Military Review

How Otto Skorzeny fought in the battles near Moscow

130

It's nice not to lie - history do not tell.
(Russian proverb)


November 27, 1941, when the German tank armies stubbornly rushed to Moscow, one of the formations of the 7th tank division of the Wehrmacht was tasked to capture a tactically important object - a carefully guarded auto-horse bridge across the canal named after. Moscow near Yakhroma. For this, a sabotage group was formed from among the most experienced volunteers under the command of Oberleutenant Rudolf Reineck.

She moved out of the division's concentration point at the end of daylight hours and secretly moved towards the object by the edge of the forest away from the roads - the commander led his people, guided by a compass and a map. As a result, under cover of the darkness of the night, the saboteurs managed to go unnoticed to the bridge, quickly and silently remove the sentries from the west side, then imperceptibly cross the bridge and take off the sentries serving on its eastern side with lightning speed. Then the sappers who were part of the group cut the wires leading to the charges of explosives laid in the base of the bridge pillars.

The capture was carried out so swiftly and at the same time silently that it passed completely unnoticed by the Red Army units located at some distance from the bridge, and discovered that the bridge was already in the hands of the enemy, only with the onset of daylight.

Moreover, the saboteurs acted so boldly that even for some time they coolly let the cars of the Red Army to the western side of the canal (to their captivity). And it did not occur to the drivers that the people in white camouflage suits who were greeting them, urging them to pass quickly without being checked, were not Red Army men at all, but fascists.

As a result, the Germans (in addition to the bridge) managed to get additional trophies in the form of 40 prisoners and 6 trucks.

You are probably now waiting for the following phrase:

"This group included Otto Skorzeny, who later became world famous."

I will disappoint you: there was no such thing and could not have been there in principle.

However, let's start in order.

Bluff about Otto's exploits near Moscow


Otto Skorzeny is the most famous saboteur during the Second World War. And many authors of publications even call it the best and most successful -

"Saboteur number 1".

However, the more carefully you study his biography, the more doubtful such an assessment appears.

The purpose of this article is not a detailed analysis of all his successes and failures (there are already enough works devoted to this issue). It seemed to me the most interesting to highlight the most little-known period of Otto's military career - his participation in the summer-autumn offensive of the Wehrmacht (and, in particular, at its final stage) Operation Typhoon.

For a detailed analysis, I chose the period from October to December 1941, when the Germans were rushing to Moscow with their last strength, following the order to surround it and cut off all communications leading to the capital (German units were forbidden to enter the city).

It is worth noting that Skorzeny was still a little-known officer at that time and did not acquire a personal biographer. Therefore, information about how he fought in the above period and what he was famous for must be extracted from his memoirs.

It is well known that a memoir is a literary work where the author tries to present his actions in the most favorable light for himself.

Therefore, memories (in terms of historical accuracy) are the most unreliable source. And the information contained in them can serve only as an approximate information that needs careful verification by comparison with real historical documents.

For some reason, this simple rule is forgotten by many modern writers who publish books about the Great Patriotic War. Often they immediately take on faith any memoir evidence, supplement it with their own imagination, and then on this flimsy foundation they create some kind of colorful version of the development of events. And as a result, they find themselves in the wonderful world of alternative history.

Let's try to analyze the memoirs of Otto Skorzeny, making an allowance for the peculiarities of this genre, as well as for the inherent desire of every self-respecting military officer to boast and show off in front of the audience.

How Otto found the springs on T-34 tanks


When studying his memoirs, it is immediately striking that when describing events on the Eastern Front, Otto mainly uses the pronoun “we"And rarely uses"я».

Which testifies either to the greatest human modesty of the memoirist (which Skorzeny has never been distinguished by), or is due to the fact that during the period described, nothing worthy of a separate mention happened to the author.

But this feature of the presentation greatly complicates the understanding of who exactly the author means by "we" in various episodes of the narrative: his own unit, the entire division where he served, or, in general, collectively all the German troops participating in the offensive?

In addition, when describing the period of his service on the Eastern Front, Skorzeny stubbornly keeps silent about which units he served in; in what positions; in which military unit; whether the soldiers were subordinate to him and what they were doing; and never even mentions his military rank.

You have to get to this information on your own, following the tortuous path of guesswork, assumptions and borrowing data from various sources.

So, we open the memoirs and immediately discover with surprise that in the fall of 1941 Otto was not yet a saboteur. And, most surprisingly, he did not even take a direct part in the hostilities, that is, he did not fight with weapons in hand.

From the preface to the book, we learn that the 33-year-old Otto began the Eastern campaign with the rank of SS chief-Sturmführer, which corresponded to the rank of "senior lieutenant of the Red Army." From June 22, 1941 to early 1942, he served on the Eastern Front in the SS Reich Division. And at the beginning of 1942, due to illness, the future saboteur was sent to the deep rear for treatment. And he never returned to the front.

In the memoirs, there are several scanty information regarding Skorzeny's professional activities:

“I found our artillery battalion;

... When we reached the Desna, I was considered lucky, since I had a hundred trucks in good order;

... I received an order to pull out the trucks stuck on the "freeway";

... I recruited Russian prisoners of war mechanics to work - they were smart and inventive.

For example, they themselves guessed to replace the springs of our Horch-Kübelvagen cars with the springs of T-34 tanks. "

Despite the fact that the T-34 does not have springs, the above still allows us to put forward a fairly reliable assumption that Skorzeny served in some auxiliary unit on the Eastern Front. And his official duties included the implementation of measures for the maintenance and maintenance on the move of vehicles attached to some artillery unit of the SS "Reich" division.

Let us fix this important discovery in our memory and continue our further fascinating analysis of individual fragments of the memoirs of the world famous saboteur.

Nonsense about Rumor, which was not there


“Probably, this was the very day when our commander, Hauptsturmführer Joachim Rumor, saw the T-34 in front of the positions of the 6th battery of the 2nd division, jumped on a motorcycle and calmly commanded, moving between our guns and enemy tanks.

The last of them was destroyed by a shell from a 105 mm cannon 15 meters from our positions ...

Just in time! It really was an unusual episode.

Soon Rumor was promoted to the rank of Sturmbannführer (Major), and I received the Iron Cross of the II degree. "

It is worth noting that in this fragment, Otto is modestly silent about what kind of heroic actions he personally performed during the described battle.

Hence, it can be assumed that either Skorzeny kept silent about his feat out of modesty, or did nothing heroic. And he did not dare to lie openly in his memoirs (at the time of writing the book, there were still people who fought with him during the period described. And Otto did not want to get another batch of stinging ridicule in his address).

So, most likely, he received the award not for the feat, but "for participation." That is, he simply conscientiously did his job, as befits an officer of a belligerent army when everything goes according to plan. And you don't need to perform heroic deeds. And people are rewarded not for personal courage, but for the results of a successful offensive operation. According to the lists provided.

But with Rumor, the memoirist had a slight blunder.

In many sources there is information that Joachim Rumor arrived on the Eastern Front only at the beginning of June 1942 - he was transferred to the SS cavalry division as commander of an artillery regiment. On November 9 of the same year, he was promoted to Obersturmbannführer and was awarded the German Cross in Gold for his bravery on the battlefield.

Apparently, Skorzeny drew this episode from some publication. And he mistakenly cited it in his memoirs, frivolously transferring it to the summer of 1941.

Ghost - KV tanks near Borodino


“And one more unpleasant surprise - near Borodino we had to fight the Siberians for the first time.

They are tall, excellent soldiers, well-armed;

they were dressed in wide fur sheepskin coats and hats, and fur boots on their feet.

The 32nd Infantry Division from Vladivostok fought with us with the support of two new tank brigades, consisting of T-34 and KV tanks. "

In the battles in the Mozhaisk fortified area, the 32nd Infantry Division (erroneously named by the memoirist "Siberian") on different days was actually supported not even by two, but by three tank brigades - the 18th, 19th and 20th. But by the time of the fighting at Borodino, the brigades were already thoroughly battered in previous battles and had a relatively small number of tanks, which, in addition, were dispersed along the entire front line. And in addition to the 32nd Rifle Division, they supported other formations of the army.

For clarity, you can give here such information from a document stored in the Central Archives of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation (TsAMO).


From which it follows that on October 17, the 19 tank brigade had only 34% of the T-19 in the total number of tanks, while the 20 tank brigade had 33%. The rest of the tanks were light.

18 tbr no longer had a single combat-ready tank (according to the ZhBD 18 tbr on arrival at the front on October 5, the brigade consisted of 29 t-34 and 31 bt).

And there were no KV heavy tanks in any of the three brigades.

And the 32nd Rifle Division, which arrived at the front in mid-October, had no combat experience and was not put together. As a result, some regiments defended themselves courageously, while others (such as battalions of the 17th rifle division), unable to withstand enemy air raids and shelling, voluntarily left their positions, thereby exposing the front line, which led to the retreat of the entire division. And as a result, the abandonment of the defended line of the Mozhaisk line of defense entailed.

Plumbing order


“We had to enter Moscow through Istra - this town was the central bastion of the second line of defense of the capital.

I was instructed to prevent the destruction of the local water supply and ensure its functioning. "

This is the only fragment in his memoirs where Skorzeny informs about the formulation of some kind of combat mission for him while serving on the Eastern Front.

Even a reader not very experienced in military affairs, this message will cause some doubts about the veracity of the information given.

Firstly, a certain “blurredness” of the task at hand is immediately alarming. What does it mean to prevent the destruction of the local water supply? What specific actions needed to be taken for this? Capture the water tower? Or take over the pumping station? Or capture both of these objects at once?

Unclear.

Secondly, during the assault on small Soviet cities in 1941, the Germans in the first phase of the battle tried to destroy the tallest buildings, where the Red Army soldiers were usually located - observers, artillery fire spotters or machine gunners. The tallest buildings in small towns were the water towers and bell towers of churches. Consequently, all the water towers of the city of Istra even before the start of the battle (or during artillery preparation) were subject to destruction by blows aviation or artillery fire.

Therefore, it made no sense to capture them during the battle. And without a water tower, the water supply system of the 40s could not work. And the seizure of the city water supply itself seems to be an absolutely absurd task: how can the water supply system function in a city that was almost completely destroyed during heavy fighting?

Thirdly, as mentioned above, at that time Otto Skorzeny was not yet "saboteur number 1". He served in a technical unit and had no combat experience that would allow him to seize any object in the city of Istra. And he did not have fighters with a level of training corresponding to the task at hand.

Of course, a purely speculative assumption can be made that the command could have provided a combat detachment of real saboteurs at the disposal of Otto to carry out the above task.

But such an assumption will look like sheer fantasy: none of the command, being in their right mind, will not put an officer-engineer, who had been engaged in cars, at the head of the sabotage group.

Based on the above, we can make an objective conclusion that in this fragment Otto Skorzeny, to put it mildly, lied a little.

