka (South Sector of Defense), and supported the 2nd Cavalry Division.

Armored trains took part in almost all major battles, supporting our infantry with fire, holding back the enemy's pressure. They were a serious problem for the Romanians. "Land battleships" came under shelling and airstrikes, and suffered losses. In October, armored trains covered the retreat and evacuation of the main forces. Having shot the ammunition and removed some of the weapons, the teams destroyed the armored trains and left.


Construction of an armored train at the January Uprising Plant in Odessa. Workers armoring an Ov series steam locomotive

More than 1 200- and 50-mm mortars were produced in the city.

After the enemy used flamethrowers, they began to make their own in Odessa. More than 1 trench flamethrowers were produced. They were installed in trenches at a distance of 000–100 meters. This made it possible to create a wide fire belt at a critical moment. Some of the flamethrowers were also installed on the barricades.

The chemical artel "Komsomolskaya Pravda", which made shoe polish before the war, began to produce fuses for "Molotov cocktails" (Molotov cocktails). Explosives were produced at the Bolshevik plant (before the war, the production of plastic products).


A brigade of the Zaitsev brothers repairs BT tanks going to the front at the January Uprising Plant in Odessa. In the foreground is the BT-2; in the far is the T-26

Deterioration of the situation


Day after day, our troops fought off one attack after another. The Romanians had to postpone the victory and again go to the assault.

But Odessa did not give up.

The psychological atmosphere in the Romanian troops, who hoped for an easy walk and were not ready for protracted and bloody battles, deteriorated sharply. Antonescu ordered the shooting of cowards and deserters, and the families of soldiers who refused to attack or retreating to be deprived of benefits and land allotments. Officers who show gentleness to the soldiers were ordered to be removed from their posts, brought to justice and deprived of their pensions.

The Romanian marshal was angry:

"Is it not a shame that an army that is four to five times superior to the enemy's army in numbers, in the number of units and weapons, is disorganized and defeated by Soviet units?"

At the end of August, the Romanian-German troops again launched a large-scale offensive.

The situation was critical. Our troops have been holding back the enemy's onslaught for a month.

The seaside army was bled, local human reserves were depleted. The situation was especially difficult in the Eastern Sector, where the 412th Coastal Battery was the mainstay of the defense, armed with three 180-mm guns, seven 45-mm guns, three anti-aircraft guns and several 82-mm mortars. The battery was a real headache for the enemy, but the moment came when it was under the threat of capture. Its capture meant that the enemy would be able to bombard the city with large-caliber guns. I had to make a difficult decision: the battery was blown up.


Destroyed 180-mm gun of the 412th stationary battery of the Odessa naval base. On August 25, 1941, at 9 o'clock, by order of the commander of the OVMB G.V. Zhukov, the battery was blown up in order to prevent the enemy from being captured

From the beginning of September 1941, the 4th Romanian Army was looking for weak points in the defense of the Red Army.

The fighting went on day and night. The front line gradually narrowed and passed already 8-15 km from the city. Aviation dropped incendiary bombs on the city. Romanian artillery hit Odessa.

For a while, the situation was saved by the arrived reinforcements (marching battalions): from August 30 to September 12, more than 25 thousand people were transferred to Odessa. They also brought weapons: 100 battalion and 20 regimental mortars, more than 5 thousand units of small arms. The 412th Infantry Division is being formed. On September 19, the ships of the Black Sea Fleet delivered the 157th Infantry Division of Colonel DI Tomilov (more than 12 thousand people), a division of rocket launchers and the 422nd Heavy Howitzer Regiment. The number of the garrison in Odessa increased to 85 thousand people.

The arrival of the fresh division and artillery happened quite in time. Many guns of the 25th and 95th divisions had already been knocked out, and the 2nd cavalry and 412th divisions had no guns.


Soviet fighter I-16 at the start before taking off on a mission in the Odessa region

Counterstrike in the area of ​​Grigorievka


Romanian artillery from the Grigorievka area hit the city and port.

The OER leadership has repeatedly asked the high command to send fresh forces so that an offensive operation can be launched and the enemy is driven back. Also, the Primorsky Army needed a reserve to parry the enemy's breakthrough. But the situation was difficult not only in Odessa, so the Headquarters advised to fight the battle on its own.

