Military Review

“Sevastopol is a weak fortress. Take a march, with a short blow "

65
“Sevastopol is a weak fortress. Take a march, with a short blow "
The anti-aircraft crew of the DShK Afanasyev machine gun from the 161st Infantry Regiment of the 95th Infantry Division of the Primorsky Army is firing at the enemy near Sevastopol. November 1941


Sevastopol fortress


Sevastopol is the main base of the Russian Black Sea fleet, before the war had a defense system that covered it well from sea and air.

At the mouth of the Belbek River and in the area of ​​Cape Chersonesos, there were 2 coastal armored turret batteries (BB) - No. 30 and 35, each having 4 guns of 305-mm caliber. These were real reinforced concrete giants, the towers turned 360 degrees, conducting a circular shelling, had many underground rooms and passages, emergency exits to the sea.

The batteries were built to protect Sevastopol from the sea, but out of necessity became centers of defense from land. The 35th battery became a symbol of the heroic defense of Sevastopol. There were also coastal and mobile batteries armed with 102-, 120-, 152- and 203-mm guns.

In total, coastal artillery consisted of about 50 guns.

On the basis of the section of the unfinished battleship, in August 1941, the floating anti-aircraft battery No. 3 "Don't touch me" was commissioned.

Initially, the battery was equipped with two 130-mm naval guns, four 76-mm and three 37-mm anti-aircraft guns, three 12,7-mm DShK anti-aircraft machine guns and two searchlights with surveillance and communication equipment. Later, the 130mm cannons were removed and transported to land, and the anti-aircraft armament was reinforced with a quadruple 7,62mm machine gun.

The battery team initially consisted of 130 people under the command of Senior Lieutenant S. Ya. Moshensky. At first, the floating battery covered the ships, on November 11 it was towed to the Cossack Bay. She began to defend the airfield at Cape Chersonesos from the air.

The Germans nicknamed the floating battery "Death Square".


Don't touch me battery in original armament. 130mm guns visible in the turrets

The city was poorly defended from land.

That is, the lessons of the Crimean War were forgotten. Even before the start of the war, it was planned to begin the construction of land defensive positions, but they did not start.

Their construction will begin only at the beginning of July 1941, when the enemy was already rapidly advancing across our land. By the time the enemy broke through to Crimea (Battle of Crimea) there was a construction of three land defensive lines - forward, main and rear.

Due to improper planning of work, the main and rear lines were best prepared, the front line did not have time to complete. In addition, the forward line was only 15-16 km away from the city and did not occupy the command heights that were in front of it. Having captured these positions, the enemy could fire artillery fire on the city, bay and airports.

The front line was up to 43 km long and 1,5–2,5 km deep.

There were several long-term defensive positions, which consisted of separate machine-gun and artillery pillboxes and bunkers. The defensive structures consisted of four strong points: Chorgunsky, Cherkez-Kermensky, Duvankoysky and Aranchisky.

45-mm and 130-mm naval guns were delivered in the tank-hazardous areas. In some areas, there were minefields and obstacles. The main border was located at a distance of 9–12 km from the city, the depth was 1,5–3 km. The strongest defense, including machine-gun and artillery pillboxes and pillboxes, was in the Inkerman - Lyubimovka sector. The pillboxes and bunkers were armed with eight 100-mm guns, fourteen 76-mm guns, fifteen 75-mm guns, twenty-five 45-mm guns.


Red Navy men are at the monument to V. I. Lenin on Nakhimov Square in Sevastopol. Shot from the documentary "Defense of Sevastopol"


Armored train "Zheleznyakov" (the Germans nicknamed him "Green Ghost")

Garrison forces


On October 29, 1941, a state of siege was introduced in Sevastopol.

The garrison of the city before the arrival of the Maritime Army units consisted of two brigades (one incomplete), two marines regiments, several separate rifle battalions, a reserve artillery regiment, several batteries and air defense units. In total, about 21 thousand people (including the Black Sea Fleet Air Force - about 1 people, more than 100 aircraft and the Black Sea Fleet Air Defense - about 4 thousand people, more than 70 guns), about 150 guns and 70 mortars and 5 armored trains.

The city has made repairs weapons, the release of ammunition and produced 50- and 82-mm mortars. They used literally all the raw materials that were available and could be found. Fortunately, there was enough iron in Sevastopol.

The Sevastopol Marine Plant No. 201, the repair plant, the Molot artel, railway workshops and others worked for the needs of defense. Special Combine No. 1 was launched in the Inkerman adits. they made shells, forged armored shields, cast stoves for soldiers, etc. They also sewed underwear, uniforms and shoes. Hospitals, schools, nurseries and a kindergarten, a bakery worked underground.


Workshops of the Ordzhonikidze Sevastopol Marine Plant (SMZ) suffered during the fighting (probably the result of the bombing). 1941 g.

The main forces of the fleet were located in Sevastopol - 1 battleship, 5 cruisers, 11 destroyers, 16 submarines, etc.

But the ships were under the blows of the German aviation and artillery, so they were relocated from October 31 to November 1 to the ports of the Caucasus. In Sevastopol, only a few old ships were left for fire support of the garrison, mainly patrol boats and minesweepers. Large ships now escorted convoys that delivered reinforcements, weapons, ammunition, equipment, provisions and evacuated the wounded.
The headquarters gave the order:

"Not to surrender Sevastopol in any case and to defend it with all your might."

