Military Review

What did the Wehrmacht pay for?

73

Checking the harvested potatoes.


Article "Is it green" Goering's green folder, in which instructions for the occupation administration and the rear services of the Wehrmacht were considered, the question was raised: were the instructions for the purchase of agricultural products at fixed prices extended to the occupied areas? These instructions from the "Green Folder" were issued at the very beginning of the war, and later the situation could change.

A review of the documents of the command of the army corps provided some information on this issue. The purchase of agricultural products was really introduced, and was introduced, including in areas controlled by the rear services of the Wehrmacht. And in general, the army command entered into rather diverse monetary relations with the population of the occupied regions.

Food purchases


The order of the command of the 17th Army Corps (AK) from the 6th Army on the prices of purchased agricultural products, dated June 27, 1942, has been preserved. The order was typical and issued in the form of a circular intended, obviously, for all divisions that make up the 17th AK. The file contains an order addressed to the 113th Infantry Division; the division's name was handwritten. The division headquarters received the order on June 30, 1942, as evidenced by the affixed command stamp with the date of receipt (TsAMO RF, f. 500, op. 12474, d. 136, l. 88).

The introduction of purchases pursued the goal of streamlining army procurements. The next day, June 28, 1942, the command of the 17th AK sent another order to the same 113th Infantry Division (received on July 6, 1942), stating that there were numerous cases of "wild requisitions" (mehrere Fälle von wilden Beitreibungen ). The order stated that the Ukrainian population was losing the last cows and horses, and even calves unfit for slaughter were illegally requisitioned. The order reminded that such requisitions undermine the economy of the Reich and the occupied regions. In the interests of supplying the troops in the near future, this must be stopped, and the productive capacity of agriculture in the occupied regions must certainly be preserved. The order also emphasized that such an attitude undermines the confidence of the Ukrainian population in the German authorities. The order was personally signed by the commander of the 17th AK, General of Infantry Karl-Adolf Hollidt (TsAMO RF, f. 500, op. 12474, d. 136, l. 93).

Let's return to the consideration of prices for agricultural products. It is interesting to note that the Russian term has penetrated into the German document. Prices were divided into two categories: producer price and procurement price, and the latter was just designated Sagotabgabepreise, the first part of which, Sagot, is clearly a German tracing of the Russian term "procurement-". By this, as one might assume, we mean Soviet procurement bodies like Zagotzern, which came under the control of the Yug economic inspectorate, about which there is a direct indication in the document.

What did the Wehrmacht pay for?

The beginning of the order of the command of the 17th AK with an explanation of the procurement bodies and the procedure for purchasing food. TsAMO RF, f. 500, op. 12474, d.136, l. 88

The army rear services had to pay for agricultural products at producer prices when purchasing directly from peasants or on collective farms, and at procurement prices when purchasing from procurement organizations. The order extended this procedure to the procurement of food and fodder for the front-line strip east of the Donets River (the area east of the Seversky Donets, up to the Oskol River, was captured by the 6th German army during the offensive on the northern face of the Barvenkovsky ledge in the second half of May - the first half of June 1942. ), and the issuance of delivery receipts was prohibited. The divisions undertook to promptly bring prices to the divisional procurement bodies, economic units and authorized officers and non-commissioned officers.


Appendix to the order for the purchase of food: list of prices

The prices set by the Yug economic inspectorate were for all types of food and fodder. From a rather long list, we will select a few of the most important positions in order to compare the proposed prices with prices in Germany in May 1942. For comparison, a conversion will be made to comparable units. Inspection "South" prices were given for 100 kg and in rubles. German prices are in Reichsmarks and per tonne. At the rate set for the occupied territories, the Reichsmark was equal to 10 rubles.

So, a comparison of prices for agricultural products in the Reichsmarks:


The position from the table is quite obvious. Prices for agricultural products in the occupied territories were significantly lower than in Germany, on average by half; although it should be noted that the prices indicated for Germany are the prices of large wholesale trade, and not procurement prices for the peasants.

It is not clear from the documents exactly how and with what the troops were paid for agricultural products. The documents do not mention the calculation in rubles at all, only in the Reichsmarks. Karbovanets was introduced to the Reichskommissariat Ukraine in July 1942, that is, after the establishment of the procurement procedure in question. By order of the OKH of September 19, 1942, the army bodies were to accept karbovanets on a par with rubles and imperial credit cards (TsAMO RF, f. 500, op. 12474, d. 136, l. 136).

The principle of calculation was the same as in the Green Folder: up to 1000 Reichsmarks - in cash, over 1000 Reichsmarks - with receipts, which were subsequently cashed out. A thousand Reichsmarks was a large sum; to get that much, the peasants had to hand over, for example, 40 tons of rye - the harvest of an entire collective farm.

The question of the circulation of cash currency, the exchange of Reichsmarks for rubles and karbovanets, as well as the use of captured Soviet rubles in payments should be clarified in detail. At least then, in order to understand what part of the purchases was part of Germany's military expenditures (paid in Reichsmarks or with the exchange of rubles for them), and what part was actually free, since it was paid with trophy rubles that circulated only in the occupied regions.

Surrender of weapons and purchase of carts


In general, the monetary relations between the population of the occupied regions and the German army bodies were, judging by the documents, broader than one might imagine. In addition to purchasing food, there were, for example, payments for collecting weapons and ammunition at the battlefield.