Moreover, his invention is so absurd that it immediately catches the eye. It would be better if he did not cite this episode at all - from this his memoirs would only benefit.

It is worth noting that further in the memoirs, the topic of the seizure of the Istra water pipeline was not further developed. The author does not mention any of his actions to carry out this strange assignment.

Absent General Frost


“Despite the losses, our morale was high.

Let's take Moscow!

We moved decisively for the final assault.

Suddenly on November 19 the temperature dropped to -20 ° C.

We didn’t have winter oil for engines and weapons, the engines started with problems. ”

Here we see a classic literary move used by all veterans of the Wehrmacht when describing the misadventures that befell them during the Eastern campaign.
And Otto was more modest - he overestimated the temperature of the day by only 2 times.

Other veterans usually report autumn frosts near Moscow down to minus 40, and some even up to minus 50 degrees.

All this is a lie.

There were no extremely low temperatures in November 1941.


If you get acquainted with this document from TsAMO, it becomes obvious that in November 1941 there can be no talk of any extreme frosts. And during the last ten days of the month, an average of minus 4-12 degrees was observed without sharp jumps in temperature.

And by the beginning of December, warming began with a rise in temperature to zero.

Therefore, if we evaluate the weather as a factor influencing the course of hostilities, then we can conclude that the early onset of small frosts provided significant support to the German army. The mud on the roads and fields was frozen, they became passable even for non-four-wheel drive trucks. As a result, the German war machine, which had previously been firmly entrenched in the mud, regained mobility. And the armored wedges of the Wehrmacht began to stubbornly make their way to the capital.

And they were stopped in the vicinity of Moscow not by "General Moroz", but by hundreds of thousands of Red Army men who fought with their last strength and to the last bullet. Whose remains are buried in numerous mass graves throughout the Moscow region.

Eternal memory to them ...

Tales about a fourfold advantage


"To approach Moscow at a distance of twenty kilometers, our division was forced to fight the enemy, who already in October had a three- and even four-fold superiority in manpower and five-fold in artillery (thanks to" Stalin's organs ")."

The multiple superiority of the Red Army over the Wehrmacht forces is the second typical epic story used by the Germans in their memoirs. And he reminds of a Russian fairy tale about how two new ones immediately grew in place of one cut off head of the Serpent Gorynych.

Soldiers and officers of a losing army are always looking for excuses for their defeat. And it is very tempting, instead of real reasons, to compose some kind of fables like extremely severe frosts, multiple numerical superiority of the enemy, complete absence of roads in Russia, terrible “Stalin's organs” (BM-13 “Katyusha”), armada of T-34 and KV tanks, etc. .d. etc.

It should be noted that disputes between Russian and foreign historians about the balance of forces during the final stage of the Moscow battle have not stopped for more than 70 years. And, apparently, they will never subside.

And there is a reasonable explanation for this: during the war, no one was engaged in the systematic collection of accurate statistics on the number of people and weapons of the opposing sides on certain days and months of fighting. And where accurate information is lost, there are no accurate conclusions.

Analyzing the course of the Moscow battle, the headquarters of the Western Front came to the following conclusion about the balance of forces and means of the Volokolamsk enemy grouping (which included the Reich division) and the 16th Army of the ZapF as of November 14-15, 1941:


The ratio of individual types of weapons can be judged by the data presented below from the same source.


German historians categorically disagree with the given number of tanks, claiming that the headquarters of the Red Army always overestimated the actual number of German tanks by a factor of two (or more).

Not having the opportunity to deal with this difficult issue within the framework of this article, I will only note that, unlike the command of the Red Army, which in the fall of 1941 had a tendency to "spray" tanks along the entire front line, the German command, on the contrary, tried to bring them into large tank groups, thus providing multiple local superiority in tanks. This tactical technique was complemented by the widespread use of maneuver - tanks were quickly transferred from one sector of the front (where they had already ensured the development of success) to another. As a result, the headquarters of the Red Army units created an incorrect idea of ​​the total actual number of enemy tanks. And (as a result) this number was sometimes overestimated several times.

Here it is worth considering a well-known psychological factor: the headquarters of a retreating army are always inclined to significantly exaggerate the actual forces and means of the enemy.
Therefore, I assume that I will not be greatly mistaken in drawing a general conclusion: on November 16, 1941, when the final phase of the German offensive began near Moscow, the Wehrmacht had some superiority in tanks and artillery, and the Red Army in the infantry. But on the whole, the superiority in some way of each of the parties hardly exceeded the value of 1,5 times.

In addition, one should not lose sight of the fact that in the battles near Moscow, the German army consisted mainly of veterans, the formations were put together, the troops maintained strict discipline - at that time it was the strongest and most highly professional army in the world. And it was opposed mainly by the newly formed unfired rifle divisions of the Red Army, whose fighters did not even have time to get proper combat experience, because they were often out of action after two or three battles.

In the following days of the German offensive, due to the large number of losses in the rifle divisions of the Red Army, the combat strength of the rifle regiments was reduced so rapidly that their numbers could not be restored even to a quarter of the regular one. Therefore, the Red Army never succeeded in creating a numerical advantage on the Western Front in the second half of November - the number of Red Army units was literally declining before our eyes. On some days of the last decade of November, it reached the point that at times the combat strength of some rifle regiments totaled 150-200 people, and in some rifle divisions it dropped to 800 "active bayonets".

In order not to be unfounded, I want to cite here such a fragment full of human despair from the combat report of the headquarters of the 133rd rifle division, compiled on 05.12.1941/XNUMX/XNUMX:


Still on the scales of the Wehrmacht, it is necessary to put a high morale and fighting spirit, which traditionally accompanies the advancing army and quickly leaves the retreating one.

Therefore, we can objectively conclude that at the end of November 1941, the chances of the German army to encircle Moscow slightly exceeded the potential of the Red Army to defend it.

The preponderance in favor of the Red Army came only at the beginning of December, when fresh troops were brought to the capital.

But even during this period, it did not even reach a double value in any indicator.

Akhineya about Khimki


"To the left and slightly ahead of our positions was Khimki, a Moscow port located only eight kilometers from the Soviet capital."

In my opinion, this is the most sensational message of those contained in Skorzeny's memoirs. Therefore, I consider it useful to carefully evaluate the information provided for their historical reliability.

To begin with, I want to note that the phrase "to the left and slightly ahead of our positions" is inherent in the vocabulary of a typically civilian. A professional military man, when describing the location of his unit, usually operates by reference to the cardinal points and indicates the exact distance to the landmarks available on the map.

However, there is nothing surprising in this approach of the memoirist. Few people know that Otto Skorzeny, a graduate of the Vienna Higher Technical School, was an engineer-economist in engine building by education. After graduation, from 1932, he first worked in his specialty. But then he headed a construction company, where he worked until 1934.

In 1934, 25-year-old Otto, straight from "civilian", entered the police service in the 89th SS standard, where he was a private. And he served in this modest rank for almost 6 years right up to 1940, when in April he received the rank of SS Unterscharfuehrer, which corresponded to the army rank of "sergeant". On September 1, 1940, Skorzeny was promoted to the rank of SS Oberscharführer (which corresponded to the foreman of the Red Army).

Then his career went uphill: Otto jumped immediately through three intermediate ranks and first on 30.01.41/20.04.41/XNUMX was promoted to the officer rank of SS Untersturmführer (which corresponded to a lieutenant of the Red Army), and then on XNUMX/XNUMX/XNUMX - SS Obersturmführer (senior lieutenant).

But Otto never received any military education. For technical positions, where the famous saboteur served in those years, this was not required. And his engineering diploma was enough to fulfill his official duties.

In Soviet military terms, Otto Skorzeny was a typical "jacket". And apparently he remained in a jacket for life, even reaching the rank of SS Obersturmbannfuehrer (lieutenant colonel), since when writing his memoirs he could not clearly explain in a clear military language where exactly his part was stationed during the period described.

Well, since he could not, then he would have to do this work for him.

The biggest difficulty lies in the fact that the memoirist does not give the exact value of the distance to the indicated landmark - the Khimki river port (station).

"To the left and a little ahead" is how many meters exactly from the positions of his unit to the port? 800? 1000? 3000? Or more?

Usually people by "slightly ahead" mean objects that are in the line of sight, that is, at a distance of about a kilometer.

Okay, let's assume with a margin that the positions of the colleagues of the memoirist were 3000 meters from the main building of the port, which was crowned with a five-pointed star. And then let's figure out where they could be located in relation to modern landmarks.

To do this, take a map of the beginning of this century and draw a circle with a radius of 3 km on it. (Figure below).


It is known for certain from historical documents of the Wehrmacht and Red Army military units that German formations (which included the SS Reich division) attacked Moscow from three main directions: from the north-west along Rogachevsky highway; from the north-west along the Leningradskoye highway, and from the west along the Volokolamskoye highway.

Then, according to Skorzeny, its part should have been located either at the intersection of the modern Zelenogradskaya and Dybenko streets; or at the location of the current Metro store on Leningradskoye sh; or at the intersection of J. Rainis boulevard with Donelaitis avenue; or not far from the Tushinskaya metro station.

The foregoing allows us to conclude that in the fragment under consideration Skorzeny wrote outright nonsense. It is reliably known that in 3 the Germans could not approach the places located 1941 km from the Northern River Port even at the distance of an indirect shot from an MG 42 machine gun.

Their greatest achievement was the occupation of the village. Katyushki (now this is the Lobnya district), from which to the river port 17 km in a straight line, which does not fit the definition of "a little ahead". In other places they were stopped even further from the capital.

Moreover, even the most famous German military "chronicler" Paul Karel, whom Otto mentions in his book, wrote about this fact.

What prevented the famous saboteur, when writing his memoirs, not to invent stories and at least check the text of Karel's book remains a great secret ...

How the village of Nikolskoye was called the city of Nikolaev


However, soon the memoirist forgets that he placed his unit near the Khimki river port, and reports the following:

“On December 2, we continued to move forward and were able to occupy Nikolaev, located 15 kilometers from Moscow - during clear sunny weather, I saw the domes of Moscow churches through binoculars.

Our batteries fired at the outskirts of the capital, but we no longer had gun tractors. "

This mysterious Nikolaev has been driving numerous researchers of Skorzeny's memoirs crazy for more than a dozen years. The fact is that in 1941 there was no settlement with that name in the Moscow region. But there were many villages with the name Nikolskoe.

It is possible that one of these villages at that time housed the unit where Skorzeny served. And its name, in a distorted form, was transformed by the author into Nikolaev.
From the documents of the headquarters of 16A it is known that after the capture of Istra, units of the SS "Reich" division continued their advance towards the capital along the Volokolamsk highway, and were stopped in the village of Lenino, 3 km from the then outskirts of Dedovsk. And they did not manage to get closer to this point to Moscow in this direction.

In those days, in the rear of the SS "Reich" division, 13-14 km northwest of Lenino, there was a small village of Nikolskoye. It is likely that this is precisely what the memoirist writes about. How a small village has grown in the author's imagination to the size of a city, I see no reason to guess.

