Military Review

On possible areas of application of artificial intelligence in the KSA troops

50

Application of artificial intelligence technologies in weapons of foreign states



Currently, artificial intelligence (AI) technology is widely used all over the world.

AI technologies are based on machine learning, artificial neural networks and Big Data technologies (very large arrays of heterogeneous data). AI can be used in any complex technical systems for various purposes. Its distinctive features are high adaptability and self-learning. The theoretical basis of AI is made up of: probability theory, mathematical statistics, artificial neural networks, fuzzy logic, psychology, linguistics and computer technology.

AI has already surpassed humans in solving problems that require intuition, including in relation to predicting the behavior of other people, since intuition turned out to be an unconscious pattern recognition [1]. AI is indispensable for managing and monitoring very fast or too slow processes. Mathematical analysis also shows that there are problems that are fundamentally unsolvable using only computational algorithms [2].

In the commercial sector of the economy, AI technologies are widely used to solve the following problems:

- recognition and translation of multilingual speech streams in the presence of interference;
- text recognition, recognition of emotions in the text, prediction of the continuation of a phrase, translation of the text;
- creation of original texts in natural language from a large amount of data;
- cryptography (decryption of texts), decoding of genomes of organisms;
- merging two-dimensional images into three-dimensional (for example, cartography, tomography, radiology);
- face recognition, recognition of emotions from a photograph, recognition of the authenticity of a photograph, recognition of handwritten texts, recognition of images of the area;
- forecasting the strength of buildings and structures;
- intelligent training systems;
- financial planning, sales, stock market games, management of securities portfolios, assessment of the possibility of issuing a loan (assessment of the applicant's creditworthiness and the size of the loan);
- logistics (ordering and managing the movement of goods and components);
- analysis of complex data in medical systems, diagnosis and prescription of treatment, selection of medicines, prediction of mental states;
- search for malware;
- search for cyber vulnerabilities;
- games, including card games with the possibility of bluffing;
- diagnostics of technical systems;
- legal advice and criminal proceedings, including with a forecast of a judicial decision of a particular judge;
- autonomous and automated navigation (vehicle traffic control) in 3 physical environments;
- flexible regulation of traffic (traffic light control);
- proof of theorems, formation of hypotheses, formation of knowledge bases for expert systems;
- synthesis of complex objects: synthesis of new drugs, synthesis of complex organic compounds with desired properties, synthesis of genomes for new organisms.

The total number of software products for each position is very large. Table 1 lists some examples of commercial AI software products.

On possible areas of application of artificial intelligence in the KSA troops
Table 1

In general, all major global (Google, Facebook, Amazon) and Russian (Vkontakte, Mail.group, Yandex) IT companies have in their commercial products (social networks, online services) services with AI technologies (translation of texts, recognition of images, user preferences, spam and malware, as well as images of the area) that function explicitly or covertly from the user.

The prevalence of AI technologies in the weapons systems of foreign states is currently inferior to the commercial sector of the economy; nevertheless, in these systems, there is an explosive growth in the use of such technologies, including in control systems of air defense and missile defense systems.

The greatest adoption of AI technology has been found in the armed forces of the United States, Israel and the United Kingdom. For example, the US Department of Defense (DoD) has established a joint JAIC center for AI, and an AI task force, A-AITF.

Carnegie Mellon University has become the main developer of AI technologies for DoD.
Moreover, on November 15, 2014, US Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel, in his statement on the Defense Innovation Initiative (DII), announced the Third Offset Strategy (CK-3) as ensuring military dominance in the world through large-scale the use of AI in weapons systems [3]. The introduction of AI into the field of warfare is assessed by DoD experts in the same way as the invention of gunpowder and nuclear weapons: this is a factor that can completely change the paradigm of armed struggle [4].

AI is predicted to be able to break the link between a state's population and the strength of its economy, on the one hand, and the combat effectiveness of its armed forces, on the other.

Improving weapons systems through the introduction of AI technologies is the cheapest and most cost-effective way to modernize them: this approach does not include costs for materials, components, electronic component base (EEE), production of mock-ups and prototypes; testing costs are reduced, since less their volume. In addition, these technologies do not depend on foreign supplies of materials, electronic components and production equipment. The US experience shows that AI can give new qualities to existing weapons, and even outdated ones.

Almost all AI technologies used in the weapons systems of the previously named countries are based on artificial neural networks. Specialized AI based on them is used:

- in autonomous (unmanned) vehicles (for air, water and terrestrial environments);
- in control systems of missile defense systems (THAAD, Patriot) and in the developed systems of directed energy weapons, where AI makes it possible to oppose the hypersonic speed of targets with the speed of decision-making;
- at aviation simulators for training pilots, and there is a tendency of stable superiority of AI over pilots, especially in maneuverable air combat [5];
- search for malicious software (software) and cyber vulnerabilities in weapons.