In the meantime, the situation deteriorated further.

Our troops retreated in the area of ​​the Sukhoi and Big Ajalyk estuary. Now the enemy could shell the city from the southwest. In order to deprive the enemy of an excellent reference point for the shelling of the Odessa port, on September 15, the Vorontsovsky lighthouse had to be blown up.

The arrival of reinforcements allowed the OER command to conduct an offensive operation on the right wing on 22 September.

Before the start of the offensive, our aircraft struck at enemy airfields. From the front, in the Fontanka, Gildendorf sector, the enemy was attacked by units of the 157th and 412th divisions. In the area of ​​Grigoryevka, an airborne assault under the command of Sergeant Major Kuznetsov (23 people) was thrown into the rear of the enemy, and a sea landing - the 3rd Black Sea Marine Regiment (1929 people) under the command of Captain K.M. Koren, landed. The landing force was delivered to the landing site by ships of the Black Sea Fleet. The landing was supported by fire from the cruisers Krasny Kavkaz and Krasny Krym, the destroyers Impeccable, Merciless and Boikiy, armored trains and artillery of the OOR. The marines with a swift attack captured the enemy positions, including the battery in Grigorievka.

The operation was successful: our troops defeated two Romanian divisions (13th and 15th), liberated several settlements, drove the enemy 5-8 km away from the city, captured trophies (6 armored vehicles, 38 guns, 30 mortars, more than 220 machine guns etc.). The enemy could no longer shell the city from the east.


The minelayer "Comintern" fires at the enemy during the defense of Odessa


Red Army soldiers with Romanian ZB 53 machine guns, mortars and cannons captured near Odessa. September 1941

Evacuation


On September 28 and October 2, our troops attacked successfully again. On the whole, the situation at the front has stabilized. The OER command was already preparing to continue the defense in the winter. And the Romanian command faced the prospect of a long siege.

However, on September 30, 1941, due to the deteriorating situation in the southern strategic direction, the Soviet Headquarters decided to evacuate the Primorsky Army to strengthen the defense of Crimea (Battle for Crimea. How the Germans broke through to Sevastopol).

Evacuation under constant enemy pressure was a difficult task. It was necessary to remove units from the front line and prevent the Romanians from breaking into Odessa.

The OER command has successfully accomplished this task.

They decided to withdraw the main forces suddenly and load them onto transports on the 15th. The retreat was covered by a tank battalion, armored trains and partisans. They chained the enemy, who learned about the abandonment of Odessa, with active defense. Also, coastal batteries and anti-aircraft gunners covered the retreat to the last shell. Soviet soldiers blew up the guns and left on fishing boats. The last volleys at the enemy were fired by the cruiser Krasny Kavkaz, which stood on the outer roadstead and took over the rearguards.

From October 1 to October 16, 86 thousand soldiers, 15 thousand civilians, 19 armored vehicles, more than 460 guns, etc. were taken out of Odessa. Early in the morning of October 16, the last ship departed from the pier and headed for Sevastopol. Romanian troops, fearing an ambush, entered Odessa only in the evening.

The 73-day defense of Odessa tied up 18 enemy divisions (300 men), delaying the advance of Army Group South. German-Romanian troops lost up to 160 thousand people during the battle for Odessa. Our losses are more than 41 thousand people. 4th Romanian army had to be withdrawn to Romania for replenishment and restoration

The evacuation of the OER was one of the most successful evacuations of the Second World War. And the troops of the Primorsky Army, who arrived in Crimea, played a decisive role in the heroic defense of Sevastopol.


Two wrecked Soviet 76-mm anti-aircraft guns 3-K in the port of Odessa


Romanian soldiers move outside a destroyed house in Odessa. October 1941


Column of Romanian infantry on the street of captured Odessa
Author:
Photos used:
https://ru.wikipedia.org/, http://waralbum.ru/
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  1. Uncle lee
    Uncle lee 12 November 2021 06: 18
    +9
    My friend was under Romanian occupation in Odessa ... They left hard memories.
    1. Proxima
      Proxima 12 November 2021 06: 38
      +7
      It is a great pity, of course, that the Headquarters was forced to transfer the Primorsky army to Sevastopol. Odessa could be defended for a long time. Luxurious foothold in the Black Sea region. Apparently we did not have any other reserves for the transfer to Sevastopol. But it happened, what happened ...
      1. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 12 November 2021 14: 20
        +6
        Quote: Proxima
        It is a great pity, of course, that the Headquarters was forced to transfer the Primorsky army to Sevastopol. Odessa could be defended for a long time. Luxurious foothold in the Black Sea region. Apparently we did not have any other reserves for the transfer to Sevastopol.