Skorzeny also slightly lied about 15 km to Moscow.

Even from the village of Lenino to the outskirts of the capital (within its boundaries in 1941) it was about 30 km. And why did Otto suddenly think that he saw from the Nikolsky dome of the Moscow churches, and not those near Moscow, remains an unsolvable mystery.

However, taking into account the previously analyzed blunder of the memoirist with the location of his unit not far from the Northern River Port, it becomes obvious that Skorzeny's knowledge of the geography of the nearest Moscow region is simply deplorable. It was here that the reason for all his "geographical blunders" was so skillfully disguised.

And it remains only to regret that during the years of writing his memoirs, none of his friends presented Skorzeny with a detailed map of the northwestern suburbs of Moscow.

A word was spoken about the poor engineer


After the plot with the mysterious Nikolayev, the account of the adventures that happened to the memoirist on the Eastern Front ends. And he tells the readers with obvious sadness:

“During the retreat, I had constant colic in my liver, and I only stayed on my feet thanks to the pain-relieving injections.

At the beginning of 1942, I was evacuated to Smolensk, and then very quickly to Vienna ...

... After I was discharged from the hospital, my medical record indicated that I was only fit to serve in the garrison on the territory of the country, so I was sent as an engineer officer to Berlin. "

Some publications provide information that these mysterious colic happened to Skorzeny exactly at the beginning of the defeat of the Germans near Moscow, therefore, he jumped out of the battle in time and, therefore, did not have time to sip all the hardships and deprivations of his final part, which fell to the lot of the memoirist's colleagues ...

And soon Otto was already in Vienna, having obtained on the Eastern Front only an iron cross, hepatic colic, and nightmarish memories of the harsh Russian winter.

As a result, it turns out that a person who fought for 6 months on the most difficult of the fronts of World War II in one of the most difficult periods for the German army, even in his memoirs, could not cite a single case when he showed courage or some other praiseworthy property human character.

However, the memoirist himself would never agree with such an assessment. In his opinion, serving in Russia has enriched him with the following important skills:

“I could simultaneously drive and repair not only German and American tanks, but also powerful Russian T-34s, in which the gear sometimes had to be switched with a hammer.

I could also fly airplanes and speed boats, I could swim, I fired quite well with long-barreled and short-barreled weapons, I was able to direct artillery fire, commanded reconnaissance, built bridges, wrote intelligible reports, and so on. "

There are big doubts about the driving of tanks.

Firstly, maintenance of tanks and, moreover, their driving was not included in the scope of Skorzeny's duties.

Secondly, personally, I have little idea how the almost two-meter broad-shouldered Otto would have managed to climb into the tank and squeeze into the driver's seat.

The rest of the skills (especially the ability to fly planes and boats) are also highly questionable.

The only thing that Skorzeny could learn was the ability to shoot well with small arms - the development of this skill in the German units was always paid special attention.

Further, the memoirist reports with obvious regret:

“After I was discharged from the hospital, my medical record indicated that I was only fit to serve in the garrison on the territory of the country, so I was sent as an engineer officer to Berlin, to the reserve battalion of the SS division of the life-standard“ Adolf Hitler ”stationed there.

It follows that the future saboteur of world importance was declared unfit for service in combat units.

Was written off to some kind of "invalid team", where he blabbed until March 1943. (There is fragmentary information that Otto again got to the Eastern Front at the end of 1942, but quickly left there back to Berlin due to an aggravated illness).

Then, suddenly, there was a sharp jump in Skorzeny's career: he was appointed head of the VI sabotage service of the SD with direct subordination to the head of the SS VI foreign intelligence of the Main Directorate of Imperial Security (RSHA), SS Brigadeführer Walter Schellenberg.

The fact that an unremarkable (except for his anthropological data) and morbid military engineer, who did not even serve a single day in combat units, was appointed to such a high and responsible position, seems very mysterious and even somehow mystical.

In fact, there was nothing mystical about this event.

In his youth, Otto Skorzeny became close friends with Ernst Kaltenbrunner and, once in Berlin, fell under the patronage of his powerful friend, who from January 1943 headed the General Directorate of Reich Security. Ernst put in the right word (where appropriate). And as a result, he lifted his friend to such heights that Otto could not even dream of in his sweetest dreams.

Well, then Skorzeny could only pick up real professionals under his command. And do not yawn, timely reporting upstairs even the slightest minor successes, while diligently overshadowing the failures that have befallen.
In which he subsequently excelled greatly.

Skorzeny became world famous for his participation in a special operation to kidnap Mussolini. And, despite the fact that Otto led only one of the three groups involved in the operation, he managed to be the very first to report success to Berlin. At the same time, it obscured the actions of the German paratroopers who participated in the capture. Therefore, all the laurels fell exclusively on his head, and the names of the commanders of the airborne units remained unknown to the general public.

Well, then the propaganda machine of the Third Reich started working. And she trumpeted Otto Skorzeny's "feat" to the whole world ...

Movie hero


How many people in the world have heard of Hauptmann Walter Koch?

But this officer brilliantly performed a very important operation. In 1940, a detachment of saboteurs under his command was able to capture an extremely significant object at that time for the German tank army - the Belgian fort of Eben-Emael, which ensured the Wehrmacht's victory over the French army.

How many people in the world know the names Georg Freiherr von Berlepsch and Harald Morse?

Perhaps about a thousand.

But these officers led two groups of paratroopers during the raid to capture Mussolini. And many experts expressed the opinion that it was the paratroopers (and not Skorzeny's people) who, with their decisive actions, ensured the success of Operation Oak.

There were also dozens of real professional saboteurs, whose names are generally unknown to the general public. And it is unlikely that the special operations and sabotage carried out by them during the Second World War will ever be declassified.

And Otto Skorzeny is known by millions. And they know mainly thanks to the post-war film industry, which advertised this man and created a myth about saboteur No. 1 among the inhabitants.

But such are the whims of fate. Sometimes she exalted people not according to their true merits, but as a result of a favorable combination of circumstances. Or, to put it simply, because of their personal luck.

And then, thanks to new films, their fame grows higher and higher. And the heroes created by the cinema can only bask under its warm rays ...

PS
The author used Skorzeny's biographical information from various publications without being able to verify their accuracy. What to consider when criticizing.
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  1. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 2 March 2021 18: 18
    +6
    Hmm ... I don’t know the "Horches" were on springs or springs? ...
    1. Revolver
      Revolver 3 March 2021 02: 31
      +7
      And in general, the Kübelwagen seemed to be based not on the luxurious Horch, but on the much more modest Volkswagen Beetle.
      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volkswagen_Kübelwagen
      And the springs, in principle, were on the T-26, but never on the T-34.
      1. Free wind
        Free wind 3 March 2021 08: 02
        +3
        The springs from the T-34 could well fit this wagon, there is also a spring suspension. The fact that the suspension of the tank was called a spring, then this is probably the cost of translation, and not a spine of a quickening. Let's say in English spring and spring are one word spring. the T-34 could easily fit, there is enough space for the mechanic drive, as you remember, even for a dog there was a place. Actually, the Panther could fit, you probably know the story of repainting the Panthers for American tanks. Yes, and skorzeny was all the same a kind of "true Aryan", tall, athletic. The rest, so to speak, "heroes" of the Reich, were so-so puppies, that pilots, that tankers, that submariners.
        1. aglet
          aglet 3 March 2021 10: 24
          +5
          "The springs from the T-34 could easily fit this wagon, there is also a spring suspension there."
          very bold statement. you will compare the weight of the t34 and the kubel. one tank spring is enough for a dozen pelvis
          1. Free wind
            Free wind 3 March 2021 11: 11
            0
            There were two springs on the rink on the tank, the upper spring was thinner and softer. Which one was put, I do not know. Yes, and the military was not particularly up to comfort, if only it drove. It has now become uncomfortable for generals to drive UAZs, give them Mercedes.
            1. aglet
              aglet 3 March 2021 12: 32
              +1
              "There were two springs on the rink on the tank, the upper spring was thinner and softer."
              here -

              there were such springs. I don't see the top
        2. Fitter65
          Fitter65 3 March 2021 11: 47
          +2
          Quote: Free Wind
          The springs from the T-34 could well fit this wagon, there is also a spring suspension.

          And how is the diameter of the spring, the length of the spring, but just what compression force a spring should have for a kübelwagen and what is this force for a T-34. The fact that there are springs here and there does not mean that they can be swapped without problems.
      2. The leader of the Redskins
        The leader of the Redskins 3 March 2021 08: 21
        +2
        Kübelwagen is a body type of German army cars. They were built almost on the basis of all brands: Volks, DKV, Horch, and even Mercedes. The absence of doors and seating is like a bathtub so as not to fall out. Then, however, they were standardized and reduced by type.
        1. aglet
          aglet 3 March 2021 14: 13
          +2
          "Kübelvagen is a body type of German army cars. They were built on the basis of almost all brands: Volks, DKV, Horch, and even Mercedes. The absence of doors and a seat is like a bathtub so that it would not fall out. Then, however, they were standardized and shortened by type. "
          this is a common delusion of recent years, or months, which has struck the minds of many. I'll try to explain why. type a request anywhere - kübelvagen, and you will immediately be offered an answer - fv 82, that kübelvagen is a body type, its name is not available. moreover, I learned to read a very long time ago, at that time there were still paper books, and many technical, automotive and military articles and reviews were printed. So even then, if a Kübelvagen was mentioned, it means Volkswagen Typ 82, and no one else, although it is not quite right. Horch 901 was also mentioned, but as a ferret, and not as a representative of cars of the pelvis family.
          "Lack of doors and seating is like a bathtub, so as not to fall out"
          what is a bath? this is horizontally-oriented capacity, first of all. in your opinion, the crew of such cars lay in the bathtubs, and were afraid to fall out?
          one of the first experimental cars of this type had something similar-

          but here the backrest from the fence played the role of the missing sidewall of the body, and tried to protect the riders from the mechanical effects of the external environment.

          it was a simple flat seat, as, by the way, and on the Horch 901, which is also called now kübelvagen-



          as you can see, it doesn't look like a pelvis at all
          1. The leader of the Redskins
            The leader of the Redskins 3 March 2021 14: 40
            0
            Let me disagree. I, too, was brought up on paper books and heard about kübelwagens, probably from "cars in combat formation."
            And here is how the famous auto expert and author of many books on cars, Yevgeny Kochnev, speaks about them:
            For the characteristic shape of the open body, reminiscent of a scoop, tub or bath, they received the official name Kübelwagen, that is, "car-tub" or "tub on wheels".
            1. aglet
              aglet 3 March 2021 15: 00
              +2
              "Let me disagree"
              I allow, but read carefully- "For the characteristic shape of the open body, reminiscent of a scoop, pelvis or bathtub, they received the official name Kübelwagen, that is," car-tub "or" bathtub on wheels ". And not a word about the seats
              and where are you here-

              or here-

              or here-

              where you see the characteristic shape of the body "scoop, pelvis or bath"
              but here-
              , the very thing, isn't it?
              Thanks for the information, now I will know who launched the misinformation - Evgeny Kochnev, well-known, damn it, autoexperd. in which circles he is known, this is the first time I hear this surname. "Kübelwagen" is not an official name, but a soldier's nickname
              1. The leader of the Redskins
                The leader of the Redskins 3 March 2021 16: 40
                +1
                I don’t see it. The Germans themselves saw it.
                1. aglet
                  aglet 4 March 2021 08: 38
                  0
                  "I don't see it. The Germans saw it themselves."
                  and displayed somewhere, probably?
                  1. The leader of the Redskins
                    The leader of the Redskins 4 March 2021 08: 46
                    +1
                    The designation Kübelwagen or Kübelsitzwagen can be traced back to the development of military off-road vehicles. In order to achieve the lowest possible weight, doors were not installed on some models. They have been replaced with tarpaulins or have been eliminated entirely The bucket seats are designed so that passengers do not fall out of the vehicle while driving. Built-in, which should give the driver and front passenger better grip. These seats were colloquially known as "bucket seats" because of their bathtub-like shape and the vehicles in which they were installed as "bucket seats" or "bucket cars" for short. Over time, this name became synonymous with all cars of this type, regardless of whether they were equipped with so-called bucket seats (half bodies) or not.