Some examples of AI weaponry designs being developed for DoD are shown in Table 2.


Table 2

Possible areas of application of AI technologies in the CSA of air defense-missile defense troops


To date, the systems of automation equipment (KSA) of formations, military units and subunits of the air defense-missile defense forces (hereinafter referred to as the air defense-missile defense troops) use mainly classical computational algorithms. At the same time, there are a number of tasks that, in the course of the battle, are solved only by the personnel of the combat crews of the command posts of the aerospace defense or are not solved at all.

For example, target assignment tasks are not automatically solved taking into account the level of training of combat crews of lower military formations, target class recognition by its radar portrait, as well as target trajectory forecasting and target tactical designation (except for a number of "obvious" ones (for example, ballistic ones) goals). An indirect confirmation of this can be the fact that when working on control targets or training and combat firing at ranges, crew commanders very rarely make a decision about choosing an automatic mode of operation of the KSA and combat control points (PBU).

At the same time, combat crews are subject to stress, fatigue, and have a heterogeneous level of training, which does not allow ensuring the stability of the quality of solving the above tasks. In addition, AI systems, unlike military personnel, do not have problems of psychological compatibility with each other or with operators, and are also easily retrained.

It is worth paying serious attention to the fact that the United States and a number of other leading world powers are investing heavily in the creation of fully autonomous attack unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) with AI, capable of operating in the contested space without external support (Table 1). Thus, in the near future, the air defense and missile defense forces will face a situation where autonomous UAVs will combine the intelligence of manned platforms and the maneuverable characteristics of unmanned platforms, which will greatly increase the dynamics of anti-aircraft combat and complicate its nature. The combat crews of the command posts of the air defense-missile defense forces will not be able to make decisions in real time in such an environment.

Despite the obvious lag in the field of AI of Russian weapons, it is necessary to cancel the fact that the prevalence of AI in the weapons of the US Army today is also significantly inferior to the commercial sector of software products, which reduces the distance between domestic and foreign military equipment in this segment and potentially makes it possible to reduce this break.

AI could find its application in solving the following main tasks, unsolvable and not fully solved by traditional computational algorithms of the KSA of the air defense-missile defense forces:

- recognition of the class and type of target by signal signs, target identification against the background of interference (solving the problem of image recognition in the radio frequency range);
- recognition of the type and class of the target by trajectory features;
- recognition of the tactical designation of a target and a group of targets (revealing the intention of an enemy strike) by a combination of target signs, information about the terrain and defense objects;
- tracking actively maneuvering and separating targets, including those launching various decoys, traps, aircraft weapons, using "intellectual" interference;
- solving the problem of assessing the level of preparedness of combat crews of controlled fire and reconnaissance means (both on a real scale, that is, directly during the battle, and in cumulative scale - based on the results of previous combat experience);
- solving the problem of target assignment and target designation, taking into account both predicting the movement and actions of the target, based on its class and tactical purpose, and the level of training of subordinate combat teams.

Additionally, KSA with AI could solve the following auxiliary tasks:

- automation of the algorithms of actions of various calculation numbers in typical situations established by the governing documents (for example, actions of the operational duty officer when detecting an intruder aircraft, bringing to the highest degree of combat readiness, etc.);
- the creation of various training raids (assistance in the formation of a raid and the implementation of the strike plan), the implementation of the interactive (in relation to the actions of the trainee calculation) behavior of training goals;
- assistance to the calculation in identifying faulty units of the KSA itself, as well as in assessing the health of subordinate assets based on the results of their actions during combat work.

Such a KSA could effectively solve tasks not only during the preparation and conduct of anti-aircraft combat, but also in solving the tasks of combat duty in air defense.

At the next stage in the development of weapons systems, AI technologies could find their application in solving problems:

- target recognition against the background of interference;
- self-study and simulation (including self-study during simulation) of combat operations;
- automated extraction of knowledge (positive experience) during training battles and combat operations;
- accumulation and application of knowledge about the peculiarities of the enemy's tactics in the region of application of the KSA;
- solving problems in a common information space with a large amount of heterogeneous information (Big Data technology): data on meteorological conditions, time of day and year, terrain, engineering, radiation, chemical and biological conditions, non-radar (radio and radio engineering, optical, intelligence ) intelligence information.

Thus, a CSA with AI can be trainable (in other words, it can additionally take on new combat experience obtained and systematized by other combat crews at other control points) and self-learning (that is, it can correct heuristic algorithms based on its own combat experience, taking into account the peculiarities specific terrain, enemy, interacting forces, subordinate means).

AI technologies will make it possible to automate the application and dissemination of the experience of the most experienced combat crews, the experience of real combat operations to all crews of the air defense-missile defense forces.