On May 8, 6, the command of the 4th AK from the 1942th Army ordered the local population to be paid a fee for weapons, ammunition and various military property found and returned. The population had to report what was found to the nearest German unit or the Ortskommandatory, which had to pay a reward. As an example of such payments, the command cited the rates introduced in the 6th AK from the 9th Army, which operated in the Rzhev area (in the Reichsmarks):

Rifle - 1.
Submachine gun - 1,5.
Machine gun - 4.
Carriage, car - 6.
Weapon - 10.
Ammunition (50 kg) - 0,2.
Sleeves, brass (50 kg) - 2.
Canisters, barrels - 1.

The warehouse was entitled to a prize of 100 Reichsmarks (TsAMO RF, f. 500, op. 12474, d. 136, l. 54). The document did not contain any reservations about captured weapons; apparently, they paid the same for both German and Soviet. Apparently, payment for finds of weapons, ammunition and military property was an initiative of the OKH, since the document refers to the order of the Quartermaster General of the OKH dated April 5, 1942. In view of the tense situation with non-ferrous metals, the payment of two Reichsmarks for 50 kg of brass sleeves looks more than reasonable. It is still difficult to say about the scale of such operations; it is possible that the necessary instructions will be found in the financial statements of units and formations.

The Wehrmacht needed a fairly large volume of transportations carried out by animal-drawn transport, the importance of which increased sharply during the thaw and winter. The same 8th AK, on ​​May 10, 1942, informed the subordinate divisions that in the occupied regions of the USSR, including the Reichskommissariat Ostland and Ukraine (with the exception of Transnistria), prices were set for the purchase and rental of horses and carts for the Wehrmacht (TsAMO RF, f. 500 , op.12474, d.136, l.67).

Purchase of horses and carts:

Harness horse - 3000 rubles.
Draft horse - 3500 rubles.
Harness - 100 rubles extra.
Wheeled carriage - 1000-1500 rubles.
Sleigh - 500 rubles.

Rent of a horse with harness and carriages per day:

Wehrmacht fodder - 5 rubles.
Owner's fodder - 7,5 rubles.
Carriage - 2 rubles.
Sleigh - 1 ruble.

Moreover, for the sale of a horse, the Wehrmacht required the permission of the agricultural Fuhrer, responsible for the region or for the collective farm to which the seller belonged.

If such a procedure for the acquisition and lease of horses and carts was established for the entire occupied territory of the USSR, then, probably, there should have been reports on the number of acquired or rented horses, or at least the amount spent for these needs.


The German troops needed a lot of horse-drawn transport. To transport 170 tons of food required per day by the German infantry division, about 5 thousand horses were required

With these orders, the Germans clearly tried to streamline the use of agricultural resources of the occupied territory (we are talking about the east of the Ukrainian SSR, the region southeast of Kharkov), counting on the long-term supply of their troops, and also tried to attract the sympathy of the population, at least in part, and even involve it in cooperation with German troops and army bodies.

In the case, most of the documents refer to the 8th Army Corps from the 6th Army, which was destroyed surrounded by Stalingrad. So the documents in question are most likely the trophies of the Battle of Stalingrad.
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  1. apro
    apro 22 October 2020 05: 40
    +5
    Of course I paid ... how else. Today they also pay, as it were, a salary ... no one has canceled the price scissors. Just robbing is not convenient, but you will give a little and already another conversation ...
    1. Proxima
      Proxima 22 October 2020 08: 24
      14
      Photography, like the photos in the author's previous articles on this topic, is simply touched. Look what the contented faces of the collective farmers are! Not an occupation, but just heaven on earth! good It seems to me that it is not entirely ethical to expose a photo in an article from Nazi staged propaganda. I also believe that the Nazis did in the occupied territories what was beneficial to them. If it was profitable for them to arrange a series of concentration camps for children, where they pumped out their blood, condemning them to martyrdom, then they did it. If it was profitable for them to leave fodder grain to the peasants so that the people along with the cattle would not really die, then they did it too. Otherwise how to "cut" them later for the next harvest. And lastly, I don't understand the message of the author, what does he want to say with this series of articles?
      1. apro
        apro 22 October 2020 09: 22
        +1
        Quote: Proxima
        And lastly, I don't understand the message of the author, what does he want to say with this series of articles?

        Itoria is nothing more than the investigator is looking for facts, but not the all-obscure truth ... everyone has their own.
        1. Proxima
          Proxima 22 October 2020 09: 39
          +6
          Quote: apro
          .the investigator is looking for facts. and not the all-obscure truth ... everyone has their own. own.

          And the facts must be backed up with photographs from German propaganda papers? ... Well, yes, of course, the Nazis had their own truth, which "allowed" them to commit atrocities in the occupied territories ..
      2. pivnik
        pivnik 22 October 2020 09: 24
        -3
        the author - an ordinary fascist henchman - works out 30 pieces of silver ...
      3. BAI
        BAI 22 October 2020 10: 32
        +8
        Look what the contented faces of the collective farmers are!

        So a staged photo. But if this is Western Ukraine, then there the Germans were greeted with flowers, as in the Baltic states.
        1. Looking for
          Looking for 22 October 2020 16: 38
          +6
          yes, judging by this rag.
          1. wehr
            23 October 2020 00: 27
            -4
            Just think about this: what was in the minds of people, and so illiterate, through whose brains Polish propaganda, then Soviet, then German and Bandera, then Soviet propaganda swept through their brains.
      4. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
        Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 22 October 2020 12: 39
        -5
        Quote: Proxima
        And I also believe that the Nazis did in the occupied territories what was beneficial to them.

        fresh thought.
        Usually, however, they do not try to benefit from the occupation. laughing
      5. fyvaprold
        fyvaprold 23 October 2020 19: 58
        +4
        Quote: Proxima
        Photography, like the photos in the author's previous articles on this topic, is simply touched. Look what the contented faces of the collective farmers are! Not an occupation, but just heaven on earth!

