Military Review

Macedonia and Kosovo after the collapse of socialist Yugoslavia


British soldier in front of a Serbian house set on fire by the Albanians, Pristina, 1 July 1999

After the collapse of Yugoslavia, her historical the region of Macedonia became an independent state, more precisely, its main part (98% of this territory coincides with the lands of the historical Vardar Macedonia, about 2% is part of Serbia).

Macedonia and Kosovo after the collapse of socialist Yugoslavia
Historical Region of Macedonia

Macedonia was declared an independent state on September 17, 1991, and already in January 1992, local Albanians held a referendum on the autonomy of eight regions of this country. At that time (according to the 1991 census), the ethnic composition of this republic was as follows: Macedonians (65,1%), Albanians (21,7%), Turks (3,8%), Romanians (2,6%), Serbs (2,1%), Muslim-Bosnians (1,5%). According to the 1994 census, the number of Albanians increased to 22,9% (442 people). They lived mainly in the northwestern, northern and some central regions of the country and made up the majority of the population of the communities of Tetovo, Gostivar, Debar, Strugi and Kichevo.

In 1992, the Macedonian government, concerned about the situation in Kosovo, asked the UN to send in a peacekeeping force. This request was granted, but in 1998 the situation in the country deteriorated sharply: 1884 terrorist attacks were organized, in which about 300 people died. On May 24 of this year, units of the internal troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Yugoslavia found a mass grave of Serbs and Albanians loyal to them killed by separatists near the city of Presevo. In 1999, the UN peacekeeping forces gave way here to NATO troops. The already difficult situation was aggravated by the arrival of Muslim refugees from Kosovo in Macedonia. As of May 17, 1999, there were 229 Kosovar Albanians in Macedonia (more than 300% of the country's total population), in the second half of this year their number increased to 11.

1998-1999 some Macedonian Albanians fought in Kosovo, gaining combat experience and establishing ties with the commanders of the army of this unrecognized state. On the model of the Kosovo Liberation Army, Macedonia created its own armed formations (National Liberation Army - PLA). Their commander was Ali Ahmeti, who later became the head of the Democratic Union for Integration Party.

Macedonia in the XNUMXst century

In late 2000, Albanian militants began to attack Macedonian police officers and soldiers. The rebels, on the one hand, wanted proportional participation in all state structures, but on the other hand, they advocated Albanian autonomy in the area of ​​the city of Tetovo and even for the unification of all Balkan territories inhabited by Albanians into a single Great Albania. The Kosovo Liberation Army also rendered assistance to the Macedonian Albanians.

On January 22, 2001, they attacked a police station in the village of Tirs near the town of Tetovo. Finally, in March, after 5 days of attacks on government offices in the vicinity of Tetovo, the Macedonian army carried out a military operation, displacing PLA troops in Kosovo.

On April 28, Albanian militants near the village of Bliz Tetovo fired grenade launchers and mortars at soldiers of the Wolves detachment of the Macedonian security forces patrolling the Kosovo-Macedonian border: 8 Macedonian soldiers were killed and 8 more were injured.

Aftermath of an attack by Albanian militants on April 28, 2001

And in early May, the so-called "113th PLA brigade" entered the country from Kosovo, occupying several villages north of Kumanovo. "Liberators" captured about a thousand local residents, whom they were going to use as human shields. As a result of stubborn battles, the Macedonian army managed to defeat the Albanians and destroy the commander of the "brigade" - the Kosovar Albanian Fadil Nimani.

Fighting clashes between the Macedonian army and the PLA in 2001 on the map

On June 6, 2001, in the midst of the fighting, a terrorist who drove up to the parliament building in Skopje in a car with Bulgarian (Sofia) license plates fired at the office of Macedonian President Boris Traikovsky (at that time the leader of the Social Democratic Union of Macedonia Branko Crvenkovsky was also here). None of them were hurt.

The denouement came on June 25, when the Macedonian army, which surrounded the village of Arachinovo, which had been captured by the Albanians, was stopped by the order of the president: the rebels left on the buses provided to them, accompanied by representatives of the EU and NATO, taking with them weapon, as well as wounded and killed militants.