In the course of its development, KSA with AI will be able to help form fundamentally new tactics for dealing with an aerospace enemy, similar to how it happened in other areas of application of AI technologies, for example, in chess, which can also be considered as a simple model of two-sided combat. action.

So, for example, on December 7, 2017, Google's AlphaZero software won against Stockfsh 8, the 2016 world champion among computer programs [6]. Stockfsh 8 had access to human experience gained over hundreds of years of playing chess, as well as data from chess programs over several decades. She could analyze 70 million chess positions per second. AlphaZero's computation speed was only 80 thousand operations per second, and the creators of the program did not teach her chess strategy - not even standard openings. In mastering chess, AlphaZero used the most modern machine learning methods, playing with itself. Still, out of a hundred games played against Stockfsh 8, AlphaZero won 28 and drew 72. AlphaZero took four hours to learn how to play chess and prepare for the match against Stockfsh 8. In four hours, the AlphaZero program, without any human help, made its way from complete ignorance to the pinnacle of mastery. In other words, AlphaZero has found more effective game strategies in 4 hours than all of humanity in several millennia.

The AI ​​technologies created for the KSA of the air defense-missile defense forces and the very experience of their development would be easy to extend in the future to other control systems of various control levels of the arms and services of the Armed Forces of Russia.

Possible approaches to the implementation of AI technologies in the CSA of the air defense-missile defense forces


Due to the limited experience of Russian developers in the field of creating systems with AI, it would be advisable to start the task of developing AI technologies for use in the CSA of air defense-missile defense troops with an initiative R&D (or preliminary project) to determine (select) the technology for creating a promising CSA with AI.

It seems that at the first stage, to reduce the development risks, the optimal solution could be a CSA with AI based on heuristic algorithms with formal logic (an expert system with a knowledge base), built using the existing ECB. This approach would be cheaper and easier to implement.

Further development of KSA, with the development of special ECB and technical capabilities, would be the introduction of AI technologies based on artificial neural networks.

Within the framework of the proposed research work, it is advisable to set the following tasks for solving:

1. Collection of information from various sources (information networks, periodicals, books) on existing commercial and military foreign information and technical systems and on similar systems in the commercial sector of the Russian economy, where AI technologies are used. Systematization of information. Search for the correspondence of the tasks of the commercial and military sectors being solved by the AI ​​to the tasks arising in the conduct of combat operations by the air defense-missile defense forces.

2. Building a domain ontology. Selection and justification of the optimal AI technology for the use of air defense-missile defense troops in the KSA. Selection and justification of the optimal level of automation for solving problems by artificial intelligence.

3. Selection and justification of the optimal method for building a knowledge base of CSA with AI.

4. Selection and substantiation of the optimal method for extracting the necessary knowledge and experience from the personnel of the combat crew, the method for structuring the existing experience of combat operations.
The scientific and technical results obtained during the implementation of this research work should be applied in the future in the course of development work on the creation of a new generation CSA.

conclusions


In future armed conflicts, in the medium term, the center of gravity will shift to the confrontation between weapons control and reconnaissance systems, since in order to ensure military dominance in the world, the United States has chosen a strategy of large-scale use of AI in weapons systems, which, as shows historical retrospective, will force other countries to follow the same path.

It seems that one of the possible effective solutions for countering promising high-tech intelligent air defense missile systems of the leading powers of the world can be the introduction of AI technologies into the air defense missile defense troops.

The creation of such CSA should begin with the selection and implementation of expert system technologies from other fields of technology, in which tasks similar in their algorithmic essence are solved.