The task of the Sevastopol garrison was to prevent the enemy from seizing the city before the approach of the main forces of the Primorsky army, which withdrew in a roundabout way through Alushta and Yalta, along the Primorskoe highway.

On November 4, 1941, the Sevastopol Defense Region (SOR) was created.

The SOR included: the troops of the Primorsky Army, ships and aircraft of the Black Sea Fleet, the Sevastopol naval base. SOR was headed by Major General Ivan Petrov, since November 19 - Vice Admiral Philip Oktyabrsky.


Commander of the Black Sea Fleet Vice Admiral FS Oktyabrsky (in the foreground), member of the Military Council, Divisional Commissioner N.M. Kulakov and Head of the Political Directorate of the Black Sea Fleet Divisional Commissioner P.T.Bondarenko at the ship's gun in Sevastopol


Soviet fighters I-153 "Chaika" of the 32nd Fighter Aviation Regiment of the Black Sea Fleet Air Force over Sevastopol. Panorama of the city. In the foreground is the Naval Hospital on Cape Pavlovsky, on the left is the water area of ​​the Korabelnaya Bay and BTShch-27 (base minesweeper) at the outfitting wall, next to them are launching devices and a slipway with hulls of unfinished minesweepers. Above - the central part of the city and Artillery Bay. At the berth of the Seaport there is a passenger motor ship "Crimea". 1941 g.

"Take the march"


The German 11th Army on October 28, 1941 broke the resistance of the Soviet 51st and Primorskaya armies and developed an offensive in the Crimea.

The 51st Army retreated to the Kerch Peninsula, was unable to gain a foothold and, under pressure from the enemy, was evacuated to Taman. The seaside army withdrew to Sevastopol. However, the Germans saddled the steppe roads from Simferopol to Sevastopol, and the Primorye had to go through the mountains to Alushta and Yalta, and from there - along the Primorskoe highway to Sevastopol.

Therefore, German troops reached the Black Sea Fleet base before the units of the Primorsky Army.

The commander of the 11th Army, General Erich von Manstein, gave the order:

“Sevastopol is a weak fortress. Take with a march, with a short blow. "

In general, he was right, the city was weakly defended from land. The construction of the defensive lines was not completed. The 20th garrison could not hold back the onslaught of the entire German army for a long time.

The 11th Army had an advantage in manpower, technology and aviation, as well as in general organization, communications and training of command personnel.

At the beginning of the siege, the 11th army of the city numbered about 60 thousand people, almost 900 guns and 150 armored vehicles. From the air, the army was supported by the 4th Air Corps - over 200 vehicles.


First hit


The Nazis sought to take the city on the move, until the Primorsky army approached there, which could significantly increase the combat potential of the Sevastopol garrison.

The 54th Army Corps of the 11th Army advanced along the shortest route along the Simferopol - Sevastopol highway.

The beginning of the Sevastopol defense is considered to be the battle between October 30 and November 2, 1941, battery No. 54 with the enemy's forward detachments near the village of Nikolaevka, Simferopol region.

On November 5, the main forces of the 54th corps approached, and immediately went on the attack. In the central sector of the forward defensive zone, fierce fighting broke out (mainly at the Cherkez-Kermen stronghold). For four days, the Soviet marines repelled the continuous attacks of the enemy, who were supported by large forces of the Luftwaffe.

The Nazis were able to break through the front line of defense in the areas of the villages of Hajikoy, Duvanka, Cherkez-Kermen and Mekenzia. However, despite the fourfold superiority in forces, the Nazis failed to break the defense of the Sevastopol.

On November 9, the Germans took a break to bring up new forces and regroup the troops.

On November 9-10, the Germans completely surrounded the city from land.

Thus, the marines, coastal batteries and individual units (training, artillery and air defense) repulsed the first attack, did not allow the enemy to take Sevastopol on the move.


General of the infantry Erich von Manstein on the Crimean front in his staff car


German soldiers are resting in a gully in the vicinity of Sevastopol. The first assault on Sevastopol

Meanwhile, the troops of the Primorsky Army, fighting with the enemy, who was trying to cut the Yalta-Sevastopol road, on November 9, the main forces (some units made their way later) went to the Sevastopol region and deployed to defend the city.

The army consisted of the 25th, 95th, 172nd and 421st rifle, 2nd, 40th and 42nd cavalry divisions (the 40th and 42nd cavalry divisions were previously part of the 51st army), 81st separate tank battalion, 265th corps artillery regiment and a number of other units. Later, the remnants of the 184th Infantry Division (border guards) made their way into the city.

In total, the army, along with the rear, was 31,5 thousand people, more than 110 guns, over 220 mortars and 10 light T-26 tanks.

The divisions of the Primorsky Army, which previously fought heavy battles in the north of the peninsula and during the retreat, suffered heavy losses in manpower, weapons and materiel. Part of the troops scattered across the peninsula, became partisans, and were taken prisoner.

So, in the 2nd cavalry division, 320 people remained, and no guns survived. The remnants of the 40th and 42nd Cavalry Divisions were left without horses.