                    This is a translation from the German "Wiki". Have you been banned from Google or are you persistently trying to push your version as the only correct one? You wrote that you have your own opinion - people understood. I didn't even give you any minuses. But you stubbornly push the small-scale special floating car as a true one, and the rest are not worthy! Although we did not come up with this, it was the Germans themselves who called their cars pelvis.
                    1. aglet
                      aglet 4 March 2021 09: 58
                      +1
                      "To achieve the lowest possible weight, doors were not fitted on some models."
                      only some models, mostly experienced ones, were produced without doors, the rest had doors. Attach a photo, or find it yourself, are you doing well with the Gugel?
                      "These seats were colloquially known as 'bucket seats' because of their bathtub-like shape and the vehicles in which they were installed as 'bucket seats' or 'bucket cars' for short."
                      so buckets, or baths? the bucket, in German - "Schüsselkelle", is not a kyubel at all, and the type of car is determined not by the type of seats, but by the purpose.
                      "which should give the driver and front passenger better traction."
                      here, it is generally incomprehensible. good (or better), the driver and front passenger grip the road in case of falling out of the car. those. the bucket seats should facilitate the best fall out of the machine. read carefully what you are rewriting.
                      "Over time, this name has become synonymous with all vehicles of this type, regardless of whether they were equipped with so-called bucket seats (half bodies) or not."
                      "Bucket cars" in German are not "kübelvagen" at all. maybe there were also "bucket cars", but they did not receive fame, only in the German wiki, in which they write such autoexperts as we do.
                      "But you stubbornly push the small-scale special floating car as a true one, and the rest are not worthy!"
                      Was the Type 82 small-scale? and ferret 901 looks more like a pelvis than type166? what is it with your eyes
                    2. aglet
                      aglet 4 March 2021 10: 02
                      +1
                      "Are you persistently trying to push your version as the only correct one?"
                      you do the same, although your version has frail legs
                      "I didn't even give you any minuses."
                      that is, to everyone whose opinion does not coincide with yours, do you put downsides? well, a worthy method of controversy
          2. militarist63
            militarist63 8 March 2021 01: 10
            +1
            this is a common delusion of recent years, or months, which has struck the minds of many.
            Quite right! "Experts" who draw knowledge from Wikipedia are subject to similar delusions ... It was there that they blurted out such shnyaga ... and that's it! And if you dig in normal sources, nowhere, except in relation to the Volkswagen Typ 82, we will not find the name "Kübelwagen"! Even in the same Wikipedia !!! At the same time, the Leader of the Redskins writes:
            Kübelwagen is a body type of German army cars. They were built almost on the basis of all brands: Volks, DKV, Horch, and even Mercedes. Lack of doors and seating - like a bathtub so as not to fall out

            And here is what we see in Wikipedia, on the page Volkswagen Typ 82 (Kübelwagen) - "The name Kübelwagen or Kübelsitzwagen was used not only for Typ 82. This is a general name for open-type army vehicles, at the initial stage, when designing, due to the need for as much as possible to lighten and simplify the structure, abandoned doors or replaced them, like the roof, with tarpaulins, while the seats, for greater safety, were installed deep - "pelvis" (Kübelsitz) "... laughing WELL, DIRECTLY LIKE! Or the Leader of the Redskins in Wikipedia studied ..., or Wikipedia from him ...! laughing laughing
            But if you look (specifically) for some other army car of the Wehrmacht (in the same Wikipedia) with an open top and other tarpaulin and doorless nuances ..., we will not find anywhere, in relation to their application of the name "Kübelwagen" !!! Let's take even the closest to the Volkswagen Typ 82 - Volkswagen Typ 166. We open Wikipedia, which asserted about some common name for open-type army vehicles .... and what do we see there? And we see there that the Volkswagen Typ 166 is nothing more than a "Schwimmwagen"! And nothing at all about any "Kübelwagen" !!! Further, for example, we take the Stoewer R200 Spezial ... (also a very popular car with a simple open body in the Wehrmacht) and also nowhere else about it ... like the "Kübelwagen" is not (and in Wikipedia too) !!!. ...
            1. aglet
              aglet 8 March 2021 08: 35
              +1
              "Experts who draw knowledge from Wikipedia are subject to similar delusions."
              thanks for the support. nice to hear a thinking person
        2. aglet
          aglet 3 March 2021 14: 40
          +3
          I will continue

          or here

          so the seat is not a pelvis at all, and was named volkswagen-kdf-82-kubelwagen, and only it, so not because of the shape of the seats.
          I will explain why they call him wrong

          on the right-Volkswagen Typ 166. here it really looks like a bathtub and a pelvis, but its seats are the simplest, flattest, like on the Volkswagen Typ 82.By the way, the seat in the body is not visible from the side, which is on the Volks, on the Horch, and invisible by sight car seats will not be named. kübelwagen, this is not an official name, but a soldier's nickname. so what will be called a pelvis, it is-

          or that-

          It seems to me that the folk is very similar to a bath, or a pelvis. more than a ferret. here it is, Typ 166, and nicknamed "pelvis". and then, by the "method of reverse modernization", they transferred this name to its older brother, Typ 82, which also resembles a bathtub. therefore, only Volkswagen Typ 82 and Typ166 can bear the proud name - Kübelwagen. It's my personal opinion
  2. Destiny
    Destiny 2 March 2021 18: 22
    +25
    And I agree with the author (by the way, he was in vain modesty and did not subscribe - the article is excellent, thank you!) That this is more of a myth. I am about "saboteur No. 1" Skorzeny .. Everything that is known about his "numerous exploits" in Mostly taken from his own memoirs, which can no longer pretend to be an objective assessment. Nothing on the Eastern Front was noted - in August 1941 Skorzeny was out of action due to dysentery, and was sent home for treatment, to Vienna. he briefly returned to the Eastern Front, but before the start of the Soviet counteroffensive near Moscow, he again went to Vienna - this time due to a “severe attack of gallbladder inflammation.” Apparently, titles and awards fell on him during this period only thanks to the necessary connections in the leadership of the Third Reich. And this is the famous "liberation of Mussolini" ... Was he alone there, without a battalion of paratroopers, did the Italians put up any serious resistance, did he stay with his soldiers when he got on the plane despite the overload? And thisthe only successful operation ... But in the history of this Munchausen of the Third Reich, everything will remain a super-saboteur early on, since an established myth is always stronger than truth.
    1. anjey
      anjey 2 March 2021 19: 40
      +10
      The operation to free Mussolini was also not entirely successful, one glider crashed and there were losses among the paratroopers. And in Iran and in the Ardennes, Otto also did nothing special.
    2. Revolver
      Revolver 3 March 2021 02: 39
      +10
      Quote: Destiny
      in August 1941 Skorzeny was out of action due to dysentery

      Here's a foreigner!
    3. Petrik66
      Petrik66 3 March 2021 11: 14
      +4
      The boring truth is of no interest to anyone. War requires heroes, and often become a hero according to the order, questionnaire and on the basis of political expediency. My great-grandfather, in 1938, was arrested as an "enemy of the people", released three months later, but ..... My grandfather was not allowed to see a combat aircraft until May 1942 and he flew as a communications pilot on Po2, when in the summer of 1942 in .. .. pecked a roasted rooster, in the Caucasus they gave him Il 2 and he, a career pilot, fought on it until the end of the war, was demobilized from Germany in 53. Four Orders of the Red Banner were given, but the Hero - well, no, that's all, since it was not good with his father. And Skorzeny was a couch hero who had two trump cards: 1. He was the Kent of Kalterbruner and 2. He was an Austrian - the land of Adik. As they say, the puzzle came together and a Hero appeared with a capital letter. And to win against the Italians - well, this is somehow not solid. Even the Romanians would probably have won against them.
  3. Cartalon
    Cartalon 2 March 2021 18: 27
    +8
    Why is this article in the opinion section, and all conspiratorial nonsense, in the history section?
  4. Ryaruav
    Ryaruav 2 March 2021 18: 36
    +13
    by the end of the war he became a hardened Nazi close to the top and unfortunately escaped the gallows
    1. Hagen
      Hagen 2 March 2021 19: 30
      +12
      Quote: Ryaruav
      he became a hardened Nazi

      And after the war he worked as an errand for the Mossad. wassat
      1. Revolver
        Revolver 3 March 2021 02: 48
        +1
        Quote: Hagen
        Quote: Ryaruav
        he became a hardened Nazi

        And after the war he worked as an errand for the Mossad. wassat

        And even if he did part-time, what is your problem? Yes, there was a rumor that with his participation several Germans who worked for Egypt, which at that time was at war with Israel, were spanked. And, by the way, the then Egypt was a great "friend" of the USSR, who sucked a load of funds and weapons both under Khrushchev and at the beginning of Brezhnev's rule. And it would be okay to cover Russian weapons with glory, or else with shame, safely merged ALL, without exception, the wars with Israel. And then he safely threw the USSR and moved under the wing of the United States.
        Arabs they are such arabs.
        1. Hagen
          Hagen 3 March 2021 14: 06
          +1
          Quote: Nagan
          And even if he did part-time, what is your problem?

          And why should I have a problem about this? I find it funny to read ideological clichés in discussions about elementary prostitution.
    2. anjey
      anjey 2 March 2021 19: 51
      +11
      He surrendered to the Yankees and after the war was a link between the CIA and the surviving Nazis, who were needed in the further struggle against Bolshevism, and for the creation of the neo-Nazi movement in Europe and the Americans, protected like the apple of an eye.
    3. Catfish
      Catfish 2 March 2021 20: 00
      +4
      Why only towards the end, under the Anschluss of Austria, he participated in the arrest of Chancellor Dollfuss.
      1. your1970
        your1970 3 March 2021 11: 53
        +3
        Quote: Sea Cat
        Why only towards the end, under the Anschluss of Austria, he participated in the arrest of Chancellor Dollfuss.