        Another "Overton Window" from the cycle... now we would drive on the autobahns and drink Bavarian"I think that for the sake of completeness, it is not enough to tell about the standards for the distribution of Shvejotsor chocolate to" donor children "from the" Salaspils "children's health camp" and the schedule of sending "patients" from the "Auschwitz-Birkenau" sanatoriums for treatment to Karlovy Vary and “Majdanek.” You read something like that and it somehow becomes disgusting.
        The article is rubbish. The author is ..., he himself will guess. negative
        1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
          Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 23 October 2020 23: 01
          -5
          Stop carrying it. What the fuck are overton windows? These are archives. You do not know how to work and think in them, analyzing the data - the author does it for you. I like heroic cranberries - for God's sake. There is a different layer here. Passage about 'would drink Bavarian' looks like an idiotic.
          1. fyvaprold
            fyvaprold 24 October 2020 11: 10
            +3
            Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
            Stop carrying it. What the fuck are overton windows? These are archives. You do not know how to work and think in them, analyzing the data - the author does it for you. Like heroic cranberry - for God's sake. There is a different layer here. Passage about 'would drink Bavarian' looks like an idiotic.
            "Heroic Cranberries", as you vomit, my family album is full. In my occupation, in the Bryansk region, a good half of the family lived. Until 1942, and then the whole village was burned, together with the inhabitants, perhaps after the same "photo sessions" that are given in the article. So bite the sting.
            Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
            Here is a different layer

            Another layer is the use of Nazi propaganda for their intended purpose, that is, for the purposes of Nazi propaganda? Joseph Goebels and Hans Fritsche give a standing ovation to the "worthy" successors of their cause. Order yourself and the author on "Iron Cross with Swords and Oak Leaves" - deserve it.
            Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
            analyzing data - the author does it for you

            The author analyzes the trophy archives of the Propaganda Department of the Third Reich and ... continues their foul business. After all, you and the author clearly have more trust in such archives than in the memories of those who survived the occupation; I generally keep quiet about Soviet archives. Although for him, as well as for you, atrocities were committed in the occupied territories of the USSR, not otherwise than "NKVD officers dressed in German uniform", right? Don't bother answering, I think it's unconstructive and futile to argue with you like that.
            And yes, this is not only "Overton Windows" - it is a direct rehabilitation of Nazism.
            1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
              Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 24 October 2020 11: 44
              -2
              ... After all, you and the author clearly have more trust in such archives than in the memories of those who survived the occupation,

              Of course. Memoirs are subjective. Documents - no. And this is not the archive of the Ministry of Propaganda.
              ... this is a direct rehabilitation of Nazism.

              Yes, full of delirium. This is a refined documentary story. Where is the 'rehabilitation'? Should this be a default just because of your family album?
              Soon especially vigilant bigots like you will start knocking on the authors for such articles. Or already?
              1. fyvaprold
                fyvaprold 31 October 2020 09: 31
                +1
                Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
                This is a refined documentary story.

                No - this is a refined Nazi propaganda piece with photographs of Dr. Goebels's department.
                Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
                Of course. Memoirs are subjective. Documents - no.

                And here are the memoirs, I'm talking about the facts. Have you heard of the burnt villages? And your documents are - a dumb fake, I beg your pardon - a dumb, impartial fake. You still give "letters of Jewish immigrants" that these "immigrants" "wrote" to their American relatives much later than their own death, and "documents" about the expenses of the Reich for the "improvement" of these Jewish settlements. The bones and ashes in "Auschwitz" are "subjective", but Nazi propaganda is not. So your way.
                Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
                Soon especially vigilant bigots like you will start knocking on the authors for such articles. Or already?

                Okostya. The follower of Dr. Goebels does not distribute his "research" by samizdat to neighbors, on a dark night, but throws it out into the open. Why "knock", who needs to read it anyway. So that:-
                Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
                rave completely
      6. Polymer
        Polymer 1 November 2020 18: 19
        0
        Quote: Proxima
        Photography, like the photos in the author's previous articles on this topic, is simply touched.

        Yes, especially the signature:
        Checking the harvested potatoes.

        The author has never been involved in agricultural work, even in the country? The photo clearly shows more than just harvested potatoes. It has sprouted after winter storage. So the photo was taken in the spring, before planting. The next question is where was this photo taken?
      7. Train
        Train 3 November 2020 17: 21
        0
        there are originals of docks - read
  2. Olgovich
    Olgovich 22 October 2020 06: 23
    0
    Prices for agricultural products in the occupied territories were significantly lower than in Germany, on average by half; although it should be noted that the prices indicated for Germany are the prices of a large wholesale trade, not procurement prices for peasants.


    Then the comparison is meaningless, because the trade margin was tens and more percent.

    Harness horse - 3000 rubles.
    Draft horse - 3500 rubles.
    Harness - 100 rubles extra.
    Wheeled carriage - 1000-1500 rubles.
    Sleigh - 500 rubles.

    I wonder how many rubles in general fell into the hands of the invaders ...

    The average salary in the USSR was 600-700 rubles, i.e. a horse cost 6 salaries, the cost of a horse in 1928 was 120 rubles with a salary of 70 rubles, i.e. two s / boards ...

    But the fact is that they took away much more for free than they bought, it is enough to read the Acts of State Commissions on the magnitude of the damage caused
  3. Asad
    Asad 22 October 2020 06: 45
    +5
    Potatoes all in sprouts, most likely sown!
  4. EvilLion
    EvilLion 22 October 2020 08: 51
    11
    For the collected cartridge cases and in the Red Army paid. Yes, they paid for everything that could be used.