Units of the 421st Infantry Division, which covered the army's retreat from Simferopol to Alushta, and then, together with the 184th Infantry and 48th Cavalry Divisions, defended the passes and fought for Yalta and Alushta, suffered heavy losses. A little more than 500 people remained in the division. Therefore, the 421st division was disbanded, used to replenish the 7th Marine Brigade and the 172nd Division.

The 2nd Cavalry Division, due to the almost complete loss of the equestrian structure, was reorganized into the 2nd Infantry Division.

The 42nd Cavalry Division was disbanded, the 40th Cavalry Division was replenished with its personnel and weapons.

On November 11, the SOR was divided into four sectors, each had its own reserve, there were also general and artillery reserves. On average, counting guns and mortars of all calibers, there were 1 barrels per 9 km of the front.

Artillery control within the sectors was centralized. The coastal artillery, through the chief of the coastal defense artillery, was operatively subordinate to the chief of the artillery of the defense area. The naval artillery was subordinate to the command of the fleet, but carried out fire missions in the interests of the ground forces at the direction and requests of the chief of artillery of the defensive area. This ensured the massing of artillery fire in the main directions.


The military commissar of one of the companies of the 80th reconnaissance battalion of the 25th rifle division of the Primorsky army, senior political instructor A.M. in their original positions. November 80


Workers assembling 82-mm mortars of the 1937 model (BM-37) in the workshop of the Sevastopol underground military special combine No. 1

Assault


The German command was in a hurry to take the city and free the forces of the 11th Army for operations in other directions.

The Germans pulled up the 30th corps to Sevastopol, regrouped their forces and on November 11 began a decisive assault.

The German 72nd Infantry Division, reinforced with tanks, advanced along the Yalta-Sevastopol highway. The 50th Infantry Division and a motorized detachment attacked a sector in the direction of Cherkez-Kermen - Kara-Koba valley. The offensive was actively supported by the German Air Force, which struck at the defenses of our troops and the city. Also, German aircraft operated against the Black Sea Fleet and its communications. It was relatively calm in the northern and northeastern sections. The Germans carried out reconnaissance in force, fired at our positions and carried out engineering work.

The 72nd German division launched an offensive on the positions of our 40th cavalry division on November 9th. The 40th division was at the forefront in the Varnutka area. Under pressure from superior enemy forces, the 40th division withdrew to the line of the forward defensive line. The enemy took the villages of Varnutka and Kuchuk-Muskomya.

On the 13th, the Germans renewed their attacks and wedged into the defenses of the 1st sector. On the 14th, the reserves of the 1st and 2nd sectors counterattacked and eliminated the small success of the enemy.

On November 15, having entered into battle the second echelon of the 72nd division and a group of tanks, the Germans again pushed our troops and reached Balaklava, in the area of ​​height 386,6. The enemy broke through the forward and main lines of defense.

On November 16, the Soviet command brought a rifle regiment from the general reserve into battle, and the enemy's further advance was stopped.

In the morning of November 18, the Germans attacked Kamary, by the evening our troops left the settlement.

On the 21st, Soviet troops launched a counterattack and recaptured Kamara.

On this, the fighting on the right flank was completed. Soviet troops stopped the enemy on the Balaklava-Kamara line.


Boats of the MO-4 project in the Streletskaya Bay of Sevastopol. October-November 1941


The sailors of the patrol boat of the project MO-4 of the Black Sea Fleet are preparing to repel an air attack. In the foreground there is a 12,7-mm large-caliber anti-aircraft machine gun DShK, in the background there is a 20-mm automatic cannon "Oerlikon"

The troops of the 2nd and 3rd sectors on November 13-18 repulsed the attacks of the enemy's 50th infantry division, which was advancing from the Cherkez-Kermen area.

For six days of stubborn battles, the Nazis managed to drive a wedge 1,5 km, capture heights 269 and 293,3, but they could not go further.

Our troops counterattacked quite successfully. The enemy was forced to stop.

In the center of the 2nd sector, the Germans managed to capture the height 287,4 on the outermost sector of the forward defensive line.

In other sectors of the front, the Nazis also did not achieve success. Thus, the troops of the 4th sector repulsed the attacks of the 22nd Infantry Division in the Efendikoy area.

Thus, the first assault on the enemy was repelled.

The March failed.

Sevastopol resisted.

The Nazis were able to achieve only local successes, the most significant - in the southeast. For ten days of fierce fighting, German divisions in some areas wedged into our defenses from 1 to 4 km. Having suffered heavy losses and met a strong defense, the German command on November 21 stopped the offensive on Sevastopol until mid-December.

The troops of the 11th Army were shackled by the siege of Sevastopol and could not attack the Caucasus through the Kerch Strait or provide assistance to the 1st Panzer Army in the Rostov direction.