Soldiers of the Macedonian army during the operation to liberate Arachinovo

On the same evening, a crowd of Macedonians outraged by Troikovsky's "betrayal" (numbering several thousand people) stormed the parliament building, where at that time Traikovsky and other top leaders of Macedonia were negotiating with the leaders of the Albanian parties. This assault was attended by some police officers and soldiers who arrived from Arachinovo, who demanded to explain why they had been ordered to release the doomed militants from the village. The President had to be evacuated. The reason for this incomprehensible order became known later. In 2002, Glenn Nye, a former State Department official at the US Embassy in Macedonia, said that during the events of June 2001 he saved 26 American citizens trapped in Arachinovo. It soon became clear that these were employees of the reputable American private military company Military Professional Resources Incorporated. In August 1995, its "specialists" took part in Operation "Tempest", during which the Croatian army captured the territory of Serbian Krajina. And in 2008, MPRI employees took part in the training of Georgian military personnel and the reorganization of the army of this country according to NATO standards.

MPRI Officer Dave Goodman Teaches Afghan Police and Military Personnel

Currently, the successor to MPRI is the PMC Engility.

Private military companies (including MPRI) were described in the article “Private military companies: respectable business of respectable gentlemen».

On July 5, 2001, the Macedonian government and the Albanian leaders signed a "General Agreement" on a ceasefire, which was violated 139 times by PLA militants until the end of August.

On August 10, 600 Macedonian Albanians from the PLA and an unspecified number of Kosovo Defense Corps fighters entered Macedonia from the Kosovar city of Krivinek. Further events were named "Battle of Radusha": with the help aviation this attack was repulsed.

A detachment of the National Liberation Army marching through the village of Radusha, September 2001

Finally, on August 13, the Ohrid ceasefire agreement was concluded: the Macedonian government agreed to amend the constitution, abolishing the recognition of the Macedonians as the titular nation and guaranteeing the Albanian language official status in areas of compact Albanian residence. These agreements were approved by the Macedonian Parliament on November 16, 2001. But the parties managed to come to a final agreement only in January 2002.

These agreements brought to the country only a “bad peace” instead of a “good war”: interethnic clashes are still not uncommon, especially in July 2014, when the Albanians smashed the country's capital, Skopje, for several days. So they protested against the condemnation of fellow tribesmen found guilty of the shooting of a group of Macedonians on the eve of Easter 2012.

Riots in Skopje, 4 July 2014

The authorities of modern Greece, where already in the XX century great efforts were made to Hellenize South Macedonia, after the collapse of Yugoslavia for a long time refused to call the northern part of this historical territory Macedonia, insisting on the name "Central Balkan Republic". Somehow, the neighbors managed to come to a compromise, so the "Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" appeared on the map of Europe, under this name the country joined the UN in 1993. And only recently (from February 12, 2019) this former republic was named "North Macedonia".

North Macedonia on the map

Currently, 67% of the inhabitants of North Macedonia profess Orthodoxy, 30% are Muslims (at the time of the collapse of socialist Yugoslavia, 21% of the population of this republic declared their adherence to Islam).

National composition of North Macedonia on the map, 2012

Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija (Republic of Kosovo)


Ethnic map of Kosovo, 2003

Before the Ottoman conquest, the lands of Kosovo were the core of the Serbian state; it was here, from the 1767th century until 1912, near the town of Pec that the throne of the Serbian patriarch was located. Here, not far from Pristina, there is a place that has a truly sacred meaning for the Serbian people - the Kosovo field, walking along which in XNUMX during the Second Balkan War, some Serbian soldiers took off their shoes, while others "fell on their knees and kissed the ground":

Kosovo field on the map of the unrecognized state of Kosovo

In 1945, Tito allowed the Albanians who settled there during World War II to stay in Kosovo. They appeared here under the following circumstances: the soldiers of the infamous volunteer Albanian SS division "Skanderbeg" (about it - in another article) expelled about 10 thousand Slavic families from Kosovo, and 72 thousand Albanians from the northern regions of this country were settled on the "liberated" lands ... Since Yugoslavia suffered significant human losses during World War II, declaring these settlers citizens of the country seemed a sensible decision. However, further events showed that this was a terrible mistake by the Yugoslav authorities, and the first riots associated with the actions of the Albanians in Kosovo and Metohija took place already in 1981.

Muslim Slavs in Kosovo and Metohija

In the south of Kosovo and in Metohija, there lived compact groups of Muslim Slavs: the Gorans, Podgoryans, Sredans and Rafans, living in the south of Kosovo and Metohija.