Bibliography:
1. Brian D. Ripley. Pattern Recognition and Neural Networks. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.
2. Roger Penrose. The Large, the Small and the Human Mind. Cambridge University Press, 1997.
3.URL: http://archive.defense.gov/pubs/OSD013411-14.pdf
4.URL: https://www.csis.org/analysis/assessing-third-offset-strategy
5. Nicholas Ernest et al., Genetic Fuzzy based Artificial Intelligence for Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle Control in Simulated Air Combat Missions, Journal of Defense Man-agement 6: 1 (2016), 1-7.
6. Google's AlphaZero Destroys Stockfsh in 100 Game Match, Chess.com, 6 December 2017, URL: https://www.chess.com/news/view/google's alphazero destroys stockfish in 100 game matches, accessed 11.02.2018/XNUMX/XNUMX.
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  1. OgnennyiKotik
    OgnennyiKotik 23 May 2021 15: 31
    +1
    The introduction of AI elements is primarily necessary in the Air Force. They play a primary role in modern wars. An unmanned fighter will defeat a manned fighter 99,99% of the time. Simply due to the speed of decision-making and flight modes inaccessible to humans. After gaining air superiority, the defeat of the ground forces is only a matter of time. No air defense will save, it will only delay the inevitable.
    In the USA, they understand this and resources are thrown into the creation of 6th generation fighters, drones and expanding the capabilities of current fighters due to AI.
    1. Smirnov Mikhail
      Smirnov Mikhail 23 May 2021 19: 26
      0
      A modern drone cannot make decisions on its own.
    2. Vladimir_2U
      Vladimir_2U 24 May 2021 03: 24
      +1
      Quote: OgnennyiKotik
      An unmanned fighter will defeat a manned fighter 99,99% of the time. Simply due to the speed of decision-making and flight modes inaccessible to humans.
      It is very controversial, however, there is an option to combine the pilot as an expert and the AI ​​as an instant performer.
  2. Sergey39
    Sergey39 23 May 2021 15: 38
    +2
    However, modern AI is nothing more than a Complex of Automation Tools.
    1. Alexander Ulanov
      23 May 2021 18: 58
      +1
      Did you mean "modern ACS"? Maybe yes.
  3. OgnennyiKotik
    OgnennyiKotik 23 May 2021 15: 52
    -1
    About the photo of the article. The IVAS system is being introduced into the US Army and the ILC, ~ 2500 of them have already been delivered, in the next few years 40 will be delivered. In July, the introduction into the combat infantry units will begin.
    With the help of IVAS kits, the unit commander or headquarters can constantly monitor the location and condition of each of the unit's fighters. It also becomes possible to request an image from the cameras of a particular soldier or show him the required image.
    The glasses can display a video signal from "smart" sights of small arms, from UAVs, etc. In this case, there is no need to carry several different devices with their own screens - they are replaced by one set of IVAS, which has a number of other functions.

    Accordingly, data will be collected from each soldier and each soldier can be given an individual command. Without AI, it will not cope with this. Analysts and commanders will sit somewhere in Ohio or Oklahoma, at a 3D map of the battlefield. Where each unit is listed, its own or the enemy, their tasks and possible scenarios of use. They will make decisions based on information processed by the AI. With the ability to give target designation directly to the weapon. Even in the small one. The fighter's task is to simply aim at the specified point, make sure that there is no mistake and pull the trigger.



    1. Vladimir_2U
      Vladimir_2U 24 May 2021 03: 25
      +2
      Quote: OgnennyiKotik
      Analysts and commanders will sit somewhere in Ohio or Oklahoma, at a 3D map of the battlefield.
      If the interference situation allows.
    2. Svateev
      Svateev 27 May 2021 20: 13
      +1
      Quote: OgnennyiKotik
      Accordingly, data will be collected from each fighter

      And the enemy will be able to track each fighter - to determine his position by the radiation of his radio. By the way, this is indicated in the same American article that you are citing.
      The enemy (in this case - us) can destroy IVAS carriers with artillery, mortars or MLRS (depending on the dispersal of the IVAS). And it would be nice to develop and stamp for each of our fighters RPO "Bumblebee", guided by the radiation of IVAS.
  4. rocket757
    rocket757 23 May 2021 15: 58
    +3
    Currently, artificial intelligence (AI) technology is widely used all over the world.
    ... In the future, military affairs will change, develop ... an expected, natural process.
    Who is the "trendsetter" in this area? Will he receive undeniable benefits ... if so, how soon will it happen?
    1. OgnennyiKotik
      OgnennyiKotik 23 May 2021 16: 03
      +1
      Quote: rocket757
      Who is the "trendsetter" in this area?

      USA and Israel, Britain followed by France.
      Quote: rocket757
      Will he receive undeniable benefits ... if so, how soon will it happen?

      Yes already. One of the reasons for the superior performance of the Iron Dome system is the introduction of AI elements. Without them, it would have been impossible to repel Hamas missile attacks.
      1. rocket757
        rocket757 23 May 2021 16: 11
        +3
        Quote: OgnennyiKotik
        the superior efficiency of the Iron Dome system is

        maybe so, only a check, so far, in a very narrow range of objects of attack.
      2. bk0010
        bk0010 23 May 2021 19: 10
        0
        Quote: OgnennyiKotik
        Without them, it would have been impossible to repel Hamas missile attacks.
        Why is there AI?
  5. Alexey Stepanov
    Alexey Stepanov 23 May 2021 16: 11
    -3
    News in topic