German soldiers at the communication point at the captured Soviet bunker near Sevastopol


German soldier at the captured 100-mm cannon B-24BM bunker number 63 Cherkez-Kermen stronghold


German soldiers roll a 37 mm PaK 35/36 anti-tank gun along the road near Sevastopol
Author:
Photos used:
https://ru.wikipedia.org/, http://waralbum.ru/, https://bigenc.ru/
65 comments
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  1. Catfish
    Catfish 4 November 2021 06: 12
    +14

    Red Navy men are at the monument to V. I. Lenin on Nakhimov Square in Sevastopol. A still from the documentary "Defense of Sevastopol".
    Admiral Nakhimov Square, and a monument to Lenin. Is it okay? Thank God, in 1957, he was smart enough to return the monument to the famous admiral to its original place. Khrushchev, by the way, was smart enough.
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 4 November 2021 06: 20
      +18
      Monument to Admiral Pavel Stepanovich Nakhimov on the square named after him.
      1. mr.ZinGer
        mr.ZinGer 4 November 2021 08: 32
        +11
        Nakhimov was stooped, this feature of his figure was reflected in the pre-revolutionary monument by Schroeder, Tomsky made Pavel Stepanovich slender.
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 4 November 2021 08: 40
          +9
          Yes that's right.
        2. vladcub
          vladcub 4 November 2021 13: 33
          +3
          Didn't Tomsky know that PS Nakhimov was stooped, or did they decide that he would become worse stooped?
    2. Finches
      Finches 4 November 2021 06: 32
      +23
      Yeah! Khrushchev had that cleverness! God grant everyone! laughing Until now, he cannot get rid of his "brilliant" rule ... It would be better if he left Lenin, but did not touch the Crimea! And we, grateful descendants, would find an opportunity to perpetuate the memory of the famous naval commander!
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 4 November 2021 07: 48
        +16
        ... but did not touch Crimea


        Here you are absolutely right, but Nikita was not alone there, the entire Politburo voted for the transfer of Crimea to Ukraine, which means that everyone is to blame.
        1. vladcub
          vladcub 4 November 2021 10: 16
          +7
          Kostya, the fact of the matter is that the Politburo voted for and against with equal success. And we forget about it
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 4 November 2021 16: 43
            +2
            In my opinion, it was completely indifferent for what the Politburo voted for, it could not vote at all, like the current Duma. All decisions were always made by one person - Nikolai, Joseph, Nikita, Volodya ... laughing
    3. avia12005
      avia12005 4 November 2021 06: 39
      +15
      Come on. You have to be objective. Sevastopol was defended by generations who believed in the victory of communism. And Lenin was their idol.
    4. The leader of the Redskins
      The leader of the Redskins 4 November 2021 07: 47
      +9
      And the author's first photo is clearly staged.
      The shooter bent down to the machine gun, the commander looks through binoculars not into the sky, but forward, but two carriers, in general, with their backs to a possible blow and, even without bending over!
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 4 November 2021 07: 59
        +8
        So they took off for the newspaper, they even have neat greatcoats. smile
      2. Snail N9
        Snail N9 4 November 2021 09: 05
        +3
        Under the photo of the floating battery "Don't touch me" it is written that 130 mm guns are visible in the turrets. As far as I know, this anti-aircraft floating battery NEVER had 130mm guns in its turrets. There were only anti-aircraft guns and machine guns.
        1. Serg65
          Serg65 4 November 2021 10: 00
          +8
          Quote: Snail N9
          As far as I know, this anti-aircraft floating battery NEVER had 130mm guns in its turrets.

          Two B-13s, the commander of this battery was Lieutenant Lopatko! The battery of the hundred and thirty played the role of anti-submarine defense, after the redeployment of the floating battery from Kacha to the Cossack Bay, these guns were removed as unnecessary.
          https://topwar.ru/73564-posmotri-ne-tron-menya.html
          1. Alexey RA
            Alexey RA 4 November 2021 14: 40
            0
            Quote: Serg65
            Two B-13s, the commander of this battery was Lieutenant Lopatko!

            The guns were. But there were no towers - because everyone tower installations for the B-13 were two-gun. smile
            Single-gun B-13 were in deck mounts.

            But in the photo of PZB No. 3 there are no turret or deck-mounted 130-mm. Because, according to the article on your link, the photo was taken in the spring of 1942, and the 130-mm were removed from the PZB at the end of October 1941.
            Floating battery №3 "Do not touch me!" In Cossack Bay, spring 1942 g. The picture was taken from a Soviet aircraft

            At the end of October, two 130-mm guns were dismantled from the "square", which were urgently needed for the land front. Also removed all ammunition "hundred and thirty", except for the "diving" shells, and the calculations of the guns.
            1. Serg65
              Serg65 5 November 2021 08: 37
              +3
              Welcome hi
              Quote: Alexey RA
              Because, according to the article on your link, the photo was taken in the spring of 1942, and the 130-mm were removed from the PZB at the end of October 1941.

              So that's what I'm talking about ...
              Quote: Serg65
              after the redeployment of the floating battery from near Kacha to the Cossack Bay, these guns were removed as unnecessary.

              And this happened because at one fine moment the Black Sea storm ... like there at Gorky what .... The thunder rumbles. Waves groan in the foam of anger, arguing with the wind. Here the wind embraces a flock of waves with a strong embrace and throws them in a wild rage on the cliffs, smashing emerald masses into dust and splashes ...
              How is your health?
              1. Alexey RA
                Alexey RA 5 November 2021 10: 51
                +3
                hi
                Quote: Serg65
                So that's what I'm talking about ...