Metohija and Kosovo

Ethnic groups of Muslim Slavs in Kosovo

The smallest group of Muslims in Macedonia are Podgorians - there are only about 3 thousand of them. These are the descendants of Montenegrin Muslims who moved here after World War II to live next to their fellow believers. This group of the population is rapidly Albanizing, and it is believed that soon they will finally merge with the Albanians. Their neighbors, the middle inhabitants, who are also called zhuplians, live in the Sredskaya Zhupa region. The Gorani territory is located in the south of Kosovo. Unlike the Arnautashes (that is, the Albanized descendants of a part of the Muslim Serbs of Kosovo) and their neighbors, the Opols, they retained the language they call Balkan-Slavic (Bulgarian-Macedonian-Serbian), however, with numerous borrowings of Turkish, Albanian and even Arabic words.

However, Albanian historians consider the Goranians to be Illyrians, the Bulgarians - the Bulgarians, the Macedonian - the Macedonians. During the population censuses, these people themselves call themselves Goranians, Boshniks, Serbs, and some even Turks and Albanians. Culturally, the Goranians are close to the Macedonian torbeshes, the Bulgarian Pomaks and the Bosnian Slavs who converted to Islam - Bosnians (while the Bosnians are people living in Bosnia and Herzegovina, regardless of nationality).

Map of the settlement of Muslim Slavs of the Balkan Peninsula

In the city of Orahovac and its environs live Rafchane - the descendants of the Albanized Slavs, many of whom now consider themselves Albanians, but speak the Prizren-South Moravian dialect of the Serbian language.

Kosovo as part of the Yugoslav Republic of Serbia

Kosovo and Vojvodina became the "Socialist Autonomous Regions" within Serbia.

In 1974, Kosovo increased its status, in fact, having received the rights of a republic - right up to its own constitution, the right to form the highest authorities and delegations of representatives to the Union legislative and governing bodies. The new constitution of Yugoslavia, which came into force on September 28, 1990, declared the priority of republican laws over regional ones, leaving Kosovo territorial and cultural autonomy. The Kosovar Albanians responded by announcing the creation of an independent state, of which Ibrahim Rugova was elected president, and in 1996 the Kosovo Liberation Army was also created.

Soldiers of the Kosovo Liberation Army

War in Kosovo and Operation Allied Force

In 1998, a war broke out here, causing a flood of refugees from both sides.

On March 24, 1999, without UN sanction, the NATO military operation, code-named "Allied Force", began, during which many military and civilian targets in Serbia were bombed. It lasted 78 days, over 1000 aircraft were involved (5 aircraft, 16 unmanned aerial vehicles and 2 helicopters were lost). In total, 38 thousand sorties were made, a total of about one and a half thousand settlements were attacked, 3 thousand cruise missiles and 80 thousand tons of bombs were used, including cluster and depleted uranium bombs. Enterprises of the military-industrial complex and military infrastructure, oil refineries, oil storage facilities were completely destroyed, 40 thousand residential buildings, 422 schools, 48 ​​hospitals, 82 bridges (including all bridges across the Danube), about 100 various monuments were destroyed.

Bombing map of Yugoslavia, 1999

Chemical plant in Pancevo after NATO air strike, April 18, 1999

Road bridge in Novi Sad, May 4, 1999

Yugoslav anti-aircraft guns fire, Belgrade, early morning on June 2, 1999

The total material damage was about $ 100 billion. More than two thousand people became victims of the bombing, about 7 thousand were injured.

The main ground group of NATO forces (12 thousand people under the command of British General Michael David Jackson) during this operation was deployed in Macedonia. It was the British who were supposed to take control of the Slatina airport in Pristina, but approached it 4 hours later than a battalion of Russian paratroopers (200 soldiers and officers, 8 armored personnel carriers, commander - S. Pavlov, the reconnaissance group was commanded by Yunus-bek Yevkurov) the famous "throw" from Bosnia (600 km).

The path of Russian paratroopers from the Bosnian base of Uglevik to Pristina

Column of Russian paratroopers on the march to Pristina

Jackson then refused to comply with the order of the American General Wesley Clark (commander of the combined forces of NATO) to blockade the airport and deliver "mistaken" strikes, answering him:

I'm not going to start a third world war.

Michael David Jackson

The authorities of Yugoslavia were forced to withdraw troops from the territory of Kosovo, having actually lost control over it.