        "in the 89th standard of the SS, which included ordinary... And he served in this modest rank for almost 6 years old until 1940, "- the problem is that the arrest was probably carried out by persons with officer titles. Well don't go ordinary arrest the head of state ... I was there, maybe I was force support (a healthy boar after all), no more ...
        So here, too, most likely fantasy on his part ...

        And with the water supply in Istra, most likely everything was much easier - he, as an engineer, was instructed to provide functioning plumbing. Surely they gave a certain number of soldiers to guard the pumping stations, towers, right up to distribution points .... he called their placement on guard at the facilities "capture." ..

        But his most important fable is that he knew how to control artillery fire ... a man able do it- knowinglyи automatically knows the local geography, topography and knows how to navigate the terrain ... Otherwise, kirdyk YOUR troops ...
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 3 March 2021 18: 14
          -1
          About his participation in the arrest of Dollfuss there was information in the book by Julius Madera "The Man with Scars", there was a writer in the GDR who was engaged in a detailed study of the life and activities of famous Nazis. And Mader wrote that Skorzeny's rank at that time was non-commissioned Scharführer. The book was published in the USSR in the early sixties, at the same time that Hoettl's book "Operation Bernhard" was published.
          1. your1970
            your1970 3 March 2021 21: 17
            +1
            Quote: Sea Cat
            And Mader wrote that Skorzeny's rank at that time was non-commissioned Scharführer.
            - well, yes ... not an ordinary - whole sergeant...
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 3 March 2021 21: 31
              +2
              Well yes. And the worst of all, of course, is the corporal. laughing
  5. Dimide
    Dimide 2 March 2021 18: 44
    +12
    We are adults and we understand that "whoever got up first, that and the slippers." The one who first scribbled the victory report will be noticed and noted. And plus the military myth-making. The country needs heroes
  6. ee2100
    ee2100 2 March 2021 18: 56
    +3
    And who is the author? Judging by the fact that there is an epigraph, it can be assumed that Shpakovsky, but the topic is not his.
    1. BAI
      BAI 2 March 2021 19: 29
      +5
      Absolutely not him.
    2. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 2 March 2021 21: 23
      +6
      Not his style and not his level.
    3. Lewww
      5 March 2021 17: 25
      0
      Quote: ee2100
      And who is the author? Judging by the fact that there is an epigraph, it can be assumed that Shpakovsky, but the topic is not his.

      My article, at the bottom of the original article there was a signature LEV TURIN.

      Why the moderators removed it for me is a secret.
      I wrote them a letter, now I'm waiting for what will happen: either they acknowledge my authorship, or will be banned forever
      1. ee2100
        ee2100 5 March 2021 17: 46
        0
        To be continued? The topic is interesting. I think they will not be banned wink
        1. Lewww
          5 March 2021 18: 48
          0
          I do not plan to write a sequel about Skorzeny, and even more so I do not plan to post anything from what is written on this site, where moderators, without agreement with the author, make their insertions into his article, and even remove the author's pseudonym
          1. ee2100
            ee2100 5 March 2021 19: 31
            0
            Free will - will. It's a pity, I didn't know about Skorzeny's Russian period, and if, honestly, I wasn't particularly interested in him. I read about Berezin and how the Jews were verbanuli him.
            Success.
  7. Catfish
    Catfish 2 March 2021 19: 13
    -3
    YAYAYAYAYAYAYAYAYAYAYA [quote] [/ quote] YAYAYA
    1. ee2100
      ee2100 2 March 2021 19: 19
      -1
      Oh really? And how the Jews will verbanul it?
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 2 March 2021 19: 31
        +2
        And then they also wrote to me that I have no right to leave my comments on the site. A complete mess !!!
    2. Catfish
      Catfish 2 March 2021 19: 29
      +1
      Wow, damn it, again! but what is going on on the site !? Quite already ....
      1. ee2100
        ee2100 2 March 2021 19: 40
        0
        Konstantin! Do not worry. If there is a continuation - good luck!
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 2 March 2021 19: 56
          -4
          Thank you, Sasha! smile
          If you do not mind, I will try to get through to you on the third attempt, at least as an answer to you.

          I do not really trust anonymous messages, and if the author did not put his signature, then there were probably reasons for this, especially considering this:
          ... from various publications without being able to verify their accuracy.

          If you are not sure about the reliability of the information, then why should you voice them at all?
          And, by the way, I did not see any other "various publications" in the article except Skorzeny's memoirs, on which the author makes the main emphasis.
          Skorzeny was an enemy, but he died long ago and died of cancer as an old man, and I consider it unworthy to shit on the grave of an enemy.
          It is enough for me that our intelligence cleaned up and beat him with a bang in Operation Berezino, it’s a pity that we learned about this relatively recently.
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 2 March 2021 19: 57
            +3
            Finally! I'll go have a drink. drinks
          2. ee2100
            ee2100 2 March 2021 20: 28
            -3
            "I consider shitting on the enemy's grave an unworthy occupation." (c) 1000% agree, but now the political component is prevalent and many do not understand this, unfortunately.
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 2 March 2021 21: 06
              0
              Hamsters crawled out of the mink laughing , and this is exactly the audience that you had in mind, for the lack of understanding they have, everything is simple in their little life. Rodents. What can you take from them? The cadavers of the animal instead of the brain gnawed at the banal. drinks
              1. ee2100
                ee2100 2 March 2021 21: 18
                +1
                Konstantin! What can I say, let them pass this recognition too!
                And in their opinion, I am committing an act of deification!
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 2 March 2021 21: 20
                  -1
                  In general, I agree completely. smile
          3. Lewww
            5 March 2021 18: 59
            +1
            Quote: Sea Cat
            If you are not sure about the reliability of the information, then why should you voice them at all?
            in the overwhelming majority of publications claiming the title of historical research (or simply history textbooks), the authors (if they are truly professional historians) are not sure of the reliability of at least 50% of the information they use. But rarely does any author find the courage to communicate this to his reader.

            And my essay does not at all claim to be a historical study, this is not a biography of Skorzeny, this is just a boringly written analysis of the information contained in his memoirsIe stated personally to them.
  8. Dart2027
    Dart2027 2 March 2021 19: 16
    +12
    It is difficult to say to what extent his memoirs are true. And the point is not even some kind of bragging or modesty, but the fact that he was a saboteur of the losing side, and it was not very reasonable to brag about his adventures. I read "The Secret Missions of the RSHA" and noticed that he tries to avoid mentioning specific operations, telling only what was publicized around the world.
    1. your1970
      your1970 3 March 2021 12: 01
      0
      Quote: Dart2027
      drew attention to the fact that he tries to avoid mentioning specific operations, telling only what was publicized all over the world.

      And who would force him to write about sabotage against the United States and England? Write and write to yourself - how the USSR crap ... Russophobia was well paid even then, or did you think - they all just rushed to write memoirs ??? The go-ahead from Washington passed, Churchill spoke at Fulton and alga ...
      1. Dart2027
        Dart2027 3 March 2021 14: 11
        0
        Quote: your1970
        Write and write to yourself - how the USSR crap ...

        Skorzeny left the prisoner of war camp without any problems, and without any movie escapes, he did not hide much in the future. It says something. How could he ransom? Only something connected with the USSR and which very few knew about.
        1. your1970
          your1970 3 March 2021 16: 00
          +1
          Quote: Dart2027
          That says something.

          This suggests that he knew a lot about the leaders of the Reich, for example, about the money of the party or ODESSA (Yu. Semenov rested on his connection with this)
          What could he learn about the USSR from the other side of the front - and even something that would be useful to the allies after 1945? Nothing...
          1. Dart2027
            Dart2027 3 March 2021 16: 57
            0
            Quote: your1970
            for example, about the money of the party or ODESSA (Yu. Semenov rested on his connection with this)

            Writer?
            Quote: your1970
            What could he learn about the USSR from the other side of the front - and even something that would be useful to the allies after 1945?

            Agent network. The saboteur had nothing to do with finance, but agents are another matter. And not necessarily the USSR, there were also countries of the socialist camp.
            1. your1970
              your1970 3 March 2021 17: 31
              0
              Quote: Dart2027
              Quote: your1970
              for example, about the money of the party or ODESSA (Yu. Semenov rested on his connection with this)

              Writer?
              Quote: your1970
              What could he learn about the USSR from the other side of the front - and even something that would be useful to the allies after 1945?

              Agent network. The saboteur had nothing to do with finance, but agents are another matter. And not necessarily the USSR, there were also countries of the socialist camp.

              the net does not roll - he did not serve in intelligence.
              I could (theoretically!) Recognize individual agents, and that is hardly.
              In the countries of the socialist camp - well, maybe he was, but again - not a scout ...
              Rather, indeed, the facts about which Y. Semenov wrote - ODESSA + Reich's loot
              "In his youth, Otto Skorzeny became close friends with Ernst Kaltenbrunner and, finding himself in Berlin, came under the patronage of his powerful friend, who from January 1943 headed General Directorate of Imperial Security."
              - so he could well have known, if not about money, then about cultural values ​​looted for sure
              1. Dart2027
                Dart2027 3 March 2021 17: 43
                0
                Quote: your1970
                In his youth, Otto Skorzeny became close friends with Ernst Kaltenbrunner and, once in Berlin, fell under the patronage of his powerful friend, who from January 1943 headed the General Directorate of Reich Security.

                But this moment seems dubious to me. Yes, the patronage of influential friends is a common thing, but to put a completely left-wing man in the post of commander of special forces is somehow too much. And if they were such friends, why didn't he help his friend before? Kaltenbruner held high posts until 1943, so he could easily help him with his career, especially since OS was anyone but not a fool. It seems to me that he began to work with the German special services from the very beginning of his career, perhaps under the supervision of the same K, then such an appointment looks more logical.
                1. your1970
                  your1970 3 March 2021 21: 02
                  +2
                  Quote: Dart2027
                  Yes, the patronage of influential friends is a common thing, but putting a completely left-wing man in the post of commander of special forces is somehow too much.
                  - I will remind you that the Third Reich existed only 12 years old(!!!) and during this period there were a bunch of bosses, wars, and so on for little things ... It's just that by 1943 the Eastern Front had brilliantly cleaned up the ranks - therefore, an acquaintance, possibly a devoted (and clever !! it is easy to stick to steer anything - even a bank, even a casino, even a special forces ... if only he was betrayed and not quite a dunce ...