                I, as a bore and a formalist, wrote a little about something else - that the B-13 in the towers there was no birth at PZB # 3. For the initially delivered and then removed B-13s were in deck installations. smile
                Quote: Serg65
                How is your health?

                Thanks, better. But lie still for at least two months.
                1. Serg65
                  Serg65 5 November 2021 12: 02
                  0
                  Quote: Alexey RA
                  I'm like a bore and a formalist

                  laughing As a nonsense to a formalist .... if we are talking about turrets with 130 mm guns, then it is appropriate to mention the B-13LM instead of the B-2! At the time of the events described, 8 of them were produced, 3 of them were received by Tashkent in early June 41, and 5 went to the Germans during the occupation of Nikolaev in August of the same year. And you are right, B-2LM could not get on PZB # 3, because their Syrian production began in 1942.
                  May God grant you health! hi
        2. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 4 November 2021 14: 51
          +2
          Quote: Snail N9
          Under the photo of the floating battery "Don't touch me" it is written that 130 mm guns in the turrets are visible.

          In reality, the photo shows 76-mm 34-K guns in deck mounts with shields.
          130-mm at the time of filming had already been filmed for half a year.
        3. Helmet
          Helmet 12 November 2021 16: 26
          0
          in the photo of the 76 mm gun. the photo of this battery in its original form does not exist at all, or they are unknown. the article is entirely in error, this is far from the only one
      3. Konnick
        Konnick 4 November 2021 19: 58
        +6
        And the author's first photo is clearly staged.
        The shooter bent down to the machine gun, the commander looks through binoculars not into the sky, but forward, but two carriers, in general, with their backs to a possible blow and, even without bending over!

        Our photo and film materials, as it were, in a combat situation of professional photojournalists and cameramen, are practically all staged. It was such a time ...

        An entry in the diary of a Pravda correspondent dated June 13, 1942:

        Photographers talk about the behavior of photojournalist Garanin.
        He came to the 6th Army - a march to the head of the agitation department Itkin:
        - I arrived on behalf of Comrade Mehlis. I need a few kilos of tol for filming (i.e. for staging explosions).
        And as soon as the real battle began, I go from there.
        However, other photographers shoot like this. Zelma filmed all the tank scenes near Voronezh, incl. and the surrender of the Germans and the bombing of a tank from an aircraft. And "Izvestia" - nothing, they print it to Zelma (Rogue
        )
        1. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 5 November 2021 10: 56
          +4
          Quote: Konnick
          Our photo and film materials, as it were, in a combat situation of professional photojournalists and cameramen, are practically all staged. It was such a time ...

          Pomnitz, for the book "The First T-34. Combat Use" the authors found only one non-staged Soviet photograph of the T-34, taken in the first months of the war.
          Here, the authors would like to say a few words about the photographic materials used to illustrate the book. The development of events in the first months of the Great Patriotic War assumed the character of an unprecedented military catastrophe for the USSR; the very existence of the Soviet state was called into question. In an atmosphere of deep enemy breakthroughs, encirclements, confusion, panic and chaos, in the conditions of the seizure of the battlefield by the enemy after the tragic denouement of the fierce "defense to the last cartridge, to the last drop of blood, to the last breath", genuine, non-staged photographs of the participation of the "thirty-fours" in battle, made by Soviet photographers are extremely rare.
          1. Konnick
            Konnick 5 November 2021 11: 17
            +4
            Pomnitz, for the book "The First T-34. Combat Use" the authors found only one non-staged Soviet photograph of the T-34, taken in the first months of the war.

            Photographers, by their naivety at the beginning of the war, rushed into combat units and that's all ... then, being persons of a certain ..., they did not come close to the front line.
            Garanin was driven from the rear to the far rear. He did not even receive a medal for Victory over Germany.
            Too carried away by staged deaths and explosions, every photo is an explosion ...
    5. Olgovich
      Olgovich 4 November 2021 08: 39
      -1
      Quote: Sea Cat
      Thank God, in 1957, he was smart enough to return the monument to the famous admiral to its original place. Khrushchev, by the way, was smart enough.

      hi
      unfortunately, this is a completely new monument in 1959 (it differs from the original), the old one was destroyed in 1928 by vandals.

      In 1983, the monument to Admiral Kornilov, demolished by the barbarians, was restored, it was restored on the Malakhov Kurgan, where the dying hero says: "Defend Sevastopol".

      Demolished by Russophobes in 1928, the monument to Lazarev was restored in the 21st century.

      The destroyed tomb of the admirals of the Vladimir Cathedral desecrated in 1932 (transferred by Russophobes along with the graves to ... aircraft repair shops) began to be restored only in 1992.
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 4 November 2021 08: 44
        +14
        Yes, this is not Russophobes, but simply indifferent to everything and would not have a past.
      2. Xnumx vis
        Xnumx vis 4 November 2021 13: 33
        +3
        The struggle against memory began, as sad as the revolutionary masses and their leaders ... In Sevastopol, at the fraternal military cemetery of 1855-56, the first defense of Sevastopol at the monument on the grave of General Khrulev, the heads of the eagles were beaten off. The two-headed eagle of Russia. And we are Ukraine! Poles! Yes, they themselves opened this Pandora's box! "https://sun9-49.userapi.com/impf/ICUhxlUWIv3RoY0ksoghirbDJxho3HUaEKd8Ig/MfV1PEn-_IM.jpg?size=1280x959&quality=96&sign=45e675c4ed68ebros803etyof our prospector "and at any moment were ready to follow him into battle. Khrulev's love for the soldiers, whom he called" my benefactors ", was well known. On the central monument is the inscription ---" Khrulev - Russia. " the phrase belongs to Emperor Alexander II.
    6. Glagol1
      Glagol1 5 November 2021 14: 15
      +3
      No need to praise the corn man. He just promoted on this, after the transfer of the Russian City to the Ussr.
    7. Comrade
      Comrade 6 November 2021 03: 18
      +2
      Quote: Sea Cat
      Admiral Nakhimov Square, and a monument to Lenin.

