Military Review

Russia on the way to the era of palace coups. First autocratic empress

83
Russia on the way to the era of palace coups. First autocratic empress
Ekaterina Alekseevna, engraving, 1724


Article "Russia on the way to the era of palace coups" we talked about the difficult relationships in the family of Peter I, his conflicts with his first wife and eldest son, which ended in the death of Tsarevich Alexei. The emperor's desire to transfer the throne to his youngest son, born of Catherine, was not realized due to the death of the latter, and Peter I again faced the question of an heir, which was never resolved by him until his death.

The fateful decree of Peter I


The result of the painful reflections of Peter I was the decree on succession to the throne, issued on February 5, 1722, which abolished the time-honored tradition of passing the throne down to direct male descendants by seniority. Now the current monarch of Russia could appoint anyone as his successor.

The emperor's plan, in general, was not bad. Indeed, you never know what a fool and degenerate the firstborn will be born? Wouldn't it be better to hand over the throne to the most prepared and capable candidate, whose reign will continue the traditions of the previous one?

However, as you know, the road to hell is paved with good intentions.

Firstly, the destruction of an ancient and universally recognized custom disorientated society, giving rise to the temptation of legitimate and not very candidates to take the throne precisely by the right of the most capable and powerful.

Secondly, it widened the already huge mental gap between the upper classes of society and ordinary people. The aristocrats now saw nothing wrong in not just “limiting the autocracy to a noose,” but also making good money on it, having received well-paid positions, orders and just money from the contender's accomplice serfs. However, the overwhelming majority of the country's population remained in line with traditional ideas. The uprising of Yemelyan Pugachev, for example, took place under the slogan of the return to power of the legitimate emperor Peter III, expelled from St. Petersburg by "the prodigal wife Katerina and her lovers." And some did not believe in the death of Peter II: they argued that the young emperor was captured and captured by his own courtiers for wanting to help ordinary people. The popular opinion about the "bad boyars", who prevented the "good tsar" from taking care of his subjects, became widespread and strengthened, and this increased the hostility of the peasants towards their masters and increased social tension in society.

Thirdly, for some reason it was not possible to achieve just the continuation of traditions and following in line with one policy under this system. Each new monarch from the Romanov dynasty now abruptly turned the state in the opposite direction to the one where his predecessor was trying to lead it. When studying Russian stories it is probably quite difficult for an outsider to believe that Peter III and Elizabeth, Paul I and Catherine II, Alexander II and Nicholas I, Alexander III and Alexander II are members of the same imperial house and close relatives. One involuntarily creates the impression that every time a change of power has taken place at the head of our country, if not a conqueror, then at least a representative of another, hostile dynasty.

Ironically, Peter I himself - the author of this famous decree, dying, failed to exercise the right to appoint an heir. Archbishop Feofan Prokopovich claimed that the last word of the emperor was "after": this was his answer to the question of whom he left his throne to. Even on the verge of death, Peter I could not dare to name his successor and in the end did not have time to express his will.

Better known is another, even more dramatic version of the circumstances of the death of the first emperor, which Maximilian Voloshin commented in white verses:

Peter wrote with a touching hand:
"Give it all ..." Fate added:
"... to dissolute women with their hahahals" ...
The Russian court erases all differences
Fornication, palace and tavern.
Queens are crowned king
By the lust of the guards' stallions.

And the first of these "crazy empresses" was the former port operator Marta Skavronskaya-Kruse, who is considered by some to be Swedish, while others are considered a German, Lithuanian or Latvian Courland. However, Polish origin is not excluded. Yes, and with her surname, everything is still not clear: it is known that Peter I also called Catherine Veselovskaya or Vasilevskaya, and some consider Rabe to be the maiden name of this woman.

Chosen One of Peter I


Peter I met the main woman of his life in the fall of 1703. Catherine at this time was 19 years old and she was no longer under Sheremetyev, but under Alexander Menshikov. Franz Villebois, author of the book "Stories of the Russian Court", claimed that it was then that the first "night of love" in their life took place, for which the tsar honestly paid 10 francs (half a louis). Villebois could learn about this both from Peter himself, to whom he was quite close, and from his wife, the eldest daughter of Pastor Gluck, in whose family Martha was raised.


François Guillemot de Villebois, a French naval officer in the Russian service from 1698 to 1747. and rose to the rank of vice admiral. Portrait of the work of an unknown master

This episode of the "acquaintance" of Peter and Catherine (with the exception of payment for services rendered) was included in the novel by A. N. Tolstoy "Peter I" and the film of the same name based on this work. It is on the information of Villebois that Tolstoy relies when he tells how, in the presence of Menshikov, the tsar demands from Catherine "to give him a light in his bedroom."