        Odessa could hold on only as long as the Crimea held on. As soon as the Germans pass over the isthmuses, we lose airfields from which we can cover the route to Odessa. And then not only supply, but normal evacuation of Odessa will not work. There will be either Tallinn-41 or Sevastopol-42.
        PMSM, Odessa is one of the few examples of timely evacuation of troops. In this case, the Headquarters decided not to wait for the Germans to break through the Ishun positions in the Crimea, but to withdraw the troops from Odessa in advance, while it is still possible to take them out normally.
    2. prior
      prior 12 November 2021 09: 52
      +3
      For centuries they watered - watered the land of Odessa abundantly with Russian blood ....... and gave it to Bandera.
      1. Ashes of Claes
        Ashes of Claes 12 November 2021 10: 12
        -1
        Quote: prior
        For centuries they watered - watered the Odessa land abundantly with Russian blood ...

        what the fuck, "centuries", an accountant? By the beginning of the war, Odessa was not even 150 years old, what did you water there?
        1. prior
          prior 12 November 2021 10: 15
          +1
          That is, there were no battles for Odessa before the Great Patriotic War?
          And 150 years is not a century and a half?
          1. Ashes of Claes
            Ashes of Claes 12 November 2021 10: 33
            +2
            Quote: prior
            That is, there were no battles for Odessa before the Great Patriotic War?

            and what kind of "bloody" battles were there in these 150 years before the Second World War? When did the reds and the UNRists joke at each other a little? When did the volunteers knock out the Petliurists? Or when Grigoriev entered the empty city?
            Quote: prior
            And 150 years is not a century and a half?

            Well not
            Quote: prior
            Watered for centuries - watered

            Why is this hysteria?
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 12 November 2021 06: 41
    +12
    Konstantin Simonov, who himself was in Odessa in those heroic days, wrote: “Once, driving through the city, I noticed a large group of women, children and old people at the agitation car, laughing merrily and infectiously. , laugh to tears.
    - Repeat again!
    It turns out that they read the letter to Adolf Hitler. This letter was published in mass circulation and signed by everyone. Those who signed it made more subscripts on their own, and this caused even more laughter.
    That evening, having gathered for dinner, we also read this letter. It contained lines like this:
    “We, the great-grandchildren and grandchildren of the glorious and warlike Zaporozhians of the Ukrainian land, which is now part of the Great Soviet Union, decided to write this letter to you, the accursed executioner, as our great-grandfathers and grandfathers who crushed the enemies of Ukraine once wrote.
    You, vile Judas and bastard, attacked our Krajina and you want to take away our factories and plants, land, forests and water and bring here barons, capitalists - like you, bandits and robbers-fascists.
    This will never happen! We will be able to stand up for ourselves ... You will not see our wheat and bacon ... You will not get a single cart of provisions, although you have already lost the best divisions, you will not build a single villa on our land, we will allocate for each of you two meters per grave ... And just as the pig does not have to look at the sky, so you will not dig in our garden, although you have a pig's face and pig luck. Tell your friend Duce: let him not boast, going to the army ... We have enough planes, bombs, shells and bayonets, tanks and cannons to erase you into dust, thief and executioner. Tell your friend Duce: let him not boast, going to the army ... We have enough planes, bombs, shells and bayonets, tanks and cannons to erase you into dust, thief and executioner. On this we end and only wish you, the dog, stuck in your mouth Polish sausage, so that you and your mussolins choke on Greek olives, and otherwise, damn bastards, you can't escape our bullets and shells ... ""
  3. Olgovich
    Olgovich 12 November 2021 07: 47
    +7
    Romanians were worthless without the Germans.