                  ZY You don't have to go far - in our 90s, who just didn’t drive anything
                  1. Dart2027
                    Dart2027 3 March 2021 21: 17
                    0
                    Quote: your1970
                    You don't have to go far - in our 90s, who just didn’t drive anything

                    In the 90s, we had a terrible mess and a complete collapse of the state system, but in the 43rd the Reich was quite functioning for itself.
                    Quote: your1970
                    perhaps a devoted (and clever !! stupid cannot escape from the Eastern front so deep to the rear)

                    That's what I wrote about
                    Quote: Dart2027
                    And if they were such friends, why didn't he help his friend before? Kaltenbruner held high posts until 1943, so he could easily help him with his career, especially since OS was anyone but not a fool.
                    This is one of the weakest points in the biography of the OS. If they hadn't been in a relationship for several years, why would K remember him? If you did, then why didn't you promote your friend before? Indeed, over the years of work, K could not help but acquire connections and he probably had candidates for a vacant position. Well, it doesn't add up.
                    1. your1970
                      your1970 3 March 2021 21: 27
                      0
                      Quote: Dart2027
                      In the 90s, we had a terrible mess and a complete collapse of the state system, but in the 43rd the Reich was quite functioning for itself.
                      - and the wars and the change of leaders are almost daily before the war - apparently they are creating a strict order? Today the SA is the SS brothers - tomorrow the SS is theirs during the night of long knives of that ...

                      It seems to me that a sharp jerk up is banal hardware games Kaltenbrunner ... a "man" was needed for a certain place at the right moment - pulled out the OS ..... and before that the OS was quietly sitting on the bench and waited for the moment
  9. Vadim Ananyin
    Vadim Ananyin 2 March 2021 19: 17
    +11
    They later had a lot of storytellers after the war. And there were a lot during the war too.
    And everyone constantly had some kind of excuses and exploits with excuses.
    And the article is interesting, thanks to the author.
  10. mr.ZinGer
    mr.ZinGer 2 March 2021 19: 19
    +8
    As a child, I remember reading how Skorzene fought with the nodes of resistance in the Brest Fortress, making his way across the roofs and lowering explosive charges into the smoke stacks, but this is not St. Petersburg, there is continuous development, even then questions arose.
  11. zenion
    zenion 2 March 2021 19: 28
    +9
    Of course, they did not write about how he bravely refused to participate in the assassination of the troika in Iran. Apparently knowing that there was no chance for him, he covered himself with the fact that the Fuehrer, honoring his merits and not wanting to lose such a valuable yubermen, forbade him to participate in this operation. Tehran 43.
  12. BAI
    BAI 2 March 2021 19: 29
    +5
    The author used Skorzeny's biographical information

    And who, in fact, is the author?
    Otto Skorzeny is credited with the following deed associated with the Eastern Front:
    A Soviet intelligence officer, whom the Germans considered to be their own, gave information that a detachment of about 2000 people was stuck. They managed to survive, and they ask for help. Sherhorn led the squad, who at that time was a recruited agent of the USSR. Otto decided to check the accuracy of the information. He sent 8 paratroopers from among the best and most dedicated there. They were immediately captured by the Soviet Union. Skorzeny received an answer from them. A report of the usual signal came, and then a special one, which said that everything was fine with them and that they were not captured. Skorzeny began to actively help the detachment cut off from the allies. After 8 months, 22 scouts from Germany, radio stations, food, weapons and about 2 million rubles were sent there. Otto never realized that he had been cruelly deceived.

    Well, I don't know how reliable it is.
    1. Poetry
      Poetry 2 March 2021 20: 12
      +13
      Really. Supervised by Sudoplatov. Sherhorn was found in Krasnogorsk, in a prisoner of war camp. The operation ended when Berlin was stormed.
      Operation "Berezino"
  13. Prisoner
    Prisoner 2 March 2021 19: 36
    +8
    The "saboteur" "No. 1" on the Eastern Front was picked up, and in the literal sense. And he fled from the front with dysentery and never came back. bully It was safer in Italy.
  14. evgen1221
    evgen1221 2 March 2021 20: 07
    +10
    Well, I'll put Skorzeny as the most successful saboteur of all the countries participating in the Second World War, I don't think so, because there are no documents for many operations and people, and in some places there is a lack of quality, plus go find what is in the archives. Skorzeny should rather be considered as the most famous (publicized) saboteur of the Third Reich, but not as the whole war. Our Sudoplatov, be it so PR, might have given a head start. And in general, to extol the enemy in our war-winning country is somehow bad and wrong. Than Sudoplatov and the people under his leadership who worked or carried out his ideas in the dark, how are they worse ???
    1. Revolver
      Revolver 3 March 2021 03: 01
      +2
      Quote: evgen1221
      Than Sudoplatov and the people under his leadership who worked or carried out his ideas in the dark, how are they worse?

      Yes, the fact that most of what they did is still classified, and they did not give sensational interviews to any scribblers.
  15. Poetry
    Poetry 2 March 2021 20: 08
    +10
    Thanks to the Author. A very informative article. Took off the crown from the super-saboteur. It looks like we had it after Afgan. If he shouts that the hero crumbled "spirits" on exit-raids, it means a bullshit. If "at the headquarters" or "in Kabul in a food warehouse he gave out stew," then he participated in serious operations.
  16. Undecim
    Undecim 2 March 2021 20: 19
    +9
    PS
    The author used Skorzeny's biographical information from various publications without being able to verify their accuracy. What to consider when criticizing.

    Have checked already, and more than once. Solid legend.
    Those interested can find this article online in the Journal for Intelligence, Propaganda and Security Studies (JIPSS) Vol 11, Nr. 1/2017.

    Even Mussolini's kidnapping was not planned and organized by Skorzeny, he was the executor.
    1. Liam
      Liam 2 March 2021 20: 23
      +4
      Quote: Undecim
      Even Mussolini's kidnapping was not planned and organized by Skorzeny, he was the executor.

      He was not an executor either. It was performed by those who organized and planned, the paratroopers. He was just a self-promoter who joined in. In general, his usual role
      1. Avior
        Avior 3 March 2021 00: 25
        +2
        So who first landed and directly freed Mussolini?
        In Skorzeny's account, it was Skorzeny.
        1. Liam
          Liam 3 March 2021 01: 17
          +3
          The general command of the operation was carried out by General Kurt Student, the developer of the operation was Major Harald-Otto Mors, the aerial reconnaissance was carried out by Captain Gerd Langguth, equipment and aircraft from 2. Fallschirmjäger-Division. The assault group on gliders was commanded by Lieutenant Georg von Berlepsch. The ground assault group was commanded by Mors. ...
          Skorzeny was attached to the detachment as a representative of the SS as a "political consultant." The role of the SS in the entire operation was to locate Mussollini through an agent network, since the paratroopers were not engaged in agent intelligence.
          The glider that Skorzeny flew was 4th in the ranks. Before landing, all gliders had to make a small circle with a climb for a safe landing. When it was the glider's turn with Skorzeny, he forced the pilot instead to dive for landing to be the first, violating all orders By the way, this led to the destruction of 2 gliders. The paratroopers were the first to enter Mussollini's room. True, the rank and file. For this, I went on an adventure with a landing in order to get ahead of von Berlepsch. Well, I took the paratroopers out of the room, took a picture, and then insisted in violation of all safety standards, fly out with Mussollini in a two-seater Storch three together. outright lie
          1. 2 Level Advisor
            2 Level Advisor 3 March 2021 08: 33
            +1
            he officially supervised the operation, because Zhukov also did not personally take Berlin .. and his memories must be viewed through the prism of the fact that after the defeat of the fascists, "I, not me, and in general I guarded the stew in the warehouse." so-called The MTR of the Wehrmacht and even Hitler would not have done all this worthless as his confidant .. So to believe the stories of the old fascist 100% is definitely not worth it .. It is just profitable for him to appear as just a sneak ..
        2. Liam
          Liam 3 March 2021 01: 35
          +2

          Major Harald-Otto Mors, the real planner and commander of the operation, thanks the paratroopers for the successful operation.
        3. Liam
          Liam 3 March 2021 01: 42
          +2


          Gliders crashed during the operation

          German paratroopers wounded in the operation
  17. syndicalist
    syndicalist 2 March 2021 20: 40
    +5
    Confused article. What did the author want to say? That Skorzeny was a bad saboteur? Then it was necessary to analyze in detail the operation with Mussolini - who played what role there and what successes he achieved.
    Instead, the author tries to prove that Skorzeny's "jacket" turned out to be a worthless career officer. But none of his admirers tried to argue otherwise. These are completely different military professions and activities.
  18. Konnick
    Konnick 2 March 2021 20: 57
    +3
    Half of the nonsense is the fault of the translator:

    For example, they themselves guessed to replace the springs of our Horch-Kübelvagen cars with the springs of T-34 tanks. "

    The Horch 901 had independent spring suspension on all wheels, so this is an inaccurate translation.
  19. Konnick
    Konnick 2 March 2021 20: 58
    0
    Quote: Poetiszaugla
    Thanks to the Author. A very informative article. Took off the crown from the super-saboteur. It looks like we had it after Afgan. If he shouts that the hero crumbled "spirits" on exit-raids, it means a bullshit. If "at the headquarters" or "in Kabul in a food warehouse he gave out stew," then he participated in serious operations.

    How Danila Bagrov served as a clerk at the headquarters ...
  20. CommanderDIVA
    CommanderDIVA 2 March 2021 21: 17
    +1
    In the Abwehr "Brandenburg 800" saboteurs were more serious, Skorzeny promoted Goebbels and co, and the SS and the German nation needed heroes, the war was already lost
  21. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 2 March 2021 21: 19
    +1
    The article is interesting, only for some reason anonymous. I wanted to say "respect" to the author, but there is no one.
    1. Lewww
      5 March 2021 14: 17
      +2
      She is not anonymous, at the end of the article I wrote my nickname

      LEV TURIN

      Why it was removed by the moderators I do not know.
      And one more thing: there were no headings in the sections of the article in my original text - this is not the work of the moderators agreed with me
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 5 March 2021 17: 05
        0
        It seems that the hands of the moderators do not grow out of the traditional place, since they are.
  22. Petrol cutter
    Petrol cutter 2 March 2021 21: 58
    0
    Thanks for the work you've done.
    I hear for the first time for such a man I must say.
  23. mmaxx
    mmaxx 3 March 2021 04: 57
    +1
    Soldiers are not born. And in war it is important to find your place. Skorzeny found it. In general, a normal soldier. He fought.
    And the post-war scribblers made him the saboteur number 1. The journalist makes a difference from whom to interview: it is not clear who or the genius of sabotage at all times?
    And Otto himself did not mind. Why drop your shares in the eyes of the employer - the CIA? Reinforce with a little book.
    And the Germans glorified him, too, it is clear why. It is better to light up a minor face, and it is better to leave the real specialists in the shade.
  24. kytx
    kytx 3 March 2021 05: 27
    0
    good article
    I learned a lot from both the article and from the comments
  25. tasha
    tasha 3 March 2021 07: 41
    +2
    But with Rumor, the memoirist had a slight blunder.
    In many sources there is information that Joachim Rumor arrived on the Eastern Front only at the beginning of June 1942.