      So after all, Nakhimov was removed from the pedestal, which stood on Nakhimov Square, and Lenin was erected. Interestingly, the area was not renamed.
      Only the lower part of the pedestal got into the frame of the documentary, this is how the whole monument looked.
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 6 November 2021 04: 48
        +2
        Yes, God bless him, they are all the same - "Vegnoy dogogo go tovagischi!" laughing
        1. Comrade
          Comrade 6 November 2021 14: 07
          +1
          We used to joke like this: "The leader shows with his hand where to go for flour."
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 6 November 2021 17: 15
            +1
            And in Khimki, he pointed directly to the wine department, there was a constant subject for jokes. smile
  2. Crowe
    Crowe 4 November 2021 07: 00
    +15
    Fly, winged wind
    Over the seas, over the land
    Tell everyone in the world
    About my beloved city
    Tell everyone in the world
    As on the Crimean shores
    Our grandfathers fought
    And glorified in battles
    Legendary Sevastopol
    Unapproachable to enemies
    Sevastopol, Sevastopol
    Pride of Russian sailors!
    1. vladcub
      vladcub 4 November 2021 14: 11
      -1
      Crowe, so as not to get lost, on the motive: "Eaglet"?
      1. Andrey Moskvin
        Andrey Moskvin 4 November 2021 16: 56
        +4
        You read aloud, and think about how you can superimpose this on the motive of "Eaglet"? laughing
  3. Private SA
    Private SA 4 November 2021 08: 11
    +3
    I especially liked the caption under the first photo at the beginning of the topic. The calculation is carried out
    fire without the muzzle flame of a machine gun, and Afanasyev through binoculars along the horizon
    looks. Others are more real. There are not even all of them in the five-volume "History of the Great
    Patriotic War "brought. Not to mention the German. But Manstein's photo is
    "Once upon a time an eagle".
    (Title of an American war novel).
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 4 November 2021 08: 37
      +3
      But Manstein's photo is
      "Once upon a time an eagle".

      Read - Night porter - the nickname of the hero of the book. But I see no analogy with Manstein. request
      1. Private SA
        Private SA 4 November 2021 08: 39
        +3
        Manstein's memoirs must be read. By the fall of the enthusiasm of events -
        a clear correlation has arisen. Anthony Mayrer's novel. Remembered on Wikipedia.
        In the eyes - five-volume dust jackets, Oktyabrsky's memoirs, twice
        bought by Manstein (and the prices of books are now biting in the provinces), and that
        a shabby-read white volume that they gave me for a week on my word of honor
        in the early 1980s.
        1. Snail N9
          Snail N9 4 November 2021 09: 08
          +3
          And Shirokorada book "Admiral Oktyabrsky against Mussolini".
  4. Eug
    Eug 4 November 2021 10: 40
    +7
    I cannot understand how the outcome of the offensive can be considered "local successes" if the enemy has captured the dominant heights, which make it possible to adjust and accordingly conduct artillery fire and direct aviation to almost the entire depth of the defense ...
    1. Helmet
      Helmet 12 November 2021 16: 34
      0
      yes the whole article is error on error. and photo captions are no better. and why "almost all"? in reality for the whole.
  5. Ashes of Claes
    Ashes of Claes 4 November 2021 10: 55
    +3
    The head of Ilyich and the sign "Requested". The great-grandchildren of this German quartermaster are now littering the net with "witty" photos. Dawn of blogging.
    Ugh ...

    Crimea, 1942.
  6. Ashes of Claes
    Ashes of Claes 4 November 2021 10: 56
    +4
    Workers assembling 82-mm mortars of the 1937 model (BM-37) in the workshop of the Sevastopol underground military special combine No. 1

    The plant was located in the galleries of Troitskaya Balka and produced 50-mm and 82-mm artillery mines, hand and anti-tank grenades, mortars. He worked until the end of the defense of Sevastopol in June 1942.
  7. Ashes of Claes
    Ashes of Claes 4 November 2021 11: 03
    +2
    July 1942. Sevastopol.