    They were crushed with a mass of cannon fodder.
    1. Region-25.rus
      Region-25.rus 14 November 2021 15: 11
      -1
      They were crushed with a mass of cannon fodder.
      oh wey! Does that mean not only the "scoops" hated by Olgovich were shooting cowards and derezrtrov? laughing And "won in spite of filling up with corpses"?
      Antonescu ordered the shooting of cowards and deserters, and the families of soldiers who refused to attack or retreating to be deprived of benefits and land allotments. Officers who show gentleness to the soldiers were ordered to be removed from their posts, brought to justice and deprived of their pensions.
  4. Eug
    Eug 12 November 2021 09: 13
    0
    A textbook example of indirect impact - heroically and effectively defended troops are forced to leave positions due to problems in other directions ...
  5. Alex 1970
    Alex 1970 12 November 2021 10: 02
    +6
    Two evacuations, Odessa and Sevastopol. How many people did not even leave, but abandoned in Sevastopol. Although before that there was, if I may say so, an exemplary evacuation from Odessa.
    1. qQQQ
      qQQQ 12 November 2021 11: 39
      +1
      Quote: Alexey 1970
      How many people did not even leave, but abandoned in Sevastopol.

      Unfortunately, evacuation from Sevastopol was an unrealistic task given the complete domination of German aviation, plus the ships sailed a fairly large section along the German-controlled coast. It was on this basis that it was decided to hold a limited one. Otherwise, they would have lost both people and ships, although in my opinion these ships later did not take part in the war especially.
      1. Severomor
        Severomor 12 November 2021 14: 31
        -1
        Quote: qqqq
        would have lost both people and ships, although in my opinion these ships later did not take part in the war especially.

        When I was at the 35th battery, I was puzzled by the same question. Example of the Baltic Fleet and the blockade of Leningrad. And so with the words "I will not let the ships sink anymore" the Black Sea Fleet left for the Caucasus.
        1. qQQQ
          qQQQ 12 November 2021 14: 40
          +5
          Quote: Severomor
          When I was at the 35th battery, I was puzzled by the same question. Example of the Baltic Fleet and the blockade of Leningrad. And so with the words "I will not let the ships sink anymore" the Black Sea Fleet left for the Caucasus.

          The history of addressing this issue is similar. Complex 35 battery Museum with a capital letter. But just the example of the BF showed what happens when the enemy's aviation is dominant. And the evacuation from Sevastopol ran along the Crimea, which was already under the full control of the Germans, and this was the warning and the battery in Alushta, the almost continuous work of enemy aviation, and the Germans knew how to use it. Plus, do not forget that the Sevastopol Bay was already under the complete control of the Germans, and God only knows how to load troops under fire on an unfurnished coast. In my opinion, a pragmatic decision was made, which is very morally questionable.
          1. Severomor
            Severomor 14 November 2021 00: 52
            +2
            All the same, my opinion is that the fleet should be at war and, if necessary, perish. What is the point in these pieces of iron in the Caucasus, which in 5-10 years after the war will go to metal.
            Again, the BF and the battleship Marat:
            "By the end of October 1941, the holes in the surviving part of the hull were repaired, the interiors were drained, the power supply and the turret mechanics were restored. Ten surviving 120-mm guns were removed and sent to the land front, and the third and fourth turrets of the main caliber were re-commissioned. On October 31, they resumed firing at the enemy located on the southern coast of the Gulf of Finland. Nevertheless, by the end of December, the sunken battleship fired 407 shells of the main caliber at the enemy. "
            Quote: qqqq
            But just the example of the BF showed what happens when the enemy's aviation is dominant.