    By this, as one might assume, we mean Soviet procurement bodies like Zagotzern, which came under the control of the Yug economic inspectorate, about which there is a direct indication in the document.


    I love to listen to the nonsense of the White-worshipers, how the peasants were herded into collective farms to make it easier to rob them. As if the master of the tsar did not know how easier it is to collect, there is a community with the headman, and there is a clerk. Yes, no normal person will walk around the courtyards, and any government will simply call a local elder and appoint him how much the local should pay. And the Germans were not fools, they were not engaged in dispersal of collective farms, or procurement. structures, because it is much easier to call the collective farm chairman, or the head of an existing procurement. office and explain that continue to work, but now you hand over everything you have collected to us. At the same time, the Germans did not doubt the effectiveness of these very local collective farms.
  5. hohol95
    hohol95 22 October 2020 08: 56
    +9
    At the rate set for the occupied territories, the Reichsmark was equal to 10 rubles.

    Dear author! Did you indicate the exchange rate of the ruble to the Reichsmark, or were you mistaken and confused the Reichsmark with the occupation mark?
  6. hohol95
    hohol95 22 October 2020 09: 09
    +5
    The principle of calculation was the same as in the Green Folder: up to 1000 Reichsmarks - in cash, over 1000 Reichsmarks - with receipts, which were subsequently cashed out. A thousand Reichsmarks was a large sum; to get that much, the peasants had to hand over, for example, 40 tons of rye - the harvest of an entire collective farm.

    And again you have a statement that they paid with Reichsmarks. ..
    On July 4, 1942, the Reichskommissar of Ukraine E. Koch issued a decree on monetary reform. Until July 25, 1942, all residents were ordered to exchange (hand over) the Soviet banknotes in their hands with denominations of 5 Soviet rubles and above for exchange for karbovanets. Tickets for 1 and 3 rubles, along with a small change, were not withdrawn from circulation. The exchange took place on the basis of a ruble for karbovanets. A special form of Empfangsbestatigung (Selection Certificate) was even developed, which was issued to persons who handed in Soviet currency for exchange for the occupation Karbovanets. The resolution also stipulated that “banknotes would be withdrawn from exchange if there was no evidence that they were acquired legally,” and many owners of large sums in chervontsy simply did not know how to approach the exchange office. The population was also alarmed by the fact that when exchanging amounts of more than 200 rubles to one person, money was not given out, but entered into special interest-free "savings accounts" and only a bank receipt was issued. In fact, there was a seizure of Soviet rubles from the population.

    “December 24th. The frosts are unbearable. People are dying of hunger in their beds by the hundreds a day. In Tsarskoe Selo, about 25 thousand remained before the arrival of the Germans. 5-6 thousand were absorbed into the rear and in the nearest villages, two thousand or two and a half were knocked out by shells, and according to the last census of the Board, which was carried out the other day, there were eight and something thousand ... All others died out. It is not at all amazing when you hear that one or another of our friends has died. Everyone hid in their burrows, and no one visits anyone without the most necessary business. And the business is always the same - to get some food ...
    27th of December. Carts drive through the streets and collect the dead from their homes. They are folded into anti-air slots. They say that the entire road to Gatchina is paved with corpses on both sides. These unfortunates gathered their last junk and went to exchange for food. On the way, who of them sat down to rest, he did not get up ... The old people, distraught with hunger, from the nursing home wrote an official request addressed to the commander of the military forces of our section and somehow forwarded this request to him. And it read: "We ask permission to eat old people who have died in our house." The commandant just lost his mind. These old men and women were evacuated to the rear. One of the translators, an emigrant who lived all the time of emigration in Berlin, explained to us ... that this evacuation will end in a common grave in Gatchina. "
    These are excerpts from the diary of Osipova, located in the occupied territory.

    Occupation money of the Third Reich
    back-in-ussr.info
    1. wehr
      22 October 2020 11: 27
      -4
      In all reviewed documents and publications, the Germans used the abbreviation RM (Reichsmark). Or currency circulating in certain occupied territories, such as karbovanets or zloty.
      So don't create phantoms.
      1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
        Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 22 October 2020 18: 05
        -1
        I'm curious: if you write an article "Dentistry in the Third Reich", then you will surely find a passionary fool with his tongue "the author humanizes fascists! There is no need for the young generation to know that they also had teeth!"
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 22 October 2020 20: 24
          0
          So it will be !!!
        2. Ryazan87
          Ryazan87 22 October 2020 21: 47
          -1
          clearly .. "they beat off his fingers so that any abomination would not knock on the keyboard."
          So fascism will win.
          By what methods? It is undesirable to study archival documents. It is simply impossible to write articles on their basis. Whoever thinks otherwise - to beat off his fingers, poke, somehow defame (option "honk where you should"). The truth is only from the retelling of the memories of relatives. And exactly those who like the voice of these stories. Oh, you can still burn the books written if you don't like them. Introduce the term "fascist underdit" or simply subhuman. A fascist, he looks like a person, but not a person either, so it is logical ...
          In short, the fight is very exciting and allows you to be a fascist a little and safely in the style of Soviet films of the 70s))
        3. hohol95
          hohol95 23 October 2020 00: 08
          0
          "The author humanizes the fascists! There is no need for the young generation to know that they also had teeth!"

          The author forgets to report that the German's teeth were damaged by caries ...
      2. hohol95
        hohol95 22 October 2020 22: 59
        +1
        So don't create phantoms.

        This is what I come out with as the creator of "phantoms"? Justify!
        What did the Wehrmacht pay for?