    In Russia, the serial production of combat robots with artificial intelligence, which can fight independently, has begun. This was stated by Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu, speaking at the New Knowledge forum.
  6. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 23 May 2021 16: 30
    -4
    At the beginning of the human species. humanity stood at a fork in the road, "choosing" one of two possible paths of development: technocratic or esoteric ... What is the difference? 1.With the technocratic path of development, if a tumor is found in the human body, it, if possible, is removed surgically, the wound is sutured, the body is pumped with drugs ... With the esoteric path, a person by an effort of will triggers the "internal" mechanism of biological regeneration ... the tumor dissolves ... Humanity has chosen the technocratic path ... but the mind is not enough to create technological capacities that can solve human problems! And humanity is sick, dies prematurely ... the technocratic way of development is not capable of replacing a person with a sick brain, heart, growing a lost arm ... not capable of eliminating the catastrophic consequences of the collapse of oil tankers, the Chernobyl accident ... But was the Creator prepared this way for man? A person has a brain in which only 2% of the cells are practically involved for the practical activity of homo sapiens! And what is the 5% "ballast" reserved for? Humanity is waiting for a revolutionary leap in biological development in the future ... a sharp turn to the esoteric path of further development, or has it moronic ignored the Creator's invaluable gift ... and in the future, people are expected to "dry up" their brains?
    With the esoteric path of human development, people do not need to spend resources to create AI ... to be afraid of it ... to decide how to protect themselves from "suddenly" emerging "bad inclinations" of AI! (And eat the "fish", and sit on the tree with bare butt, without scratching it ...) With the esoteric path, all 100% of the brain is involved (or almost ...) And then the computational abilities of the human brain ... its analytical, logical, telepathic, "visionary" capabilities will surpass all computational and analytical devices created by man to the present and for some time to come! Perhaps humanity is no longer able to completely turn to the road of esotericism ... but maybe there is still an alternative way ... "hybrid" !? Then perhaps the "useless" 95% of brain cells can be used to "grow" a biocomputer in a human head? And will humans be able to avoid the upcoming rivalry with smart devices (AI)?
    1. Blackmokona
      Blackmokona 23 May 2021 17: 02
      +5
      100% of the brain is involved, just of which only 5-10% is spent on maintaining consciousness, and the rest is spent on other needs.
      Well, mankind has long mastered the replacement of the heart and produces implants.
      There was also no single choice of humanity at the dawn of history. Not a referendum was held there by all the planetary, there was a huge number of isolated groups of people, all developed as they wanted. It's just that those who followed the path of technology easily and naturally endured all the mystics, exotericists and other lovers of spirituality. You can sit in a monastery on a mountain for at least a thousand years and try to discover magical abilities, but any peasant with a Kalash will quickly show you who is cooler.
      1. Nikolaevich I
        Nikolaevich I 24 May 2021 13: 26
        0
        Quote: BlackMokona
        100% of the brain is involved, just of which only 5-10% is spent on maintaining consciousness, and the rest is spent on other needs.