Contrary to popular belief, Catherine after that did not immediately go to Peter I, and for two more years was in the service of the tsar's favorite, and Menshikov did not particularly distinguish her from others in the spring of 1705. The previous article quoted his letter demanding that Catherine be sent immediately, and not one - "with her other two girls." And this despite the fact that in 1704 and 1705. she gave birth to, unknown from whom (maybe from Menshikov, and maybe from the Tsar who periodically visited her) two boys: Peter and Paul, who died shortly after birth. Only in 1705, Peter I decided to take Catherine to himself, sending her to live in the estate of his sister Natalia (the village of Preobrazhenskoe). And only in 1707 (according to other sources, in 1708), she was converted to Orthodoxy, and her godfather was the Tsar's son Alexei - she received a patronymic by his name. And since 1709, Catherine was already almost inseparably with Peter, including in the Prut campaign, when she was in her seventh month of pregnancy. It is believed that the tsar could no longer do without Catherine, because she learned to shoot and relieve some attacks, during which Peter rolled on the floor, screamed with headaches and sometimes lost his sight. This was discussed in the article "Prut catastrophe of Peter I", we will not repeat ourselves.

Apparently, it was the moment of baptism that was key in the fate of Catherine, from that time the unprecedented rise of this metressa begins, which ended first in a secret (1711), and then an official (1712) wedding to Peter I, proclaiming her empress in December 1721 and coronation in May 1724.


A. Zubov. Empress Catherine I surrounded by medallions with portraits of Russian tsars, 1725

At the same time, Catherine felt so free and confident that she got a lover, who became not just anyone, but Willem (Wilhelm) Mons. This was the brother of the famous favorite of Peter I - a guards lieutenant, a participant in the battles at Lesnaya and near Poltava, a former adjutant of the emperor, who in 1716 went into the service of Catherine. Later he was in charge of her office. In the service of Mons then there was a former solicitor and former guardsman Ivan Balakirev, to whom Peter the Great gave him the “amusing title” of the Kasimov Khan. In the future, Balakirev was destined to become famous as a jester at the court of Anna Ioannovna. Among other things, he is credited with the idea of ​​playing strip cards. Empress Anna liked this proposal so much (she herself, of course, did not undress) that, as a reward, she ordered that Balakirev be allowed to go to dinner from the royal kitchen.


Jester Balakirev, portrait of an unknown artist, Travel Palace, Strelna

It was Balakirev who, in a fit of drunken frankness, told a certain student of the wallpaper master Ivan Suvorov that he was giving Mons Catherine's letters (and Mons’s letters to Catherine too). And these letters are so dangerous that if something happens, he can't even bear his head. Suvorov, in turn, shared the secret with a certain Mikhei Ershov, who wrote the denunciation.

Since one of these letters referred to some kind of drink, Willem Mons was initially suspected of wanting to poison the emperor. But the investigation revealed a completely different picture. It all ended with the execution of Willem Mons, whom, for the sake of decency, was accused only of bribery and embezzlement (which the favorite of Catherine also did not disdain, and even from the all-powerful Menshikov sometimes contrived "to take assistance"). Balakirev got off with three years of exile in Rogervik.

Already at the end of the 1880th century, the notorious Ekaterina Dashkova discovered some very high consumption of alcohol in the Academy of Sciences entrusted to her, and naturally, bad thoughts crept into the princess's head about the drunkenness of gentlemen academicians right at the workplace. However, the caretaker of the Cabinet of Curiosities Yakov Bryukhanov explained to her that alcohol is used to change the solution in glass vessels, where ... two severed human heads have been stored for half a century. Intrigued, "Ekaterina Malaya" raised the documents and found out that these were the heads of Willem Mons and Maria Hamilton (the mistress of Peter I, who was executed for infanticide). Empress Catherine II herself became interested in the "exhibits", who personally examined them, apparently glad to herself that her husband was the third Peter, and not the first. According to legend, it was she who ordered the heads to be buried in the basement. At least the historian Mikhail Semevsky in the XNUMXs. I have not found these heads in the storage rooms of the Cabinet of Curiosities.

But let us return to Catherine I and see that Peter did not part with her then, although he cooled off. And shortly before his death, daughter Elizabeth managed to completely reconcile the spouses.