    Vorontsov Palace. The inscription "Do not touch the marble!" ... "The Germans are a cultured nation" (c) their mother ...
    [Center]
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 4 November 2021 16: 59
      +7
      Vladimirsky Cathedral on Tauric Chersonesos after being hit by a shell and the explosion of ammunition stored in it. The Germans did not blow up the cathedral on purpose, it served as a leading sign for ships going to Sevastopol. The cathedral was restored only in the nineties, all Soviet times it stood dilapidated and gradually fell apart. I went there every year for about fifteen years and saw everything myself.
  8. Knell wardenheart
    Knell wardenheart 4 November 2021 12: 23
    +2
    It is good to write about defense when in the end it turns out to be effective and "the enemy did not pass." Right there - yes, they detained me. But the enemy eventually got through and moved on. People, territories, military property and infrastructure were lost. Of course, the pre-war leadership cannot be blamed for the fact that the thought of a strong ground threat to Sevastopol did not seem so plausible to them - nevertheless, we had a really huge army and decent defensive lines ..
    1. Beringovsky
      Beringovsky 4 November 2021 19: 27
      -2
      If not for this "ineffective" defense, the German could break through to the Caucasus at the end of 41, and who knows how it would have ended if we had lost the Baku oil.
      And the army is really not that huge, unless, of course, according to Rezun and the local reunions. I will not go into details, but in 42, about 100 million Soviet citizens were at war with 300 million of the Third Reich. And they defeated a three times superior enemy, first in Stalingrad, then in Kursk and ended up in Berlin.
      This is a fact.
  9. Alexey RA
    Alexey RA 4 November 2021 14: 34
    +4
    On the basis of the section of the unfinished battleship, in August 1941, the floating anti-aircraft battery No. 3 "Don't touch me" was commissioned.

    Let me clarify: this is not a section of an unfinished aircraft, but an experimental compartment for testing mine protection systems of an aircraft by detonating explosive charges.
    1. Helmet
      Helmet 12 November 2021 16: 51
      +2
      yes the whole article is written in one place and the captions to the photo are the same. too lazy to point out all errors. although some do not simply do not correspond to reality (the strength of the parties, the description of events), but directly contradict it and it is not clear where these statements came from. for example, "We used literally all the raw materials that were available and could be found. Fortunately, there was enough iron in Sevastopol."
      it would be nice for the author to familiarize himself with the memoranda of the management of the special plants. even tin was not corny. it had to be delivered by transport, which made it impossible to produce the planned volume of products.
      where the author found such sources interesting to me. what 200 aircraft 4 air corps near Sevastopol in November-December 1941?
      the author is not just not in the subject, but has a level of knowledge on the issue not higher than the level of secondary school.
      well, at least there are commentators who can correctly correct this "creativity" of the author
  10. Alex Krymov
    Alex Krymov 4 November 2021 19: 46
    -2
    Many thanks to the author of the material.
    Regarding the abandonment of Sevastopol in July 1942. In the reasoning that only the command personnel were evacuated, and the soldiers and sailors of the Red Army and Navy units were despicably abandoned. So it is so, but three pieces are not so.
    From the memoirs of the head of the VOSO Black Sea Fleet Department, Captain Second Rank Litvinenko.
    At the beginning of World War II, 95 transport ships were called up to the Black Sea Fleet to mobilize. By March 1942, when the Prosecutor's Office of the USSR was forced to deal with the issue of disposal of transports, 18 remained in the ranks! Some of them were damaged and were in the ports of the Caucasus for repairs. The frequency of reports to Moscow about the death of transports in the Black Sea theater of operations was such that even the failures of the Red Army on land faded. The situation was forced to intervene, back in November 1941, Anastas Mikoyan - Deputy Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars, authorized by the State Defense Committee (GKOK) for supply.
    95 mobilized vessels are ChMP vessels, boats of the port fleet of Crimea, Odessa, Nikolaev, Kherson, fishing vessels of the Azov-Black Sea basin. Not enough of course. But what are we going to mobilize today ?! Just in case. One hope for the Crimean bridge and several MDK, BDK! And again, the complete absence of specialized air defense ships of sea convoys. Then the aviation of the Crimea was also relied on the battleship, now on Calibers and Zircons. We went through this in 1941-42. Tens and tens of thousands of abandoned soldiers, Red Navy men, civilians on the capes of Chersonesos and Fiolent - there were no boats for evacuation !!!
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 5 November 2021 11: 11
      0
      Quote: Alex Krymov
      At the beginning of World War II, 95 transport ships were called up to the Black Sea Fleet to mobilize. By March 1942, when the Prosecutor's Office of the USSR was forced to deal with the issue of disposal of transports, 18 remained in the ranks! Some of them were damaged and were in the ports of the Caucasus for repairs.

      The civilian fleet had the same problems as the Black Sea Fleet - the loss of ports and the best shipbuilding and ship repair facilities. As a result, according to the lists, there were courts, but in real life they either required repairs or did not give out the required speed.
      Quote: Alex Krymov
      The frequency of reports to Moscow about the loss of transports in the Black Sea theater of operations was such that even the failures of the Red Army on land faded.