        What are these "needs", my dear cholovik, on which 95% is spent versus the "conscious" 5%? ... what
        1. Blackmokona
          Blackmokona 24 May 2021 14: 01
          +1
          For example, to control the muscles, you do not consciously control them, but only make strategic decisions like your hand here without controlling each muscle and its effort separately, you can safely navigate from home to work automatically without thinking about the route, the work of internal organs, heart knocks because the brain constantly orders it to knock, setting the frequency required at the moment with electrical impulses.
          Etc. A huge number of needs, and the unconscious. Here are just the people who saw the person and immediately identified him as a representative of the crime. The brain has already managed to detect, recognize, mark many signs and drive them through memory and classification. And you have already been given a finished result, danger! This man is dangerous! He's a criminal!
          Although you do not consciously reflect on each passing person, his gait, clothes, etc. And the brain works in full and continuously processes everything.
          When you sleep, consciousness is not active, but the brain is actively working on ordering, classifying, removing unnecessary and other memory operations. And how many inventions, discoveries and insights come after the night's work of the brain. He worked for hours so that in the morning you could "suddenly" understand how incredibly difficult evening problems were solved simply. Etc
          1. Nikolaevich I
            Nikolaevich I 24 May 2021 15: 27
            +1
            About the activity of the human brain ... its capabilities and abilities can be discussed and argued for a long time! This is a very interesting topic! Unfortunately, we are already outside the polemic field! It's a pity, of course ... but what can you do ... One could talk about, for example, that you shouldn't put everything on the brain ... the brain! In addition to the brain, the body "includes", for example, the bone marrow ... and there is also the theory of the "third brain"!
            For example, to control muscles ... you can safely walk from home to work on the machine without thinking about the route, the work of the internal organs, the heart beats because the brain constantly orders it to knock, setting the frequency required at the moment with electrical impulses.
            Is not it ? Why did I mention the "third brain"? Historians give an example: the court passed a death sentence to a certain leader of the rebel conspirators by chopping off his head ... The leader bargained with the court one condition: if he could run without a head along the entire line of rebels, then they should be spared their lives! He did just that! They cut off his head, and he jumped up and "ran" the entire line of conspirators and only then fell down dead! So how could the brain, separated from the body, "give orders by setting the frequency with electrical impulses ..."? Myth? But history has recorded cases when, when examining a person, it turned out that he practically did not have a brain; and the "skull" is filled with liquid ... or a person's skull was blown away with the brain, but it did not deprive him of a conscious normal life! Is the brain involved 100%? Everyone has? Always? But why are individual individuals of the human race capable of performing "in the mind" the most complex computational operations and quickly; but most do not? There are people who are able to "instantly" memorize huge amounts of information; and the majority are not capable of this? There are people who are saved from death by the "inner voice"; but most do not? And so on and so forth...
            In addition, the "essence" of my comment is the development of human intelligence, capable of withstanding and even surpassing "artificial intelligence"! And then the pilot, controlling the fighter and weapons, will be able to successfully resist a drone with "artificial intelligence"!
            1. Blackmokona
              Blackmokona 24 May 2021 15: 33
              0
              Let's not use stories as arguments.
              Also, the functions and parts of the brain are now very well studied using MRI and studying a huge amount of its damage in the course of various accidents.
              Also, with a load of only 5%, why would a person lose consciousness about the loss of 50% of the brain? It's just that the rest of the functions are degraded.
        2. bk0010
          bk0010 24 May 2021 16: 10
          -1
          Quote: Nikolaevich I
          What are these "needs", my dear cholovik, on which 95% are spent versus the "conscious" 5%?
          To the work of the body. A 100% working brain occurs with an epileptic seizure.
    2. bk0010
      bk0010 23 May 2021 19: 21
      +2
      Quote: Nikolaevich I
      1.With the technocratic path of development, if a tumor is found in the human body, it, if possible, is removed surgically, the wound is sutured, the body is pumped with drugs ... With the esoteric path, by an effort of will, a person launches an "internal" mechanism of biological regeneration ... the tumor dissolves ...
      The difference is different: the technocratic path works, while the esoteric path works only in the imagination. Regeneration mechanisms have nothing to do with esotericism. In humans, regeneration mechanisms do not work, since they turned out to be incompatible with the immune system (evolution has shown that diseases are worse than damage). Block immunity and regeneration will start working again (caught in those who received organ transplants). Regeneration can be artificially triggered, but it is still difficult to ensure that you get a restored organ and not cancer.
      1. Nikolaevich I
        Nikolaevich I 24 May 2021 13: 23
        0
        Quote: bk0010
        Regeneration can be artificially triggered, but it is still difficult to ensure that you get a restored organ and not cancer.

        That's it! Until! "Esoterics" assumes the ability to control both regeneration and immunity ...!
        1. bk0010
          bk0010 24 May 2021 16: 12
          0
          Quote: Nikolaevich I
          "Esotericism" implies the possibility of control
          Esotericism has nothing to do with reality. Consider it a literary genre.
          1. Mikhail3
            Mikhail3 24 May 2021 16: 54
            -1
            You are right) The author of the provocative post is simply slightly uneducated. He meant the development of the body's own capabilities, he just thought that these very possibilities can be called esotericism) Esotericism is a very funny thing. And human capabilities are a very serious matter. I, while studying at the institute, and being slightly interested in the topic, got into the habit (young, stupid, obsessed with the mistakes of a young organism, I repent, but I do not regret a single drop)) sometimes arrange myself an extra weekend. To do this, I went to the first-aid post, complained of a cold. They put a thermometer under my arm. I warmed up the spot around the thermometer with mental effort. It is possible, and even not difficult at all, 1,5-2 degrees can be easily given out. The nurses giggled and looked for a bag of salt, or even a catalytic heating pad) Several times sat naked to the waist, giggling in response.
            Believe me, the possibilities of a person are not at all exhausted by this petty fraud)
    3. Mikhail3
      Mikhail3 24 May 2021 16: 42
      -1
      In many ways, I even agree) The question is only one trifle. The point is that the human brain is used by about 3-5% ... at any given time. In general, the process goes like this. Thinking is such a costly and self-destructive process that the zone that is responsible for thinking at the moment is so destroyed, burned and torn in a few minutes, that it reminds, not to be remembered by nightfall, Hiroshima.
      Thinking moves to another area, and this is where the urgent emergency and recovery work begins. And God forbid, to be in time by the time when there is simply no area in the brain more ready to accept the load! So, in fact, the efficiency of the brain is already over 100%. Although no more than 5 are used at a time. Such is the story with esotericism ...
    4. Svateev
      Svateev 27 May 2021 20: 18
      0
      Quote: Nikolaevich I
      And what is the 95% "ballast" reserved for?