        It's my pleasure? WITH WHAT!
        And the Wehrmacht, SS, Luftwaffe and others from the Third Reich paid off with empty papers that did not have ANY financial weight
        Both karbovanets and occupation marks were mere pieces of paper!
        For which their owners from the occupied population could not acquire anything!
        The Germans could pay on the territory of the USSR even in dollars, even francs, but they would also be simple pieces of paper due to the complete lack of goods to buy ha, these dollars!
        That's why barter blossomed!
        A liter of gasoline - 10 eggs!
        One issued partisan or a Jew - a pound of flour or 1 cow!
        And no stamps, IOUs or karbovanets.
        1. wehr
          23 October 2020 00: 01
          -3
          What kind of tantrum?
          Do you think that the Red Army at the end of the war in Poland, Romania, Hungary, Germany did not pay with ordinary pieces of paper? Yes, with the same pieces of paper, and for the same reason, the lack of goods.
          The money of occupation was started up for another purpose, as a sign and attribute of power over this territory.
          1. hohol95
            hohol95 23 October 2020 00: 07
            +3
            Just how were the "papers" of the Red Army later replaced?
            And what were the papers of the Third Reich.
            All this is good and pleasant - the enemy pays money (for one hundred Reichsmarks you have to report and prove their legal origin). And in fact - a more planned and more transparent for the top officials pumping out the resources of the occupied territories!
            You give us potatoes - we'll give you glass beads ...
            This is the whole point of the German financial policy in the occupied Soviet lands.
            1. wehr
              23 October 2020 00: 24
              -3
              It depended on who won the war. During the war, the finances of the occupied territories on both sides were practically the same due to the similarity of economic conditions.
              You have not yet read the documents on the introduction of the Soviet procurement system in the Soviet occupation zone of Germany in 1945.

              By the way, about the "occupation marks". And what were they called in German? Ostmark? (This was the name of the GDR brand in Germany). Mark für besetzen Gebiet?
              1. hohol95
                hohol95 23 October 2020 13: 12
                +2
                In May 1940, a law was passed on the organization of imperial credit offices - a kind of branches of the Reichsbank in the occupied countries. It was planned that gradually all the occupied territories would be converted to German currency, but Hitler did not have enough funds to implement this grandiose plan. Countries that used the occupation Reichsmarks included Poland, the Netherlands, France, Luxembourg and Western Ukraine.
                Already on July 4, 1942, the Reichskommissar of Ukraine E. Koch issued a decree on monetary reform. Its meaning was in almost complete withdrawal and replacement of Soviet rubles and chervonets. Until 2 July 5, 1942, all residents of the Reichskommissariat Ukraine, in connection with the issue of Karbovanets, were ordered to exchange (hand over) the Soviet banknotes in their hands with denominations of 5 Soviet rubles and above for exchange for Rovno Karbovanets. Tickets for 1 and 3 rubles, along with a small change, were not withdrawn from circulation.
                After the decree of July 4, 1942, karbovanets officially remained in monetary circulation, Soviet treasury notes in denominations of 1 and 3 rubles, Soviet exchange coins with denominations of 1 to 20 kopecks, occupation marks and German zinc and bronze coins in 1, 2, 5,10 pfennigs. The use of the canceled Soviet money continued unofficially.

                Allied occupation stamps were developed in the United States. In August 1944, everything needed for printing was transferred to the Soviet side.
                Having entered the territory of Germany, the members of the anti-Hitler coalition set the following rates of the mark to their currencies:
                ruble - 2: 1; dollar - 10: 1; pound sterling - 40: 1.
                This money was in circulation until 1948!
  7. Avior
    Avior 22 October 2020 09: 37
    +3
    the article raises an interesting topic, but the information is clearly insufficient. there were also questions that needed to be clarified.
    1. The question of prices in Germany for comparison, in my opinion, does not make much sense, and the information is limited.
    It's like comparing prices in the outback of the Penza region and in Moscow. Of course, they will be different.
    2. It would be much more useful and interesting to compare with state prices purchases from collective farms directly at the beginning of the war in the USSR, or in 1942, in order to understand how the peasants saw the new government from this point of view.
    3. The big difference between purchase prices from private traders and procurement offices is surprising. What is the reason for this? At what price did the procurement offices themselves buy from private traders? Was this due to high prices for delivery, or did the procurement offices pay more to the peasants, and it was more convenient for the Germans not to take ten eggs and a kilogram of butter from private owners, but to buy wholesale from the procurement office? It is hard to believe that such a difference in price was left to the profit of the owner of the procurement office.
  8. BAI
    BAI 22 October 2020 10: 28
    11
    Checking the harvested potatoes.

    The author is never an expert on agriculture. The photo shows sprouted potatoes. This is either a seed before planting, or - last year, which lay all winter (although this is in any way last year, but you cannot eat seed). Since the photo was taken in the field, this is a seed before planting.
    1. The comment was deleted.
  9. Inorus
    Inorus 22 October 2020 11: 28
    +9
    Inorus
    8 August 2020 08: 26
    22
    Is Goering's Green Folder green?
    I don't know if the author's family was in the occupation. And my father's family was born in 1937. was, and not long winter 41 (Tikhonova desert, Kaluga region). So my sister and brother, he died of hunger. I also found my grandmother alive, and I perfectly remember her stories, how the Germans raked everything out. The author, I no longer want to be with you on the same sat. I am deleting my account. What have you become ...
  10. Timofey Charuta
    Timofey Charuta 22 October 2020 11: 31
    10
    Some may have paid with occupational ersatz stamps, others were looting.
    "Why feed the soldiers with guns? They will feed themselves ..." - a phrase from the movie "Cain18".

    in the photo - these can see the money for the purchase of food has run out ...