            And what is interesting about anti-aircraft artillery and therefore the domination of the Germans in the air:
            "After leaving the Crimea, three anti-aircraft artillery regiments (61st, 62nd and 122nd) and five separate anti-aircraft artillery battalions were concentrated in the SOR. In total, about 40 anti-aircraft batteries (160 guns of 76 mm and 85 mm and 36 guns of caliber 45 mm and 37 mm).
            And so Admiral Oktyabrsky from 12 to 20 November dispatches from Sevastopol to the ports of the Caucasus two-thirds of the anti-aircraft artillery - two regiments and three separate divisions. After that, only the 61st regiment, 92nd and 114th divisions remained in Sevastopol. I will note that the 92nd division was not a personnel one, but hastily formed from the cadets of the LKSM Naval School of Coastal Defense. The materiel - eight 76-mm and four 85-mm guns - were also training, and the 76-mm guns were extremely worn out.
            Moreover, October 25, Oktyabrsky took out one of the two RUS-2 radar stations from Sevastopol.
            And now we have "naval strategists" justifying the export of most of the anti-aircraft artillery to the Caucasus. Like, it was necessary to cover from the air the ships of the Black Sea Fleet in the bays of the Caucasian coast.
            Alas, in 1941, German aviation bombed only targets that were directly attacked by Wehrmacht units. The ports of the Caucasus were no exception. Until the spring of 1942 there were no raids on Tuapse, Sochi, Poti and Batumi! Reconnaissance planes flew only sporadically.
            The Germans did not have many bombers to disperse their forces, and they concentrated them against Sevastopol. And that Oktyabrsky had taken the fleet to the ports of the Caucasus, the Germans knew and were very happy about it. Let them stand there and not get in the way. "
            Admiral Oktyabrsky against Mussolini
            Shirokorad Alexander Borisovich
            1. Helmet
              Helmet 15 November 2021 10: 18
              +1
              Oktyabrsky not only removed anti-aircraft artillery, but much more. For example, artillery ammunition was actively exported, which then, with great difficulty, until the fall of the city, they tried to import, and it was thanks to the consumption of which that the defense began to fall apart in June 1942. Comrade Hero of the Soviet Union F. Oktyabrsky (Ivanov's real name) simply did not plan to participate in the defense of the city from land and believed that this was a matter exclusively of the Red Army, but not the RKKF. Let the army team be there as they want, and "have fun." It is this attitude towards the defense of the city that determines many negative aspects in defense, which are now perceived as mistakes. In fact, these were quite deliberate actions caused by incl. the specified reason.
    2. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 12 November 2021 14: 32
      +2
      Quote: Alex 1970
      Two evacuations, Odessa and Sevastopol. How many people did not even leave, but abandoned in Sevastopol. Although before that there was, if I may say so, an exemplary evacuation from Odessa.

      The exemplary evacuation of Odessa was provided by the airfields of the Crimea, from which fighters covered ships and vessels, and the Romanian "courage". smile
      If the Romanians stood near Sevastopol, then somewhere in April 1942 it could also be evacuated - under the cover of the IA "umbrella" from the Kerch Peninsula.
      The fate of Sevastopol was decided in Kerch, just as the fate of Odessa was decided on the Perekop and Ishun positions. With Odessa, we were extremely lucky that the Germans, after breaking through the first line of defense at the entrance to the Crimea, managed to be suspended for 2,5 weeks, so that the Stavka had time to evacuate before the capture of Crimea.
  6. Ryaruav
    Ryaruav 12 November 2021 16: 20
    0
    this gypsy did not yet know that Stalingrad was waiting for them
  7. Glagol1
    Glagol1 12 November 2021 19: 34
    +4
    The Odessa defensive operation was one of the most successful at the beginning of the war. She showed that we can successfully defend important regions for a long time. Later there was Sevastopol. Influenced the outcome of the war as a whole. The evacuation from Odessa was professional and efficient. Unfortunately Oktyabrsky & Co. in 1942, with the evacuation from Sevastopol, they were defeated. But Odessa was a great defensive battle with a positive outcome.
  8. Ruby
    Ruby 12 November 2021 20: 14
    +7
    If the Germans had stormed Odessa, I am afraid there would not have been a successful operation. So it is with Sevastopol. If the Romanians tried to take him, he would have held out until 44, or even before Perekop they would have been driven away. These guys are just about to rob the master. My grandmother told me how their village near Odessa was robbed to the bone. They dragged out of the houses everything that came to hand. Like locusts. And what kind of "warriors" they still showed the First World War. It took the Germans less than a week to turn them into trash.
  9. Seal
    Seal 12 November 2021 22: 10
    0
    Quote: qqqq
    plus the ships were sailing a fairly large section along the German-controlled coast.
    Why walk along the coast? The ships there were real, they could easily cross the ocean. It was quite possible not to walk along the coast, but to leave more seaward, even to the middle of the Black Sea. And only then turn east.
    1. Storekeeper
      Storekeeper 13 November 2021 10: 37
      0
      I am also interested in this question. Why not go further out to sea. But here it seems that no one knows this, they slapped you minus, but did not explain it to you. I corrected the minus for you.
    2. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 13 November 2021 10: 49
      -1
      Quote: Seal
      Why walk along the coast?