Orahovac, Western Kosovo, 17 July 1999

After the end of the NATO operation in Kosovo, about 1000 more people were killed. About 350 thousand people became refugees (200 thousand of them are Serbs and Montenegrins), about 100 churches and monasteries were destroyed or damaged.

On February 17, 2008, the Kosovo parliament declared independence, which was recognized by 104 countries of the world (including Macedonia). 60 states still consider Kosovo an autonomous region within Serbia (including Russia, China, India, Israel).

In the next article we will talk about the Ottoman period in the history of Albania.
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  1. Crowe
    Crowe 29 December 2020 06: 09
    British soldier in front of a Serbian house set on fire by Albanians

    How tragically symbolic is the caption to the photo ... The whole essence of what is happening in Kosovo is briefly reflected - this is the NATO base Camp Bondsteel, and genocide (I simply cannot find another word when I read about the many thousands of Serbs brutally killed and expelled from their land) Albanians from the "AOK", these "glorious" heirs and successors of the work of the Albanian SS division "Skanderbeg" .. Yes, Tito made perhaps the most important mistake in his life when he allowed the Albanians to stay in Kosovo (a truly sacred place for Serbs) - that's really true, one might say, "let the goat into the garden" ...
    1. apro
      apro 29 December 2020 06: 21
      Quote: Crowe
      Yes, Tito made perhaps the biggest mistake

      We can also talk about mistakes, but to avoid the question of what the Yugoslavs wanted to build in these territories, what kind of society? Yugoslavia preserved the contradictions, but did not solve them.
    2. Sergey Oreshin
      Sergey Oreshin 29 December 2020 09: 51
      Did Tito forbid Serbian women in Kosovo to give birth to sons, and Serb men to raise them as warriors?
      Or is Tito to blame for the fact that the Serbs gave birth to 1-2 children, and the Albanians - 5-7?
      1. Ryazan87
        Ryazan87 29 December 2020 11: 32
        No, not Tito. Objective processes of urbanization and secularization of the Serbian population. They have gone much further from the traditional society than the Albanians. There is no need to engage in demagoguery, you perfectly understand what the matter is.
        As for the resettlement of Muslims in Kosovo ... this is not a mistake. This is Tito's crime against the Serbian people.
        1. Sergey Oreshin
          Sergey Oreshin 29 December 2020 19: 49
          In fact, Muslims in Kosovo began to be settled by the Ottoman sultans back in the 17-18 centuries, when there was no Tito in the project
          1. Ryazan87
            Ryazan87 30 December 2020 12: 37
            It's just that in the 17th century it was not such a problem: the birth rate among the peoples was the same: the rural population, religious worldview, traditional society formed a similar demographic picture.
            That there is the 17th century - it is enough to compare the birth rate among Russians in 1900 and, say, in 1970. The preponderance of the urban population, the atomization of society, secularization, a reduction in the share of manual labor, the specifics of urban housing, the legalization of abortion, the development of contraception - hello, "two children are lot". This is an objective trend.
            Tito did his job as if at such an "opportune moment". Actually, in Russia, we observe similar processes in real time.
            1. Sergey Oreshin
              Sergey Oreshin 30 December 2020 15: 24
              The number of Muslims in Kosovo equaled the number of Orthodox Christians already at the beginning of the 20th century, when Tito was a modest worker and had nothing to do with politics.
              So the roots of the problem were there long before him
      2. pytar
        pytar 29 December 2020 11: 34
        Did Tito forbid Serbian women in Kosovo to give birth to sons, and Serb men to raise them as warriors? Or is Tito to blame for the fact that the Serbs gave birth to 1-2 children, and the Albanians - 5-7?