    PS
    Curiously, the Fritzes paid peasants according to the bills? Modern vision of the situation - grandmothers pocketed, food was taken away by force. How are the Germans with revision, cash check, audit? Are there any inspection materials?
    1. wehr
      22 October 2020 22: 43
      -4
      In the cited order of General Hollidt, it is simultaneously recognized both the fact of robberies and the fact that the corps command was worried about it; which is quite understandable, since looting is the shortest road to the disintegration of the army.
      If you paid, then there should be statements, and audits, and audits. I have come across audit materials of enterprises in the occupied territories. Financial audits were to be carried out in the army as well.
    2. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 24 October 2020 13: 00
      +2
      In the Leningrad Region, during the occupation, according to various sources, according to various sources, 30-50 thousand civilians, more than 110 prisoners of war were killed. About 000 thousand people were taken to Germany. There were about 400 concentration camps. Children were also kept there. The conditions of detention were appalling. They did not feed, ate the vegetation that grew on the territory of the camp. All the frogs were eaten, which is the recollection of 50-year-old private Grigory Stetsenko. In summer, people lived on the street, in winter - in stables and sheds. They killed, shot, hung. They made me work 19 hours a day ...
  11. The comment was deleted.
  12. Timofey Charuta
    Timofey Charuta 22 October 2020 12: 13
    -7
    With any approach - thanks to the author of the article for a new, unadorned
    topic, documents are always interesting

  13. Daniil Konovalenko
    Daniil Konovalenko 22 October 2020 12: 44
    19
    Oh sure.. smile According to my grandmother's recollections, the Germans sewed, took away what could be taken away, they shot chickens, geese .. they didn’t give money .. Then the Romanians sewed until they were kicked out, they even took the pots, they loved the corn very much, they dared everything .. they didn’t give money. .And they drove to the fields to work ... not even for workdays ... the main "incentive" on the square was in the form of a gallows ... There often someone hung for not going to work, stole food or something else. an adult gallows, a teenager, they were simply beaten to death ... And the documents, yes, prove that I described it above, it just did not exist ... people are lying ... there are documents ...
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 22 October 2020 18: 35
      +9
      Quote: Daniil Konovalenko
      According to grandmother's recollections, the Germans sewed on, took away what could be taken away, they shot chickens, geese ... they did not give money ...

      This is unorganized robbery. It was with him that the Germans fought to the best of their ability - but not because of some kind of philanthropy and humanism, but because this haphazard robbery violated the basis of future organized robbery and exploitation.
      Ordnung is ordnung: you have to plunder using scientific methods, so you can get more.
    2. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 24 October 2020 13: 09
      +3
      Quote: Daniil Konovalenko
      Oh sure.. smile According to my grandmother's recollections, the Germans sewed, took away what could be taken away, they shot chickens, geese .. they didn’t give money .. Then the Romanians sewed until they were kicked out, they even took the pots, they loved the corn very much, they dared everything .. they didn’t give money. .And they drove to the fields to work ... not even for workdays ... the main "incentive" on the square was in the form of a gallows ... There often someone hung for not going to work, stole food or something else. an adult gallows, a teenager, they were simply beaten to death ... And the documents, yes, prove that I described it above, it just did not exist ... people are lying ... there are documents ...

      About a month before the attack in Germany, a directive was signed for the Barbarossa plan. The plan itself provided for the rapid defeat of the USSR and the destruction of most of the population. Only the necessary slaves could remain. The May directive presupposed cruelty, extermination, and ruthlessness towards the population of the USSR.
  14. Assyrian
    Assyrian 22 October 2020 13: 55
    +6
    Again this one with raised hands))))) You are at the door, they are at the window))))) A brother if from Urengoy.
    Quote: Proxima
    And lastly, I don't understand the message of the author, what does he want to say with this series of articles?

    With a series of articles, the author wants to lacquer, wipe off the image of the occupant stored in every family even after 75 years, already at the genetic level. And so, dripping into the crown of the youth, to form the image of a quite decent OCCUPANT. So that when the next one appears from the Urengoy, the country no longer rears up.
    So disguised as "research" is the justification of fascism.
    And there is no one there near the author to beat off his fingers so that any abomination does not knock on the keyboard.
    1. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 23 October 2020 12: 39
      +6
      ..... to wipe off the image of the occupier .....
      Yes Yes! After all, it was said somehow
      .... would drink Bovarian ....
      now the author needs to tell everyone how the Nazis treated children with German chocolate and other products, taught the German language and played the harmonica. .....
  15. Mikhail S.
    Mikhail S. 22 October 2020 15: 48
    10
    Aunt Wives from the Bryansk region still hates Germans. The article is the beginning of the humanization of the fascists in the eyes of a generation that did not find the occupation. This article series is just the beginning. If we tolerate it, it will be like in Ukraine. I DO NOT BELIEVE that the Nazis paid for what they could take away.
    Since childhood, I remember the words of a fought relative "When everyone who remembers the war will die out, the next war will begin." Rest in peace to him, he was a good man.
    1. parusnik
      parusnik 22 October 2020 19: 19
      10
      "When everyone who remembers the war will die out, the next war will begin."
      ... My grandmother, lost her husband, brothers, some children became crippled, survived the occupation, said about the same thing ..
      1. Reptiloid
        Reptiloid 22 October 2020 23: 59
        +6
        My grandmother remembered the occupation well. Tula region Aleksinsky district. They didn't pay for anything. I took what they wanted
  16. Mikhail S.
    Mikhail S. 22 October 2020 16: 51
    +5
    We are waiting for articles about the economic activities of Bandera.
    1. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 23 October 2020 14: 52
      +4
      Quote: Mikhail S.
      We are waiting for articles about the economic activities of Bandera.