      To shorten the transition time, try to fit most of the dusk-to-dawn portion.
      Quote: Seal
      The ships there were real, they could easily cross the ocean. It was quite possible not to walk along the coast, but to leave more seaward, even to the middle of the Black Sea. And only then turn east.

      Have tried it. But this only worked for high-speed ships, and even then not always. Even for the CD it is very difficult to hide when air reconnaissance meets the enemy almost immediately upon leaving the base.
      A 10-knot transport is much easier to drive: you can "visit" it every few hours - it still won't go far. And so on up to the entrance to the radius of the work of the strikers.
      1. Seal
        Seal 13 November 2021 21: 04
        0
        To shorten the transition time, try to fit most of the dusk-to-dawn portion.
        Sunrise at 05:00. Sunset at 20:30. So it starts to get light at 04:30 and it gets dark at 21:00. For the time from 21:00 to 05:00 (8 hours) from Sevastopol it is fashionable to walk by ten-knot speed .... well, maximum to the traverse of Sudak. And then they will not reach, since they must go in an anti-submarine zigzag. And our ships will be at a distance of 55-60 km. from the coastline. That is, at a very comfortable distance for German aviation.
        And if you go to sea, at least for the same 150 kilometers, then such a maneuver will significantly complicate the detection of motor ships by enemy aircraft. Since in Sevastopol, it was not naval pilots who fought, but ordinary land pilots of the Luftwaffe. And to navigate when flying over the sea and over land are two big differences. In addition, the Ju-87 aircraft significantly reduces the time that they can afford to engage in the detection and bombing of ships located at a distance of 150 km. from the coastline. The engines are not the first freshness, the gasoline is not of the best quality, and the German pilots did not have the habit of returning to their airfields with empty gas tanks.
        Yes, our ships have an increase in travel time, which means that the ship will later go out for a new batch of evacuees.
        But I think that the high command simply forbade ships to go to the middle of the sea. So that the crews are not tempted to take refuge in Turkish waters, where they will be interned.
        Have tried it. But this only worked for high-speed ships, and even then not always.

        But this is interesting. It is possible in more detail - who exactly tried it and what came of these attempts?
        1. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 14 November 2021 11: 34
          0
          Quote: Seal
          And if you go to sea, at least for the same 150 kilometers, then such a maneuver will significantly complicate the detection of motor ships by enemy aircraft. Since in Sevastopol, it was not naval pilots who fought, but ordinary land pilots of the Luftwaffe. And to navigate when flying over the sea and over land are two big differences. In addition, the Ju-87 aircraft significantly reduces the time that they can afford to engage in the detection and bombing of ships located at a distance of 150 km. from the coastline.

          All these logically harmonious structures are spoiled by one small fact: the drummers were not engaged in reconnaissance. Exploration in the Black Sea was carried out by seaplanes and "Heinkels", which flew right up to the Caucasian coast. However, drummers also flew there - Novorossiysk and Tuapse were bombed quite often.
          In addition, in addition to dive bombers, the Germans also had torpedo bombers - the same ones that sunk Svaneti on 17.04.42/XNUMX/XNUMX, despite the Vigilant EM escorting it. By the way, a demonstration battle - evading attacks from torpedo bombers, EM got so far from the TR that he disappeared from sight.
        2. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 14 November 2021 11: 37
          0
          Quote: Seal
          But this is interesting. It is possible in more detail - who exactly tried it and what came of these attempts?

          The memoirs of the future first commander of the 5th OPESK Petrov, who at that time was the navigator of the OLS of the Black Sea Fleet, described a safe route with a departure almost to the Turkish coast.