      Backlash. The only salvation from them was the fighters. ZA was not enough even for the ships' self-defense: during the raid, the escort was forced to evade and maneuver, moving away from the covered ships and depriving them of the air defense "umbrella". Even the new CRL of the Black Sea Fleet, which possessed the most powerful air defense system, were forced either to walk in the zone of play in the dark, or to choose such courses at which their detection was unlikely (in Petrov's memoirs it was mentioned that once they went to Sevastopol almost via Sinop).
      1. Alex Krymov
        Alex Krymov 5 November 2021 13: 52
        0
        From the report of the Chief of Staff of the Air Defense of the Black Sea Fleet and the Report on the combat work of the Air Force units of the Black Sea Fleet of the 62nd AB.
        Conducting intensive reconnaissance, often with bombs, German aircraft HE-111, Ju-88, DO-215 almost continuously illuminated our communications from a height of 5-7 thousand meters. And Romanian seaplanes surveyed the central part of the sea, being afloat for a long time. In August - October 41, 192 reconnaissance sorties were recorded, which, having discovered ships, called bombers or torpedo bombers by radio. Therefore, it was very difficult for the caravans to pass unnoticed. Only fog and obviously bad weather made it possible for ships and transports to pass without being attacked. Most of the "Caucasian" convoys were subjected to 4-6 air attacks during the passage. At the same time, the withdrawal of ships from the coastline of the Crimea, up to the middle of the Black Sea, reduced the risk of being attacked only by the aircraft of the "coastal" aviation units of the 4th Fleet of Germany. But at the same time, it did not save from torpedo bombers, mainly HE-111. In the southern direction (Mediterranean, Red, Black Seas), they were brought together in 26 squadron (KG 26). A separate unit strategically subordinated to the General Staff (Luftwaffenführungsstab), named "Löwengeschwader" ("Lion Squadron"), specializing in warfare over the sea and consisting of both conventional bombers and torpedo bombers. 2 squadrons of the 26th and 1st 28th squadrons (II./KG 26, I./KG 28) operated on the Black Sea. Basing Balcic, Buzau, Jiliste).
        The basis of the 62nd IAB Black Sea Fleet were I-16 and I-153, which were inferior to the enemy in armament (the most massive series of I-153 was produced with four ShKAS machine guns with a rifle cartridge of 7,62 mm caliber), speed and rate of climb. As a result, fighters were not always able to gain altitude in time, catch up and destroy the enemy, which contributed to the very low efficiency of the Black Sea Fleet aviation. In 1941, one German aircraft shot down accounted for up to 98 of our sorties. To combat enemy aircraft on communications and to protect our transports, as a rule, an I-153 unit was allocated, with a short duration of the time spent in the air - 1,5 hours. For which the convoy with transports passed only 10-12 miles.
        1. Helmet
          Helmet 12 November 2021 16: 58
          0
          the problem is that in the described period of November-December 1941 for ships and vessels going to Sevastopol, the main problem was not enemy aircraft, but its own minefields, installed by the Black Sea Fleet at the beginning of the war. they were blown up and killed.
          German aviation really began to influence the convoys only from May 1942. and this is much later
  11. Konnick
    Konnick 4 November 2021 20: 06
    +8
    The more I learn about the war, the more it seems to me the most terrible evil.
    Sometimes I try to visit the shooting location. This is a photo from Cape Fiolent.

    One of the last defenders
  12. Petrik66
    Petrik66 16 November 2021 14: 41
    0
    Again twenty-five. 150 units of armored vehicles are storming Sevastopol .........
    - Is it possible to consider those assault guns of the 190th Light Division in the amount of 18 StuG III Ausf C / D units as a formidable weapon? Or assault guns in the 22 StuG III Ausf C / D of the 197th division, delivered to the Crimea on November 3, 1941? ... You yourself know what is happening in the Crimea in late autumn. These assault guns at the same time, in the November thaw, were stuck far from Sevastopol, in the valley of the Kacha River. - Manstein
    The next day, 75 tanks from the 22nd Panzer Division were in Crimea, von Manstein was ordered to return all these tanks. The order was carried out. Von Manstein's army never again had any tanks in the Crimea in 1941! "
    1. Panzerjäger
      Panzerjäger 29 January 2022 15: 14
      0
      Oh really? Well, well, connoisseur.
      Firstly, 40 assault guns are a very formidable force, whoever fought will tell. Although, of course, you play a lot of "tanchiki" and know better.
      Well, it's also very bad not to know and forget about the 204th tank regiment, the second battalion of which was armed with "Somua" S35 tanks, and the first battalion had B1bis flamethrower tanks and German Pz.II.
      Somehow it turns out.
      [Center]
  13. Protos
    Protos 17 November 2021 16: 42
    0
    Quote: Alex Krymov
    But what are we going to mobilize today ?! Just in case. One hope for the Crimean bridge and several MDK, BDK! And again, the complete absence of specialized air defense ships of sea convoys. Then the aviation of the Crimea was also relied on the battleship, now on the Caliber and Zircon. !

    The Red Army did not have ICBMs and TNWs in service soldier
  14. Protos
    Protos 17 January 2022 15: 12
    0
    "The 35th battery has become a symbol of the heroic defense of Sevastopol"
    Rather, armored turret battery No. 30 command mr. G. A. Alexander settlement Lyubimovka
    While she held out (until June 17, 1942), the entire southern front of the defense held.
    It's just that a memorial appeared on a baht plundered by marauders. No. 35, and w/b baht No. 30 is alive and under conservation!
  15. Panzerjäger
    Panzerjäger 29 January 2022 15: 06
    0
    A small clarification, mainly the German infantry was supported by StuG III assault guns, there were few tanks and these were captured French tanks "Somua" S35.