        In connection with the loss of Kosovo, the Serbs sadly joked: Albanian wag-in, defeated the Serbian. I remember the TV coverage of that time. A journalist asks the Kosovars why they give birth to so many? She answered in the sense - "we have been under threat for many years / from the side of the Serbs /. high fertility, our way to heal"
        In recent decades, Kossovo / + Albania / in second place / after Ireland / in fertility. The percentage of young people there is greater than that of any other European country! And the number of men fit to take up arms, the Albanians already overwhelm the Serbs!
        For Serbia, it would be reasonable to exchange territories with Kossovo. Otherwise, in other parts of it, the Albanians will soon become an absolute majority. If the birth rate remains at the same level as it is now, Serbia may lose more territory for demographic reasons. hi
        1. vladcub
          vladcub 29 December 2020 14: 53
          Boyan Petrovich +: They were right about demography. We also need to add to the demography the determination to take up arms at any moment and show: "who is the boss", otherwise EVERYONE will come to you and behave like a pig
          1. pytar
            pytar 29 December 2020 15: 45
            If we look at history in relation to demographics, migration, climate change, the relationship is quite obvious!
            To the same ancient Macedonia, on a not so large territory by the 4th century AD. there was a demographic surge! Combined with advanced military tactics and formation at the time, as well as the general genius of Alexander the Great, Macedonia conquered vast territories! But! Macedonians suffered serious demographic losses during these wars! And the removal of men thousands of kilometers from home led to a drastic decrease in the birth rate. In the end, the Macedonians disappeared, flocked ... their story remained ...
            Dear author V. Ryzhkov, promised the next topic about Albanians during the Turkish conquests. I will preliminarily say a few words about this period.! Albanians before the beginning of the Turkish expansion to the Balkans were small in number forge people. Didn't have any influence on events. At that time, Bulgarians and Greeks were the most numerous. But the Ottoman invasion just coincided with the plague epidemic. It particularly affected the Bulgarians and Greeks. Turks, Serbs and Albanians in Menshe. And in Northern Bulgaria / Danube Plain /, there was a long-term drought. The settlement is very thin. The earth is empty. As chroniclers write, one could go for days without meeting a living soul. For the first time in Bulgarian history, mountain passes were not selected. There were no men to take weapons. In Southern and Western Bulgaria / Thrace and Macedonia / the plague passed more easily, and the drought passed faster. These areas resisted the Ottomans. In the tragic battle of the Black Men at the river. Maritza gathered almost 70 thousand. Bulgarians, Greeks and Serbs! 2 times more than the Ottomans!
            Let's go back to the Albanians! The country, surrounded by mountains, has survived almost unaffected by plague and invasions. The climate has remained stable. Albanians have multiplied dramatically! They were lucky that they had a talented commander Skanderberg Kstratioti! For the Turks, who crushed everyone, Albania was unexpectedly a nut! Many Ottoman armies have left bones along the Alnan mountains! During the conquest of Albania, the Turks probably suffered the greatest losses per sq. Km. from all the Balkans! hi
      3. GKA72
        GKA72 29 December 2020 12: 59
        yes it is all the same who gave birth. Albanians were supported by NATO, and then they recognized their independence.
    3. pytar
      pytar 29 December 2020 11: 56
      How tragically symbolic is the caption to the photograph ... genocide (I just can't find another word when I read about the many thousands of Serbs brutally killed and expelled from their land) by the Albanians ...

      In the interest of objectivity, it must be admitted that the Serbian in these bad deeds were noted! Especially in Bosnia. As for Kossovo, the main catalyst for the emergence of Kosovar nationalism was ... Serbian nationalism and chauvinism! In this Serbian is prohibitive! Essentially Kosovar came in response to Serbian! By the way, until the end of the 80s, Kosovar society was very specific. The Kosovars did not have a common national idea, self-awareness as a people. They lived according to the principle of family ties, in large clans, each one for himself. The collision, the formation of a single Kosovar people, arose as a result of the actions of the Serbian authorities.
      "..Yes, Tito made, perhaps, the most important mistake in his life when he allowed the Albanians to stay in Kosovo (a truly sacred place for Serbs) - that's really true, one might say," they let the goat into the garden "...

      Serbia since 1912 tried to take possession of the whole of Albania, up to the Adriatic! And Tito planned to include Albania in the Balkan Federation. Then Enver Hoxha objected. The tensions between the SFRY and the NSRA, reaching heat, were constant.
      By the way, the Albanians also consider Kossovo their historical land, where their ancestors lived for thousands of years before the arrival of the Slavs. But here, of course, there is no point in unleashing historical disputes. Everyone has their own arguments, but in real life the land belongs to those people who live on it in a given period of time.
  2. Korsar4
    Korsar4 29 December 2020 06: 11
    There is no sense of stability in the state of North Macedonia. There will also be shocks and changes. The question is how fast.