    I have to correct it. In the same many sources it is written that the commander of the 2nd artillery regiment of the SS Reich division Joachim Rumor took part in Operation Barbarossa from the very beginning, and in 1942 he was "transferred to the SS cavalry division as commander of an artillery regiment" ...
  26. Unknown
    Unknown 3 March 2021 08: 07
    +1
    Popular character, replicated in the Third Reich. As our famous scout Oldikov used to say about Skorzeny - “I am a saboteur and he is a storyteller. To trace his participation in the battles on the Eastern Front in 41-42, where he served in the division, SS Reich, to see the path of that division, and compare with his fairy tales. I won't talk about saving Mussolini, his role has already been disclosed in detail, but in the Panzerfaust operation, he was directly involved.
    He neutralized Horthy, put Salashi. But as far as he acted himself, and how sideways he was, this is the type with a portfolio that deserves to draw attention to him. Baron Adrian Arminievich von Voelkersam
    Since May 1940 he was in the Brandenburg-800 special-purpose regiment. In the summer of 1942 he distinguished himself during the so-called “Maikop raid”. Acting under the name of Major Trukhin, Voelkerzam, at the head of a group of Russian-speaking saboteurs dressed in Soviet uniforms, penetrated into Maikop and managed to disorganize the city's defenses, making it easier for the Wehrmacht units to seize Maikop and the adjacent oil fields. Together with Skorzeny, he took part in the kidnapping of the Hungarian regent's son Horthy Jr. But maybe he did the whole Panzerfaust operation? Unlike Skorzeny, he will not write any memoirs, he was killed in 1945.
    1. hjvtp1966
      hjvtp1966 6 March 2021 21: 55
      0
      How did our well-known scout Starikov say about Skorzeny ?? Maybe Ilya Grigorievich Starinov?
      1. Unknown
        Unknown 7 March 2021 08: 28
        +1
        You are right, you made a mistake, thanks for correcting it.
  27. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 3 March 2021 15: 23
    +3
    "Otto is modestly silent about what kind of heroic actions he personally performed during the described battle" ///
    ----
    Is it bad? He did not do anything heroic, and did not invent anything.
    During the 41-42 campaign, he was not yet a saboteur, but a simple
    lieutenant in the army.
    And his mistakes in descriptions are not so significant.
    They are characteristic of all memoirs.
    In the memoirs of Soviet tankmen, everyone was knocked out by Tigers. Several.
    Although only 500 Tigers were produced for the entire time. And they were in the east too,
    and in the west, and even in Africa.
    Was it worth condemning the tankers? - not. In the heat of a terrible battle, it's hard
    distinguish between brands of tanks. Any damaged tank is a feat.
    1. Lewww
      5 March 2021 17: 20
      +1
      Quote: voyaka uh
      And his mistakes in descriptions are not so significant.

      Do you think it would be an insignificant mistake to place your military unit near the Northern River Port? belay
  28. Lewww
    5 March 2021 13: 58
    0
    I will never be published on a military review again.
    Not only did someone insert some stupid headings into the text, and in addition, they removed my nickname at the end of the article.

    Lev Tyurin


    Request to moderators: either add my nickname at the bottom or delete the article.
    From the fact that you wrote the headings in the sections, the article did not become your property.
    1. hjvtp1966
      hjvtp1966 6 March 2021 22: 01
      0
      Good article, dear! Nevermind. Write! Serious people got involved in the discussion. So it hurt! And there will be attacks. Only nonentities have no enemies! Well, when submitting your research for discussion to serious people, you need to be prepared that the shortcomings will be fooled and put on display. There is no need to be afraid of this. Good luck! We wait!
  29. Alexfly
    Alexfly 5 March 2021 15: 53
    0
    But Skorzeny and his team pulled the friend of the Fuhrer Mussolini on a silver platter - this is a sabotage operation .... How many of our people are confused in places and dates? Or all of us, well, straight Chekists in consciousness ... Yeah, okstite, vanity, power and 30 pieces of silver are just a part of human nature ...
  30. Lewww
    5 March 2021 17: 14
    +1
    Quote: aglet
    ferret. here it is, Typ 166, and nicknamed "pelvis". and then, by the "method of reverse modernization", they transferred this name to its older brother, Typ 82, which also resembles a bathtub. therefore, only Volkswagen Typ 82 and Typ166 can bear the proud name - Kübelwagen. It's my personal opinion
    Your opinion is valuable, but it is wrong.

    Cars with a body "kübelvagen" in the German army began to operate in 1928.
    Originally, the word "kübelwagen" was not a technical term, it was slang. There are many versions of its origin, according to one of them the so-called cars without side walls and doors, where bucket seats were installed; on others so called for the bucket body. Then the word "kübelwagen" stuck as those. a term denoting a type of open military passenger car.
    In short, the same story as with the word "jeep" - initially it was a slang name, and then it began to be used as those. term.

    And since most of all Kdf 82 kübelwagens were produced, then in the narrow sense under the kübelwagens they began to mean exactly them
    1. aglet
      aglet 7 March 2021 13: 17
      0
      "but it is wrong."
      that is, does not match yours? have something to show as evidence?
      "Cars with a body" kübelvagen "in the German army began to operate in 1928.
      Originally, the word "kübelwagen" was not a technical term, it was slang. There are many versions about its origin, according to one of them the so-called cars without side walls and doors, where bucket seats were installed; on others so called for the bucket body. "
      your opinion is not confirmed by anything. bucket seats - buckets - sound quite different in German. the bucket body, of all of the above, was only for type 166, and to some extent for type 82.
      "" kyubelwagen "stuck as a technical term denoting a type of open military passenger car"
      it was never called that. Their body shape was not at all bucket-shaped, firstly, and secondly, it was an unofficial soldier's nickname. After all, no one has ever called Krupp L2H43 a kuebel, but exclusively a schnauzer, although it had some signs by which, according to you, it should be called a kuebel.
      "And since the largest number of kübelwagens produced were the Kdf 82"
      some experts say the 901 was bigger, but I won't argue.
      "a car without side walls and doors, where bucket seats were installed; for others, they called it for a bucket body."
      about the bucket seats, I spoke above, and the photos are in the same place, as well as about the bucket bodies and the photos, in the same place. kübelwagen was not a technical term - if so, please, I could not find a link.
      "a car without side walls and doors, where bucket seats were installed; for others, it was called for a bucket body."

      do you think this seat looks like a pelvis, or a bathtub? or maybe all the same on a chair?
      1. Lewww
        7 March 2021 18: 45
        0
        Quote: aglet
        that is, does not match yours? have something to show as evidence?

        I told you what is written here

        You can read the same thing here https://rgub.ru/searchcat/covers/RGUB-BIBL-0000344105-large.jpg

        Your considerations are entertaining, but they do not coincide with the opinions of two reputable automotive historians - take it as a fact
        1. aglet
          aglet 8 March 2021 14: 35
          0
          "Your views are entertaining, but they do not coincide with the views of two reputable automotive historians."
          Do you think Sokolov and Kochnev are authoritative historians? and do you consider their cross-references to each other an irrefutable fact?
    2. aglet
      aglet 7 March 2021 13: 22
      0
      "In short, the same story as with the word" jeep "- initially it was a slang name, and then it began to be used as a technical term"
      here is a little more detailed. as far as I remember, the name jeep came from the designation of such machines in the registration book of the amerskoy army-GP, jeep, which means general purpose. that is, it was official
    3. aglet
      aglet 7 March 2021 13: 25
      0
      "Cars with a body" kuebelvagen "in the German army began to operate in 1928"
      Here's a link to this, to reinforce the words. just not from the wiki, and not the words of ikspert kochnev
  31. Lewww
    5 March 2021 18: 18
    +1
    Quote: Konnick
    The Horch 901 had independent spring suspension on all wheels, so this is an inaccurate translation.
    I also initially decided so, so in my article I did not focus on this particular detail.

    Title "How Otto found the springs on T-34 tanks"not written by me, this (like the rest of the headings) is a personal initiative of one of the site moderators
  32. Lewww
    5 March 2021 23: 17
    +1
    Quote: evgen1221
    Than Sudoplatov and the people under his leadership who worked or carried out his ideas in the dark, how are they worse ???

    It is not correct to call Sudoplatov a saboteur, he was not directly involved in sabotage, he was a high leader and was engaged in the general organization of sabotage and much more.
    The most famous Soviet saboteurs were (in different years) Serebryansky, Mamsurov, Starinov, Sprogis, Kuznetsov, V.N. Leonov.
    There were still many commanders of partisan-sabotage groups operating under the leadership of the RO of the front headquarters, of which no one had ever heard of them - they are still classified.
  33. ycuce234-san
    ycuce234-san 7 March 2021 00: 00
    -1
    And without a water tower, the water supply system of the 40s could not work.


    There are water supply sources without a tower at their location (it can even stand alone in the distance or be replaced by a pool on a local hill). These are underground riverine filtering water intakes and artesian or free-flow underground water wells. The first artesian well of the Istra city water pipeline was drilled in 1924 to a depth of 89,0 m, in 1925 the second to a depth of 98,17 m. Artesian wells are pressure-head and, with sufficient pressure and flow, they do not need a tower at all. Water withdrawal from each well was 250 m3 / day. And the Germans were interested in the sources of water supply and not the city pipeline network, apparently, for reasons of their security - they were not sure that they would be calmly allowed to organize water intake and water supply from the Istra River or other ground water sources.
    1. Lewww
      7 March 2021 13: 42
      0
      Quote: ycuce234-san
      The first artesian well of the Istra city water pipeline was drilled in 1924 to a depth of 89,0 m, in 1925 the second to a depth of 98,17 m. Artesian wells are pressure-head and, with sufficient pressure and flow, they do not need a tower at all.
      Not needed under two conditions: 1) the pressure is sufficient to raise the water to the required height (it is assumed that a pressure of 1 bar is required to raise water by 1 m); 2) the "productivity" of the well must correspond to the flow rate.
      Simply put, let's say there is a head (excess pressure) at the well when the pipe is closed, but let's say in the morning 100 taps in the houses opened at the same time - as a result, the pressure weakened because water does not have time to leave the well.
      To prevent this from happening, even in large settlements, water towers were previously built. At least in Istra there was at least one - on Revolution Square.
      Whether there was a tower in its place before 1941 - I will not say, I was not interested in this issue.