          KR "Voroshilov", EM "Svobodny" and "Savvy".
          Departure from Batumi at 01:00 on 27.05.42/22/30. Trekking along the coast of Turkish Anatolia to the traverse of Cape Sinop at 28.05.42 knots. Turn to the north-west and go to Sevastopol at XNUMX knots. Arrival in Sevastopol at midnight XNUMX/XNUMX/XNUMX.
          The return route was not calculated, only the departure time is no later than 03:00 on 28.05.42/XNUMX/XNUMX. Further - according to the situation. It is noteworthy that, according to calculations, on the way back, the EV did not have enough fuel for the transition at full speed.
          That is, the departure of the detachment, the arrival in Sevastopol and the exit from the base took place in the dark. And in daylight, on the route "there," the detachment moved in the area with the theoretically least likelihood of encountering enemy scouts.

          The passage went according to plan exactly until the turn from Sinop. Already in the middle of the way between Sinop and Crimea in the daytime, the detachment first came across an air reconnaissance officer (this is the question of the detection radius of ships by German aviation), and half an hour later - on German shock troops working on TR "Georgia" and an escort (EM "Impeccable ", TSC, SKA). With the help of CD and two EMs, the attack was repulsed, but after half an hour after that, a second wave came - horizontal bombers, and at dusk the third - torpedo bombers.
          On the way back, the detachment was attacked after switching to the economic course. The German pilots staged a combined attack: two groups of torpedo bombers entered from the bow KU, to the left and right of the course, a group of bombers attacked from the stern. The detachment did not have a scheme of fire and maneuvering for such an attack, the order disintegrated, each defended himself for himself. Petrov wrote honestly: "We were lucky! No ship received torpedo or bomb hits".

          A little about the EV range, because of which it was not possible to complete the entire return route at full speed.
          7 project:
          ... the cruising range was much worse. In 1943, it was 722-770 miles at full speed and 1670 miles for "Thundering", "Loud" and "Grozny", for "Reasonable" and "Enraged" - 740 and 1750 miles, for "Bodroi" - 730 and 1300 miles, Boykoy has 625 and 1350 miles, Merciless has 770 and 1696 miles, Ryaniy has 959 and 2565 miles.

          © S.L. Balakin
          For the 7U project, everything was even worse: there are more boilers, and the fuel supply is the same.
          So, in 1943, "Savvy" and "Capable" could travel only 1380 miles in economic progress, while the design assignment for the "sevens" determined a range of 3000 miles - more than twice that.
          1. Seal
            Seal 17 November 2021 09: 26
            0
            For your information: cons are not from me. Now I will level them down with pluses.
    3. Region-25.rus
      Region-25.rus 14 November 2021 15: 22
      0
      could easily cross the ocean.
      Oh really? And wherever they would bunker with fuel, water. What is "autonomy" heard? Or do ships have "infinite fuel" like in the game?
      It was quite possible not to walk along the coast, but to leave more seaward, even to the middle of the Black Sea. And only then turn east.
      do you understand anything in navigation? What is dead reckoning in a course? And what could be the error. By the stars, of course, you can, but (!) Not the fact that the sky is clear. Let me tell you a secret - there was no GPS then. And with radars we were tight, alas. Therefore, it is better to navigate along the coast. Famous landmarks. Even if the beacons don't work. Especially when the operation is counted up to minutes. And you need to go to the desired point exactly. And do not burn the fuel and it is much worse to waste time trying to compensate for the error of the calculations during the transition. Even in 95, leaving Nakhodka or Vladivostok, we immediately "ran to the Japanese coast and walked in sight. Constantly taking bearings for lighthouses or other landmarks (capes, bays, etc.). Of course there was no war. But ... ...
  10. Macsen_wledig
    Macsen_wledig 13 November 2021 10: 33
    0
    The minelayer "Comintern" fires at the enemy during the defense of Odessa

    Judging by some details, in the photo "Chervona Ukraine", not "Comintern" ...
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 13 November 2021 11: 05
      -1
      Quote: Macsen_Wledig
      Judging by some details, in the photo "Chervona Ukraine", not "Comintern" ...

      Too many 130-mm guns on board (compared to the Comintern) and different heights of their location (from the overhead line)? And a pair of anti-aircraft guns on the roof of the casemate just behind the side 130 mm in the foreground?