      I have not seen anything like it.
      But in 2016 there was an article by Shpakovsky about White Czechs. August, September, October, approx. About this time there was an article by him about an armored train
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 23 October 2020 21: 12
        +3
        But in 2016 there was an article by Shpakovsky about White Czechs.

        He also likes to wave such documents. And there is one answer to the objections of opponents - you have there memories of different grandmothers, and I have an official document!
        1. Reptiloid
          Reptiloid 23 October 2020 21: 45
          +5
          Documents can be extracted conveniently by milking oneself, and about inconvenient ones to pretend that it is not known.
          1. Aviator_
            Aviator_ 23 October 2020 21: 48
            +2
            You can interpret in different ways

            Estessno, the class essence immediately crawls out.
  17. parusnik
    parusnik 22 October 2020 18: 21
    12
    laughing Often they write in the comments about modern war cinema, they say, inventions should be filmed on the basis of documents. Here are the documents presented, and now the movie. A German military unit occupies a settlement, a village, a village, a village, it doesn't matter. The German soldiers are hungry, but here's the catch ... the box office was lost, they scraped up the little things and went to bed half-starved, well, they won't rob, turn the population against themselves. Another episode. In the occupied territory, former Soviet schoolchildren with joyful faces collect weapons, cartridges on the battlefields and drag it ... no, not to a partisan detachment, to the German commandant's office, where they are given Reichsmarks for metal surrendered, many Reichsmarks. I remember the film Badge of Trouble, where the Germans demand to hand over the bomb, otherwise they will shoot the whole village, filmed by the way on real events. But according to the available documents, this could not be.
    1. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 23 October 2020 13: 00
      +3
      I remembered that in one of the issues of the magazine DILETANT I had read how well the Germans lived together with the owners of the houses, they repaired and fed them furniture. Long-term programs to destroy Russia continue to work.
      I asked this magazine when it appeared. There is a whole section for this. So the author is not the first to humanize enemies.
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 23 October 2020 21: 14
        +2
        Dmitry, when did the Diletant magazine appear? Too lazy to google yourself.
        1. Reptiloid
          Reptiloid 23 October 2020 21: 41
          +1
          I don't remember exactly, Sergei. These are several historical magazines, I remember that there are QUESTIONS OF HISTORY ..... more drury .....
          1. Aviator_
            Aviator_ 23 October 2020 21: 45
            +1
            Well, judging by the rubric, this is the year 90-91
            1. Reptiloid
              Reptiloid 23 October 2020 21: 48
              +2
              Rubric --- price of Victory. About the years, in my opinion closer to us.
              1. Aviator_
                Aviator_ 23 October 2020 22: 00
                +1
                Maybe there is enough garbage now. You read the message, otherwise again ...
  18. Goldmitro
    Goldmitro 22 October 2020 19: 31
    +9
    Quote: Mikhail S.
    The article is the beginning of the humanization of the fascists in the eyes of a generation that did not find the occupation. This article series is just the beginning. If we tolerate it, it will be like in Ukraine.

    You are absolutely right! The tactics of the West for a long time on the education of the young generation of Russians Banderlog, taking advantage of his poor knowledge of history and a certain indifference of the liberal authorities (well, of course, we have freedom of speech, grind what you want) will certainly give the result he needs! Example - Ukraine, where the crowds fostered by him are already driving! With such seemingly harmless articles humanizing the fascists, doubts arise in young heads and Kolya from Urengoy appears! And it seems to be forgotten that our country paid with the lives of 27 MILLION of its citizens to defeat this fascist bastard, incl. often mimicking quite normal people!
    1. Alex013
      Alex013 22 October 2020 21: 32
      +8
      And "Rut from Urengoy" should be taken to the Tretyakov Gallery to the painting by Arkady Alexandrovich Plastov "The Fascist flew by" and poke ...
  19. Nitarius
    Nitarius 23 October 2020 11: 13
    +5
    what is this article for. .. like the Germans to justify or what?
  20. hohol95
    hohol95 23 October 2020 13: 13
    0
    The writer Anatoly Kuznetsov, who survived the occupation in Kiev as a child, described his commercial operations as follows: “Kolka Gorokhovsky and I sold cigarettes. This business is simpler than a steamed turnip. We drove to the huge Galician bazaar, looked out for carts with Germans or Magyars and asked them:
    - Zigaretten ist?
    - Dry gundert rubel.
    - Nine, Nine! Zway Gundert!
    - Nine.
    - Yah, yah! Hey, Zoldat! Zway gundert, bitte!
    - Weh-yeh!
    - Zvay gundert, lived, fist, do you hear! Zwai Gundert?
    - Zvay gundert funfzig ...
    (Do you have cigarettes? - Three hundred rubles. - No, no! Two hundred! - No. - Yes, yes! Hey, soldier! Two hundred, please! - Pro-och! - Two hundred ... Two hundred? - Two hundred and fifty ...)
    They were speculators what they needed, they sold any junk and bargained, fought, but, in the end, a box of two hundred cigarettes was sold for two hundred rubles. Only with difficulty.
    There is one subtlety in this matter: when you bargain with a German, you need to work not only with your language, but get money and shove it under his nose; at the sight of them, he gets nervous, involuntarily stretches out his hand to take, well, but if he took it, he sold it.
    The first time they cheated us a lot: they brought the boxes home, opened them, and they lacked fifteen cigarettes: the Germans made holes and pulled them out with wire. Then, when we bought, we always printed and checked the packs. This, you know, is a wide range: on the one hand, the conquest and cultural renewal of the whole world, on the other, the dirty linen is removed from the murdered and cigarettes are dragged with wire.
    And so we ran around Kurenevka from morning till night - around the bazaar, by the tram park, at the corners and bridges, and by the end of the shift at the factories - and the pack could be sold in five days. We sold cigarettes by piece for two rubles, in five days I earned up to two hundred rubles, for as much as one and a half kilos of bread.
  21. Mikhail S.
    Mikhail S. 23 October 2020 13: 18
    +1
    Quote: Ryazanets87
    It is undesirable to study archival documents.