      It's even simpler: an artesian well is like a spring - the water flows out by itself, but the "productivity" of the spring is small, and the pressure is not great - the water does not gush upwards and does not flow out like a hose
      Therefore, if earlier a centralized water supply was built, then a tower or tanks were always built at a height, as in summer cottages.
      1. ycuce234-san
        ycuce234-san 7 March 2021 21: 51
        -1
        The population of Istra in 1926 was 3281 people. this gives 152 l / day of artesian water per inhabitant and the daily drainage rate is from 25 l for a non-sewerage house and up to 350 l for a modern high-rise building. Conclusion: the residents did not have enough volumes of water and other protected sources of water supply nearby, especially if we take into account the likely predominance of low-rise buildings, street water supply, and the water tower was more likely needed by the local industrial plant like a steam mill - it was a lot and immediately consumed it.
        And the natural head is not so important, I found out - in that area the water is 100 m and its static and dynamic level is 50 m and the water was pumped out. Therefore, the Germans were important about these electric or steam, borehole pumps and not the tower - if they are destroyed, then water is not obtained and you have to fill it on the open shore under shelling and bombing, if they were saved, then you can fill in any army water carrier simply from cutting off a pipe or hose - well, or the water carriers will have to travel many tens of kilometers through all the surrounding village wells and actually extract water from the wells by hand - since the alternative is unpleasant - to the shore under shelling.
        1. Lewww
          8 March 2021 01: 42
          0
          Quote: ycuce234-san
          And the natural head is not so important, I found out - in that area the water is 100 m and its static and dynamic level is 50 m and the water was pumped out. Therefore, the Germans were important these electric or steam, borehole pumps and not the tower - if they are destroyed, then water is not extracted and will have to be poured on the open shore
          Colleague, this is your guess.
          In fact, it doesn't matter whether there were water towers in Istra (there was definitely a pumping station, so most likely there was also a tower).
          The absurdity itself is important allegedly the task set by Skorzeny
          I was instructed to prevent the destruction of the local water supply and ensure its functioning. "

          During the retreat, all vital objects were destroyed by the soldiers of the Red Army. Consequently, "to prevent destruction" meant in the first phase of the battle to seize an object of importance to the Wehrmacht.
          Skorzeny could not entrust this in any way, in 1941 he was not a saboteur and did not take a direct part in the battles.
          The rest is lyrics and speculation
          the water tower was rather needed by the then local industrial
          Colleague, I repeat: a water tower is an indispensable attribute of a village water supply system, since (if not right, correct it) there are no artesian wells in the Moscow region where the natural water pressure exceeds 2 bar
          1. ycuce234-san
            ycuce234-san 8 March 2021 09: 38
            -1
            If there is a height above the water supply facilities, then they can make on it a conventional storage tank made of reinforced concrete or masonry. The water tower simply imitates such a comfortable natural unevenness in the terrain where there is none. Otto, perhaps, could also "fasten" to the task already solved by a real saboteur group due to the fact that he had any engineering education, meaning that he can prevent individual local residents from trying to damage pipes and equipment already captured by operable ones and organize its launch and operation ... For such a task, he was fit for what he was at that time, and he still does not need to be a saboteur. Well, this option corresponds to the formal text.
    2. Lewww
      7 March 2021 14: 20
      0
      Quote: ycuce234-san
      Artesian wells are pressure-head and, with sufficient pressure and flow, they do not need a tower at all.

      I also want to add that not every artesian well water flows out on its own, most often it has to be extracted forcibly
  34. Lewww
    7 March 2021 12: 31
    +1
    Quote: hjvtp1966
    Good article, dear! Nevermind. Write!

    I have been writing for a long time, there is a lot of interesting things.
    For example, an essay about Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya is almost ready, which includes several curious historical documents that have not been previously used in publications.

    But the desire to post articles on the military review died out completely after the event, when local moderators
    a) without my consent, they made their own insertions into the text of my article, writing stupid headings;
    b) removed my creative pseudonym from the text, making the article nameless.

    I demanded to return my alias to the article, wrote about it in the comments and even sent a separate letter to the moderators.

    Alas, my requests were not heard, so I regard this fact as a manifestation of disrespect for the author.
  35. The comment was deleted.
  36. Lewww
    7 March 2021 19: 08
    0
    Quote: aglet
    as far as I remember, the name jeep came from the designation of such machines in the registration book of the amerskoy army-GP, jeep, which means general purpose. that is, it was official

    This is one of the versions, and then the jeep is written JEEP.
    Until now, autohistorians argue about what first arose: the GP classification, from which the slang name JEEP was allegedly derived, or vice versa.
    And there is also a version that the word JEEP is not produced from GP and GP is not from JEEP.

    There is a lot of information and it is contradictory, so I see no reason to start a discussion on this issue.
    1. aglet
      aglet 8 March 2021 17: 57
      -1
      "otom jeep spelled JEEP"
      that's right, the Kaiser car model was called a jeep, in tune with the Jeep GP
    2. aglet
      aglet 8 March 2021 18: 00
      -1
      "Until now, autohistorians argue about what first arose: the GP classification, from which the slang name JEEP was allegedly derived, or vice versa."
      when was the first car called JEEP released and when was the Willis GP released? and what is there to argue?
      1. Lewww
        8 March 2021 18: 13
        0
        Quote: aglet
        when was the first car called JEEP released and when was the Willis GP released? and what is there to argue?
        Car Willis gp did not exist, you are confusing something.

        And I wrote not about a car called JEEP, but about the fact that the word "jeep" was first slang, and then it became those. a term used to refer to a specific type of military vehicle

        And then the word JEEP became a brand.
        I hope you know what a brand is and how it differs from those. term.
        1. aglet
          aglet 8 March 2021 18: 22
          -1
          "And I wrote not about a car called JEEP, but about the fact that the word" jeep "was at first slang"
          here on the contrary
          like I said GP- stands for general purpose, but what does JEEP stand for?
          your surname is not kochnev, by any chance? and then the argumentation, one to one
  37. Lewww
    8 March 2021 11: 49
    0
    Quote: ycuce234-san
    Otto, perhaps, could also "fasten" to the task already solved by a real saboteur group due to the fact that he had any engineering education, meaning that he can prevent attempts to damage pipes and equipment already captured by operable ones

    Colleague, the power of your imagination can only be envied hi
  38. Lewww
    8 March 2021 12: 51
    0
    Quote: your1970
    And with the water supply in Istra, most likely everything was much easier - as an engineer, he was instructed to ensure the functioning of the water supply. Surely they gave a certain number of soldiers to guard the pumping stations, towers, right up to distribution points .... he called their deployment on guard at the facilities "capture".

    Colleague, after the hardest multi-day battles for Istra in the city, almost all buildings were destroyed - there was nothing to protect.
    And what was not destroyed during the battle, the soldiers blew up when retreating, following the order of the Headquarters.

    In addition, Skorzeny, speaking in modern terms, served on the autobath, his task is to maintain cars on the move, water pipes are clearly not his topic.
  39. Lewww
    8 March 2021 15: 17
    0
    Quote: aglet
    Do you think Sokolov and Kochnev are authoritative historians?

    Yes, I consider Kochnev an authoritative historian, but this does not mean that there are no mistakes in his books.
    I would even put it this way: in the material of such a volume as his books, it is impossible to do without numerous errors or banal typos.
    There are errors (typos) even in the NIIAT reference books.
    and do you consider their cross-references to each other an irrefutable fact?
    as a fact, I usually consider what is recorded in the documents.
    Although in my practice there were cases when different documents presented the same event in different ways, sometimes contradicting each other.

    You probably have never done any historical research in your life.
    Otherwise, you would know that only its direct participant can more or less accurately state the event.
    Otherwise, you have to operate with some other people's evidence, i.e. make references to evidence.
    And it is not at all a fact that the information contained in these testimonies will turn out to be true.
    1. aglet
      aglet 8 March 2021 18: 27
      -1
      "I would even put it this way: in the material of such a volume as his books, it is impossible to do without numerous errors or commonplace typos"
      banal typos, or unfounded statements, are slightly different things, right?
      "You apparently have never done any historical research in your life."
      such as Kochnev- yes
      "only its direct participant can more or less accurately describe the event."
      and here I agree with you - before Kochnev, the Kübelwagen was only type 82
      "we have to operate with some other people's evidence, that is, make references to evidence"
      and for God's sake, just do not drag your personal insinuations into this matter
  40. Lewww
    8 March 2021 19: 11
    0
    Quote: aglet
    like I said GP- stands for general purpose, but what does JEEP stand for?
    Are you sure that GP stands for "general purpose"?
    You can give a link to the American technical literature where there is an interpretation of the abbreviation GP?

    And I hope you figured out that the Willis GP did not exist? wink
  41. Lewww
    8 March 2021 19: 29
    0
    Quote: aglet
    and here I agree with you - before Kochnev, the Kübelwagen was only type 82
    "we have to operate with some other people's evidence, that is, make references to evidence"
    and for God's sake, just do not drag your personal insinuations into this matter
    Colleague, I do not understand the secret meaning of your phrase "before Kochnev ...", and how can you agree with me if I have never stated thisand even wrote the exact oppositethat the German historian of technology Werner Oswald in his catalog (see photo above) writes that the term "kübelwagen" originated in the late 20s, i.e. long before the release of the KdF-82.

    This catalog was first published in 1970., then in different years it was reprinted 15 more times.
    So if you disagree with W. Oswald's statement that the term "kübelwagen" originated in the late 20s., write a letter to the editor with a request to amend according to your personal opinion, based on your imagination hi
    1. Lewww
      8 March 2021 19: 47
      0
      Dear administrators, I have repeatedly made a request to SIGN MY ARTICLE WITH MY CREATIVE PSEUDONOM
      LEV TURIN, which for some unknown reason was removed by someone after the article was posted.

      I suggest you either fulfill my request, or remove my article from the site.
      Will my request ever be heard?

      If nothing changes, I will be forced to write the truth about the arbitrariness happening on your site, on all historical forums where I am registered
  42. Lewww
    10 March 2021 17: 28
    0
    Quote: syndicalist
    Confused article. What did the author want to say? That Skorzeny was a bad saboteur?

    The author wanted to say that many passages from Otto Skorzeny's memoirs concerning his participation in Operation Typhoon are pure fiction, and that on the Eastern Front he was not a saboteur and never even participated in battles with weapons in his hands.

    And the biggest fiction is that in 1941 the part where Otto served was located not far from the Northern River Station
  43. Antagonist
    Antagonist 10 March 2021 23: 21
    0
    How Otto Skorzeny fought in the battles near Moscow

    No way. He, all the same, at that time, served in auxiliary units.
  44. Antagonist
    Antagonist 10 March 2021 23: 23
    -1
    many authors of publications even call it the best and most successful -

    To me, he's just a liar and a storyteller. A sort of new Baron Munchausen.
    the more carefully you study his biography, the more doubtful such an assessment appears

    And he himself, a personality more than dubious.
  45. Antagonist
    Antagonist 10 March 2021 23: 29
    0
    I could also fly airplanes and speedboats, I could swim, I fired quite well with long and short barreled weapons, I was able to direct artillery fire, commanded reconnaissance, built bridges, wrote intelligible reports, and so on.

    I think that of all the above Skorzeny, he was especially good at writing intelligible reports)))