      It is a pity that the casemate guns are not visible.
      1. Macsen_wledig
        Macsen_wledig 13 November 2021 11: 41
        0
        Quote: Alexey RA
        Too many 130-mm guns on board (compared to the Comintern) and different heights of their location (from the overhead line)?

        Exactly...
        In general, it is enough that the "Comintern" 130-mm bow stood on the DP in front of the superstructure, and not on the side at the edge of the forecastle.
  11. Normal ok
    Normal ok 13 November 2021 15: 05
    +2
    Samsonov, will you ever read something standing ?! so crap not to smack ... What "tank repair workshops ?! The January Uprising Plant, a crane-building plant! Where, at the beginning of the defense, they repaired light BT-5 tanks, and then began to make ersatz tanks NI (our Odessa pride).
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 14 November 2021 10: 34
      -1
      Quote: Normal ok
      The January Uprising Plant is a crane building plant!

      Not just a crane building, but a manufacturer of Yanvarets truck cranes. The first army truck cranes - the same ones that were in the state, but in fact were not found in any mechanized corps.
  12. wow
    wow 13 November 2021 23: 29
    0
    My grandmother told me that the Romanians stole everything that caught my eye, even tyring clothes from the ropes.
  13. Helmet
    Helmet 15 November 2021 11: 19
    0
    not everything is so simple. roshiori units showed themselves very well in the Crimea, and the mountain riflemen quite successfully cleared the mountain-wooded territories of the Crimea from the remnants of the retreating Primorsky army and partisans in late 41 - early 42. near Odessa, mainly territorial units - Kalarashi - fought against the Red Army. their combat training was indeed extremely low, although it hardly differed fundamentally from that in the Red Army. and the main problem was the lack of modern technology in sane quantities, in contrast to the Red Army. near Sevastopol, the Romanians drank the blood of the same 7BRMP well
  14. Seal
    Seal 17 November 2021 00: 29
    0
    Quote: Region-25.rus
    Let me tell you a secret - there was no GPS then. And with radars we were tight, alas.

    I'll tell you a bigger secret. Ushakov, Nakhimov and adm. Kolchak had no GPS or radar. And here's a miracle - somehow they plowed the Black Sea and went to the right points.
    And I will reveal one more secret. The ships had compasses !!!
    Therefore, it is better to navigate along the coast. Famous landmarks
    You, besides the protractor, have not mastered anything?
    By the way, why bother to navigate at all, especially along the coast? He left the Sevastopol Bay, rounded the cape, headed straight to the east and shove the maximum speed that the car allows. What is the problem ? Or do you think that you can slip past the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus? And where to get out? To the Caspian? To the Indian Ocean? If you are afraid to slip by, place the lookout so that he whistles when the Caucasian mountains appear along the course.
    The expression: "could easily have crossed the ocean" - this applies to seaworthiness, and not to autonomy.
  15. Seal
    Seal 17 November 2021 01: 08
    0
    Quote: Alexey RA
    Exploration in the Black Sea was carried out by seaplanes and "Heinkels", which flew right up to the Caucasian coast. However, drummers also flew there - Novorossiysk and Tuapse were bombed quite often ..

    и
    Quote: Alexey RA
    In addition, in addition to dive bombers, the Germans also had torpedo bombers - the same ones that sunk Svaneti on 17.04.42/XNUMX/XNUMX, despite the Vigilant EM escorting it. By the way, a demonstration battle - evading attacks from torpedo bombers, EM got so far from the TR that he disappeared from sight.

    I also read a lot about German torpedo bombers in the Black Sea. In many of our reports, these torpedo bombers are mentioned. But the question is - were they there?
    The history of the use of German torpedo bombers in the Black Sea in 1941-1942. (since August 1941, only one detachment 1 / KG28 operated, later renamed 6 / KG26) remained a "dark spot" - even in the chronicle of the squadron prepared by R. Schmidt, neither lines [Schmidt R. Achtung - Torpedo los! (KG26). Koblenz: 1991.].
    In addition, 1 / KG28 was disbanded in December 1941 with the transfer of the remaining material base to KG26. And the KG26 bases are somehow far from the Black Sea.