    However, where can we talk about stability now ?!
    1. Sergey Oreshin
      Sergey Oreshin 29 December 2020 09: 49
      Of course they will. The number of Muslims there is growing, they are organizing
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 29 December 2020 14: 05
        This is a common problem for the Balkan Peninsula, turning into a common European one.
    2. vladcub
      vladcub 29 December 2020 15: 07
      The question is more than relevant. Even 10 years ago, in small towns in Europe, the police yawned with boredom, and now they have "fun". Not long ago everything was fine in Saudi Arabia, but now?
      Probably the corner of stability is at the penguins: no drugs, no theft, no COVID.
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 29 December 2020 17: 28
        And many penguins are in the Red Book.
        There was a wonderful cartoon "The Adventures of Lolo the Penguin". Since that time, it has not improved.
      2. Petrik66
        Petrik66 10 March 2021 09: 43
        Well, where we are not! Surely the penguins are complaining that thugs from Chile have appeared and Afropenguins from the North have swam, there is no rest, but earlier, there was order, the killer whales will devour a couple of hundred and are happy, they do not bother anyone else. Then again - there are a lot of syringes in landfills near human stations, and there, who knows.
  3. Olgovich
    Olgovich 29 December 2020 06: 25
    Albanian nationalism is a cancer that is eating parts of several states at once - Serbia, Macedonia, Montenegro - with the full support of the West

    Its concentration, the "state" of Kosovo created by the West, became a center for training militants, distributing drugs in Europe, ethnic cleansing and kidnapping of people for organs, etc.
    1. pytar
      pytar 29 December 2020 16: 04
      Albanian nationalism is a cancer ...

      Every nationalism and chauvinism is like that!
      1. nedgen
        nedgen 30 December 2020 02: 37
        Every nationalism and chauvinism is like that!

        Well, in this Boyana, unfortunately, I cannot completely agree with you. Yes, chauvinism is essentially a cancer, but how do you separate nationalism from patriotism? You cannot be a patriot and not be a nationalist. But chauvinism is extreme nationalism. And chauvinism is ALWAYS directed against someone. Very often people do not separate nationalism from chauvinism. But you must. Because nationalism is = patriotism, but chauvinism is another matter. hi
        1. pytar
          pytar 30 December 2020 10: 11
          Rechnik explanatory dictionary:
          Patriotism - a moral and political principle, a social feeling, the content of which is love, attachment to the Motherland, devotion to it and readiness for sacrifices and exploits for its sake.
          Nationalism - ideology and direction of politics, the fundamental principle of which is the thesis about the value of the nation as the highest form of social unity, its primacy in the state-forming process.
          Chauvinism - ideology, the essence of which is the preaching of national superiority in order to substantiate the right to discrimination, exploitation and oppression of other peoples. Chauvinism contributes to the emergence and spread of hostility and even hatred of strangers.
          1. nedgen
            nedgen 30 December 2020 11: 24
            So what? Does this interpretation that you brought from the river operator contradict what I wrote? If we relate patriotism and nationalism to a single-national power like Bulgaria, it is essentially the same thing. Although nationalism and patriotism for a state like the United States or Britain is not the same thing. In the USA, if you think about it, there is no nation as such. I meant American. Although there all the time and swear by the nation laughing hi
            1. pytar
              pytar 30 December 2020 12: 14
              Because nationalism UTB = patriotism but chauvinism is another matter.

              Similar concepts but not the same! According to the semantic load, I would characterize them as follows:
              Patriotism - positive meaning.
              Nationalism is a neutral meaning.
              Chauvinism - negative meaning.

              If we relate patriotism and nationalism to a single-national power like Bulgaria, it is essentially the same thing.

              The difference is in the details! But under single-national states and empires there is a big difference!

              Although nationalism and patriotism for a state like the United States or Britain is not the same thing. In the USA, if you think about it, there is no nation as such. I mean American. Although there all the time and swear by the nation