      In genetics, recently, 90% of genes were also considered ballast, because they do not code for proteins. But the further, the more science learns that "ballast" regulates the expression of coding genes and even turns them on or off.
      And how many wonderful discoveries (more) the spirit is preparing for enlightenment ... (classic)
  7. Normal ok
    Normal ok 23 May 2021 17: 20
    +2
    Thanks to the author for the article. There would be more articles of this kind on VO, and not gossip, conjectures and fakes!
    1. Alexander Ulanov
      23 May 2021 18: 57
      +2
      Thank you for such a review!
      1. Svateev
        Svateev 27 May 2021 20: 22
        0
        Alexander! Article:
        1) Scientific? Where is it published?
        2) 3 years ago?
    2. Smirnov Mikhail
      Smirnov Mikhail 23 May 2021 19: 09
      -2
      A neural network is itself one big fake ..
      1. Svateev
        Svateev 27 May 2021 20: 34
        +1
        Quote: Smirnov Mikhail
        A neural network is itself one big fake ..

        Come on ... Yandex-translator is getting smarter right before our eyes. You don't even need to check the translation from English into Russian, just stylistic editing. The translation of military news from German into Russian a couple of months ago was simply not clear, you had to find the meaning yourself. And now I just correct mistakes.
        Who do you think rewrites the translator program so quickly? A thousand native programmers of English, German and other world languages ​​?! Not.
        The program learns by itself. All of us who use it prompt her in the process of editing her translations. She remembers and learns.
        I myself would not have believed it if it had not been for me in front of my eyes all this was happening.
        1. Smirnov Mikhail
          Smirnov Mikhail 28 May 2021 01: 55
          -1
          Let's not mystify, I am aware of the inner workings of "neural networks" ..
  8. Dmitry Ivanov_8
    Dmitry Ivanov_8 23 May 2021 18: 58
    0
    - recognition and translation of multilingual speech streams in the presence of interference;
    - text recognition, recognition of emotions in the text, prediction of the continuation of a phrase, translation of the text;
    - creation of original texts in natural language from a large amount of data;


    They won't translate Russian army command language.
    1. Smirnov Mikhail
      Smirnov Mikhail 23 May 2021 19: 58
      +3
      Yes, it is not necessary, the main thing is to finance it on time. Over there, higher up Shoigu, the autonomous robots have gone crazy. There is something to present to the management, knocking out funding .. Candidates, they also want to eat ..
    2. Svateev
      Svateev 27 May 2021 20: 38
      0
      Quote: Dmitry Ivanov_8
      They won't translate Russian army command language.

      It's easy to translate mate, because it is not information, but an emotion. Therefore, almost all obscene expressions can be translated as follows: "You, radish, did a bad thing. Correct."
  9. Smirnov Mikhail
    Smirnov Mikhail 23 May 2021 19: 08
    -1
    Somehow everything starts from the wrong end ..

    Here we have a space of one square kilometer, where we "hide" some thing. Is the machine able to find this thing? This seems to be the beginning of artificial intelligence. And both animals and humans are capable of this.

    And what is in the article is helping a person. Once I was a schoolboy, I had a wonderful subject - programming. Where I wrote search programs, and even still remember two ways - brute force or hierarchy. To make information easier and faster to find.

    So the conclusions are not correct. People will still fight, and "AI" will only help. And this is not "AI" at all, but a banal sorting of information (including when collecting) ..
    1. Svateev
      Svateev 27 May 2021 20: 41
      +1
      Quote: Smirnov Mikhail
      Is the machine able to find this thing?

      Programs have been looking for goals in photographs since time immemorial. And they recently started looking for videos in the stream. Or what do you mean?
      1. Smirnov Mikhail
        Smirnov Mikhail 28 May 2021 02: 00
        -1
        I could find the necessary pixel back in the 90s as a schoolboy, it was included in the list of programming tasks. If somewhere in the USA they learned to do what I could do 20 years ago, then my condolences ..