    If you cover the topic on the archival documents of the enemy (found guilty of crimes against humanity by an international court). then it is possible to pull on such documents that one gets the impression that the fascists came and put things in order.
    1. wehr
      23 October 2020 13: 24
      -4
      Are you proposing to burn the archival documents of the enemy so that the historical truth shines forever and ever? laughing
    2. Ryazan87
      Ryazan87 23 October 2020 13: 46
      0
      The paradox is that the international court found certain individuals and organizations guilty of crimes against humanity, including based on German archival documents.
      Here's a simple example for you: while studying some kind of military operation of the Second World War, is it necessary to get acquainted with, say, the divisional logs of the Wehrmacht's combat operations? Or will we get by with the stories of local residents?
      A comprehensive study of archival documents is the main method of historical knowledge. I agree, not impeccable, but still much more reliable than eyewitness memories. There are no written sources - myths, legends and all other derivatives of oral legend begin.
  22. Mikhail S.
    Mikhail S. 23 October 2020 14: 55
    0
    Quote: Ryazanets87

    A comprehensive study of archival documents is the main method of historical knowledge. ...

    COMPLEX. According to the published documents from the archives, the triumph of commodity-money relations is direct in the occupied territories. Since this is from the archive, it means it was. And what people say there, or documents from other sources, is no longer important.
    Previously, no one was allowed into the archives, one had to get an education first.
    And then a story comes to mind about how the blind told people about the elephant.
    The archives should be studied by specialists.
    1. wehr
      23 October 2020 16: 28
      -4
      This is what we did. The archives were studied by specialists, such as they did not see anything there.
      As a result. Anthony Dallin published his chubby book on German occupation policy on Soviet territory in shaggy 1957, and we still don't have anything like it.

      But the historical truth shines brighter and more beautiful. laughing
  23. Alexander Suvorov_2
    Alexander Suvorov_2 23 October 2020 17: 44
    +3
    And they could drink Bovarian and eat sausages! ... The article is just from this series
    Absolutely not give a damn what was paid there and for what ... 20 million civilian lives are the price of the invasion of non-humans, and their plan Ost clearly says what the Nazis had in store for us, extermination and slavery.
  24. Jünger
    Jünger 23 October 2020 20: 19
    +2
    Article - fire as usual. And the villagers in the photo show that they are quite satisfied with the communication with the officer.
  25. Gordei
    Gordei 23 October 2020 22: 15
    +5
    The article is clearly the great-grandchildren of Vlasov or negative wrote..And the Banderaites were paid like that, only if something happened, you or a partisan-commissar did not understand Bandera's commissar and soaked everyone and burned the whole village with the old people and children .. Basically, the Germans had such a fee, why did they need hungry and robbed villages ..
    And some kolobartsionists at this time drank Bavarian beer and ate sausages.
    And then at the end of the 80-90s they climbed out into the vastness of the USSR and began to tell in all the media how it would be good under the Germans in the occupied territories ..
    Bovarian beer, imported jeans pants and chewing gum with Coca Cola .. You will have everything, only commies sbrost and the KGB ..
    Dumped so what? They are destroying again, only in a tricky way.
    1. sergevl
      sergevl 24 October 2020 00: 20
      0
      my ancestors lived in a village in the Chernihiv region. a family of 5 children, successfully survived the occupation, my grandfather was at war at that time, then he ended up in a penal battalion, where he chopped off his thumb with a bullet. there are orders and medals. They wanted to send my grandmother to Germany for work; my great-grandmother managed to prove that she was a minor.
      a German living in their hut showed photographs of his children, whom he missed very much, played the harmonica, and the children tasted chocolate from a German ration for the first time in their lives. when the time came to retreat, each soldier was given a canister of gasoline to set fire to the hut, he poured gasoline on the roofing felts the shed roofing felts the cellar, or simply poured it on the hay, set fire only to the hay so that visibility was (also not to get under the tribunal)
      shl. "Holodomor" also survived safely, none of the children born in 1921-30 died of hunger.
      there was a collective farm - then on the collective farm they did not starve.
      so this is your hellish past with famines and horrors of "occupation" and museums of both Soviet and German occupation - often inventions of political strategists.

      shl. another grandfather, who went through the war from Stalingrad to Kharkov, where he was shell-shocked during a raid on the station and was commissioned from military service - he worked at a Kharkov tank plant, then moved to Kiev.
      so the famine of 1947 says lies, everything was bursting with grub, and he ate well then.
      and he also stood in a cordon on Kalinin Square, when the policemen were hanged, they took pity on one kid - he was a minor at that time, and survived, having escaped with prison.
      1. sergevl
        sergevl 24 October 2020 00: 26
        -1
        The occupation stamps, earned during the war, lie at home in old money, together with a penny of 1798, and Soviet bills of the "pilot" type, they were used as means of payment. and beads were made from Austro-Hungarian coins.
  26. Radikal
    Radikal 1 November 2020 23: 26
    +1
    To be honest, I didn't understand the purpose of publishing this article .... winked