              Russia, France, Spain, Portugal ??? All of them are also colonial multinational empires! In fact, empires were created around the same titular people as a result of ego expansion! And the USA is unique in its own way! There is no titular nation, they were formed in a specific way! And they have all the elements of the nation! Great nation, with a colossal contribution to science, technology and technology!
              1. VLR
                30 December 2020 13: 35
                "And the United States is unique in its own way! There is no titular nation"
                But until the middle of the 100th century in the United States there was a "formula" for a real XNUMX% American: WASP - White Anglo Saxon Protestant ("white, Anglo-Saxon, Protestant").
                If white, but French and not Protestant, then American is only 25%. White German Protestant is 50% American. White Anglo-Saxon but Catholic - 75% American. Etc.
                WASPs have always looked down on other citizens - not only blacks, Chinese or Indians, but also Irish, Italians, Poles, Greeks and others.
                It was this group (WASP) that created the United States, the rest "joined, accepting the rules of the game": some voluntarily (emigrants from other European countries, for example), others - not so much (black slaves). And now the WASP is rapidly losing power and influence, and the United States is turning into a completely different country right before our eyes.
                1. nedgen
                  nedgen 30 December 2020 22: 36
                  The United States is turning into a completely different country right before our eyes

                  But for this we must thank the so-called. tolerance and those who instill it. laughing
                  1. VLR
                    31 December 2020 07: 13
                    The current tolerance in the United States and Europe is an indicator of the weakness of the "old" state-forming nations and a manifestation of the "Stockholm Syndrome".
                    1. pytar
                      pytar 31 December 2020 10: 03
                      The current tolerance in the United States and Europe is an indicator of the weakness of the "old" state-forming nations and a manifestation of the "Stockholm Syndrome".

                      Too Much Socialism in the West! Accept our failed experience, repeat our mistakes! Ours collapsed, they were going in line! Moreover, our capitalism came, but in the worst form! Socialism did not work out in our country, so again with capitalism! laughing No one, neither to the East nor to the West, learns from his mistakes, and it would be even smarter to learn from the mistakes of others! bully
                      Happy New Year! good drinks
                2. pytar
                  pytar 31 December 2020 00: 06
                  Each state was formed around some kind of state-forming people, group, elites. it is possible to interpret WASP as "titular nation", but that would not be entirely correct. Not even now.
              2. nedgen
                nedgen 30 December 2020 22: 39
                Patriotism - positive meaning.
                Nationalism is a neutral meaning.
                Chauvinism - negative meaning.

                Unfortunately, I feel as good as you can’t articulate, but stigmatizing nationalism as very bad in the media is definitely not ACCEPT.
                The difference is in the details! But under single-national states and empires there is a big difference!

                What did I say? hi
  4. Krasnodar
    Krasnodar 29 December 2020 06: 39
    bogeymen live in the area of ​​Sredskaya Zhupa

    Pleased in the morning drinks
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 30 December 2020 11: 12
      Hi Albert. hi Not a word more! laughing
      1. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar 30 December 2020 11: 20
        “And now the word with the letter B!
        Little Johnny: "I'm leaving, leaving, leaving" "(c)
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 30 December 2020 11: 53
          And ... "Alite goes to the mountains" laughing
  5. Li17
    Li17 29 December 2020 07: 06
    All this is already known
    "Serbia is a sulfur match in a cart of hay."
    If a war begins in Europe, it will begin
    for some stupidity in the Balkans.
    And Churchill, the Balkans are always pregnant with war!
    You need to pile snow on them to cool down and have something to do!
    1. Sergey Oreshin
      Sergey Oreshin 29 December 2020 09: 48
      Snow has nothing to do with it. The whole problem lies in the geography of the Balkans, which predetermined the severity of the conflicts
  6. Sergey Oreshin
    Sergey Oreshin 29 December 2020 09: 47
    Albanians appeared in Kosovo, of course, not under Tito, but under the Ottoman Empire, after the "Great Serbian Exodus", when the sultans began purposefully settling Muslims on the lands of "Old Serbia". By the beginning of the 20th century, the number of Muslims equaled the number of Orthodox Christians and grew continuously throughout the 20th century.
    Serbia returned Kosovo during First Balkan War, not the Second (which was in 1913).
    In general, there is nothing surprising in the processes of the late 20th century: one Serbian publicist wrote directly: "If a Serbian woman in Kosovo under Tito gave birth to 1 child, the largest - two, and an Albanian - 5-7-10 children, then why be surprised that did the Albanians take Kosovo from us shortly after Tito's death?