        Is the machine able to find the sausage in the apartment? By sight, by smell. Here the cat will easily find. And the car? At the same time, hardly anyone will call the cat the pinnacle of evolution, she does not write treatises. But he will find the sausage.
  10. Conjurer
    Conjurer 24 May 2021 12: 06
    0
    The author has compiled a bunch of material into one big dump, not really, it seems, delving into the essence (everything is on top, by headings, mostly advertising). Yes, it is fashionable now to rant about AI, but when you write an analytical article (well, since about the directions of development), it would be nice to figure out what you are writing about and what you want to convey to the reader. A manual for conducting research is, of course, good, but after all, a goal is also set for research.
    1. Mikhail3
      Mikhail3 24 May 2021 16: 44
      0
      It was not the author) This is his "AI". The author just brushed all this emptiness a little.
  11. Mikhail3
    Mikhail3 24 May 2021 16: 18
    -1
    How nice it is when long footcloths are written for you by the so-called. AI, and you only "animate" the text! Of course, the so-called. AI (to which, like before China, in an unnatural way) did not surpass and will not surpass man in the next hundred thousand years in any tasks, except those based on a set of statistics. We can, for example, be easily convinced of this by observing the dumbest bots on the website (each of which exclaims with indignation that he writes articles on intellectual topics! And he really writes them, stuffing the very statistics for their owner.the articles are empty and meaningless, but taken into account in the calculations)
    The direction of their application? Granted. Since the command of the army is no longer recruited from honored officers, and is partly bought for money, partly formed on the basis of kinship, a logical situation arises - there is no one to command. All these bought butts and nieces-Dodiks are not Suvorov and not even Kutuzov at all. Of the military teams, they only know "bring vodka (whiskey)" and "take them home (to the deffkas)". The generals, formed according to this principle, how to put it mildly ...
    In general, there is no one to command. It is impossible to entrust the REAL command to the poor officers, no one's relatives. Because very soon the question will arise - and then what does the ass do? And the emergence of such a question should not be allowed in any case. So this whole brew fiercely hopes that some AI will command INSTEAD OF THEM, and they will not be able to participate in career races, surrender their owners and substitute them, since they do not have a physical body)
    All these guys will have an enchanting picture, when they will understand from experience how the subordinate system works under the control of what is now called AI. The only pity is that someone will have to pay not only with destroyed resources, but also with real blood. And, very likely, a lot of blood. But nothing can be done about it. The system is built just like that.
    1. Svateev
      Svateev 27 May 2021 20: 47
      0
      Quote: Mikhail3
      AI ... has not surpassed and will not surpass humans in the next hundred thousand years in any tasks other than those based on a set of statistics

      An entertaining statement. If you remember that a person solves any problem on the basis of statistics - his life experience, including his level of education. (Inborn instincts are not taken into account.)
      1. Mikhail3
        Mikhail3 28 May 2021 11: 26
        0
        Have you ever faced difficult tasks in your life? Only in reality, and not on a screen or paper?) How does a person solve problems? In many ways) Some of them are more or less clear, but much more is incomprehensible at all. Some of the problems are solved by methods that science refuses to consider. Scientists begin to grind their teeth and insist that they are materialists, therefore, they will not consider such processes at all. If a scientist faced with such a process manages to be pinned to the wall and forced to study the topic, he usually becomes a believer, like the founder of modern practical physics - Isaac Newton, who laid all the foundations of our world alone.)
        The topic of human problem solving is huge. Since programmers have a very truncated and crippled mind (programming is an emulation of some processes occurring in the human brain, while the emulation is very truncated. The better the programmer, the more his thinking corresponds to the truncated emulation of some processes, alas), then, in addition to mathematical statistics, they have no information about human thinking. This is one of the reasons it is ridiculous to wait for real AI.
  12. Bogalex
    Bogalex 24 May 2021 22: 11
    0
    "The theoretical basis for AI is: the theory of probability ..."
    What??? belay "Probability theory"??? And the author is definitely a "candidate of technical sciences"?
    1. Mikhail3
      Mikhail3 25 May 2021 09: 13
      0
      You should have seen modern dissertations ... In the 80s, they would not have been accepted as a term paper.
    2. bk316
      bk316 27 May 2021 18: 18
      0
      the author is exactly "Ph.D."

      Here the question is in what area of ​​the CTN ....
      But the ML principle has a relation to the terver ...
      1. Bogalex
        Bogalex 29 May 2021 22: 14
        +1
        No, that’s not the question. In order to know as "our father" that the theory is not "probability", but "probabilities", you just need to take a course in higher mathematics at a higher school. And for a "candidate of technical sciences" it does not matter in what area such a mistake is simply impossible! It's like "zhi" - "shi" write through "and" for anyone who has learned to write in Russian. Well, or confuse the concepts of "mom" and "dad" in conversation ...
        1. bk316
          bk316 31 May 2021 12: 26
          0
          In order to know as "our father" that the theory is not "probability", but "probabilities", you just need to take a course in higher mathematics at a higher school

          Yes, you are right. A specialist in any field has words that he simply cannot spell incorrectly. It's like a programmer, my hand will not rise to write with one M laughing
          But the so-called. it's such a wide profile that anything is possible laughing .
          For example, I have a friend who defended himself on the strength characteristics of turbines, there is a ZGRLS, and there are classic programmers and all the so-called.
  13. bk316
    bk316 27 May 2021 18: 17
    0
    Question to the author.
    Why do you write AI everywhere, and not ML, although all the examples given are either ML or even HA?
    1. Smirnov Mikhail
      Smirnov Mikhail 28 May 2021 02: 01
      +1
      Because sponsors and investors won't give money for anything else ..