    In Macedonia, the situation is the same: Orthodox women give birth much less than Muslim women.
    And the Christians' "passionarity" sharply decreased: if at the beginning of the 20th century Christian couples in Macedonia were a real headache for the Turks, the Slavs regularly raised uprisings and for decades waged a partisan war against the Ottomans - now the opposite is true. Now Muslims are much more active, brutal, more aggressive
  7. pytar
    pytar 29 December 2020 10: 17
    T.N. "Macedonian nation", not viable. It was created by the Titovists in a technology similar to that of the Ukrainian one. The only difference is that from the Maloros they created "great u-k-r-s", and from the western Bulgarians - "Macedonians". Artificial nations cut off from their roots!
    1. vladcub
      vladcub 29 December 2020 15: 31
      They have a different opinion on this.
      1. pytar
        pytar 29 December 2020 16: 09
        They have a different opinion on this.

        Future will tell! And we don't know him! For now, we can only rely on those who have the gift of seeing in it! For example Vanga / she herself is a "Macedonian" from Strumitsa /, she said very interesting things ... bully
  8. pytar
    pytar 29 December 2020 10: 36
    In 1999, Bulgaria promptly donated 94 T-55 tanks and 108 D-20 howitzers to Macedonia, as well as ammunition for them. They were used against the Kosovo militants who penetrated into the northwest. Macedonia then. T-55s were used for direct fire, militant positions.

  9. Cure72
    Cure72 29 December 2020 11: 01
    Thanks a lot to the author for the series of articles.
  10. OgnennyiKotik
    OgnennyiKotik 29 December 2020 11: 43
    History goes round and round.

  11. Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 29 December 2020 13: 28
    As always, Valery, thank you, as always, nothing is clear in this Balkan cauldron, I'm already starting to get used to it. smile
    The most correct policy in the Balkans is not to climb yourself and strictly monitor that no one else climbs. Then, in fifty years there, perhaps, something will settle down. Especially if, at the same time, specific troublemakers are gently removed from civilian circulation by the gills and sent to recover their mental health in solitary confinement until they are completely cured.
    Oh, I feel, in the next article, the Albanians will fly! smile And from the author and from the commentators will get it. smile
    1. VLR
      29 December 2020 14: 47
      The next article will be "light" and not very serious: I specially wrote it for December 31 and the New Year - so that without cruelty and blood on the New Year's Eve, perhaps with a couple of mystical moments. Probably in the "Opinions" section.
      And then - about Albania, starting from the death of Skandebeg, about whom I recently wrote. In my opinion, it turned out very interesting and quite objectively, without melodrama and "wringing of hands".
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 29 December 2020 16: 36
        Quote: VlR
        Probably in the "Opinions" section.

        We will see. smile hi
      2. vladcub
        vladcub 29 December 2020 17: 03
        In the Balkan issue, hell will figure it out, and not knowing the history and even trindets. Valery, you have an interesting and useful cycle.
    2. vladcub
      vladcub 29 December 2020 15: 29
      "send the mental health to the cell for recovery", or even better "lead gadgets": the most violent "recover"
  12. vladcub
    vladcub 29 December 2020 15: 24
    Kosovo has become a "cancerous tumor" of the Balkans and cannot be cured with "powders", and a "surgical" method is ALREADY impossible.
    Now both Macedonian and Serbian soldiers have to CONSTANTLY "put out" the fires. And the Greeks will not have to drink "UZO" for a long time. Perhaps, after 3 or 6 months, even the smartest can "break out" NOBODY WILL GIVE GUARANTEES
    1. pytar
      pytar 29 December 2020 15: 56
      Dear Svyatoslav! hi Unfortunately, the entire "white race" lurks! Except for several "enclaves" like Albania and Kossovo. And in Russia, the situation with Russian demography is not rosy ... sad
      1. vladcub
        vladcub 29 December 2020 17: 45
        Boyan Petrovich, who argues. Alas it is so
      2. nedgen
        nedgen 30 December 2020 22: 46
        Unfortunately, the entire "white race" lurks!

        What is decreasing is true, But I think it's a little different. Where there will be many children in the family, the woman decides, there is an increase in the birth rate, and unfortunately it has become an AXIOM. Where this is not so, for example, among Muslims or Hindus or elsewhere, there is an increase in the birth rate, or at least not a decrease. Maybe I'm not completely right and of course there are many other factors, but I think that I'm not that far from the truth. hi
  13. Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 29 December 2020 19: 39
    Valery, I always admire the works of you and Vyacheslav Olegovich. They are bright and informative: I always learn something new.
    You have a logical mistake: the independence of Macedonia was proclaimed on September 17, 1991, and by "units of the internal troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Yugoslavia" in 1998. Perhaps Macedonia