The relationship between Catherine and Mons had far-reaching consequences. In November 1724, Peter I finally agreed to marry the Holstein Duke Karl Friedrich with his eldest daughter, the clever Anna (it would be much better for Russia if it was she who stayed at home, and the "cheerful" Elizabeth left for Kiel).


A. Zubov. Portrait of Anna Petrovna

At the same time, a secret protocol was signed, according to which Peter had the right to take the son born of this marriage to Russia in order to make him the heir to the Russian throne. And the son of this couple was really born, and indeed became both the heir to the throne and the Russian emperor, but was killed after a palace coup in favor of his wife, the German woman Sofia Augusta Frederica of Anhalt-Zerbst, who went down in history under the name of Catherine II. You probably guessed that we are talking about Peter III. But that was still far away.

The first autocratic ruler of the Russian Empire


After the death of Peter I, two parties were formed at the Russian court. The first of them, which, perhaps, can be tentatively called "aristocratic" or "boyar", advocated the proclamation of the new emperor as the undisputed contender - Peter Alekseevich, son of Tsarevich Alexei and grandson of Peter I, who was the last descendant of the Romanov family in the male line. The second party, which included "new people" who had come forward under the deceased emperor, supported the candidacy of his wife Catherine. It was then that the Russian guards for the first time changed the fate of Russia, and the announcement of Catherine I as the autocratic empress can be considered the first palace coup in Russian history. This coup was bloodless and was not accompanied by repressions, but, as they say, it was the beginning of the trouble.

A huge role was then played by Alexander Menshikov, who was able to quickly organize a "support group" of soldiers of the guards regiments.


Alexander Menshikov, portrait by an unknown master, first half of the XNUMXth century

Outraged Field Marshal A.I. Repnin, a supporter of Pyotr Alekseevich, who was then president of the Military Collegium, tried to find out who dared to withdraw the regiments from the barracks and send them back without his order. But it was too late: the guards who entered the hall of the Winter House of Peter the Great promised to "split the heads" of those "boyars" who refused to vote for "Mother Ekaterina", and the electors did not wait until the "guard" was finally "tired."

So Catherine I, who did not have even the slightest talent as a statesman, ended up on the Russian throne. And she never felt the desire to somehow participate in governing the country. To manage the state, the so-called Supreme Privy Council was created, in the affairs of which the new empress never interfered. She had other concerns and interests.

When Peter I was alive, Catherine had to somewhat moderate her instincts and appetites, but now she has turned into some kind of automaton for the continuous consumption of all kinds of benefits, pleasures and entertainment. Catherine I spent the rest of her life at balls and at the dinner table. Suffice it to say that 10% of all Russian budget funds were then spent on the purchase of Tokay wine for the royal court. In total, more than 6 million rubles were spent on the needs of the new empress and her inner circle - the amount at that time was simply astronomical. No wonder I.M. Vasilevsky called Catherine
\
a wonderful housekeeper, a very good maid of those who have been considered devotees for all ages and only in old age manage to steal a tidy sum from the benefactor who trusts her.

The French envoy, Jacques de Campredon, wrote about how Empress Catherine spent her time:

These entertainments consist in almost daily, lasting all night and a good part of the day, drinking in the garden, with persons who, on duty, must always be at court.

M. Magnan, who replaced Campredon in 1726, reported to Paris that Catherine "as usual goes to bed no earlier than 4-5 o'clock in the morning."

Catherine did not forget about carnal pleasures, in which she undertook to help first the chamberlain Reingold Gustav Levenwolde, and then the young Polish Count Peter Sapega (previously listed as the groom of Maria Menshikova).

The result of this intemperate lifestyle was an early death at age 43 (May 6, 1727).

Alexander Menshikov, the de facto ruler of Russia at the time, watched with alarm the rapid decrepitude of Catherine. Realizing that the empress's time was coming to an end, this time he decided to stake not on Catherine's daughter Elizabeth, but on her stepson, 11-year-old Pyotr Alekseevich, under whose death sentence he once put his signature on his father. Of course, he now supported the legitimate heir by no means out of considerations of altruism and not in order to correct the injustice committed against this young man. At Menshikov's insistence, shortly before his death, Catherine I made a will, according to which Peter was declared the heir to the throne, but under the tutelage of the Supreme Council, the main role in which Menshikov himself played. And even more than that, the Serene One literally went all-in, swung to the throne of the Russian Empire, which his daughter was supposed to occupy. To do this, she should have become the wife of the new emperor: the goal, according to Alexander Danilovich, is quite real and achievable. And so he refused to marry his daughter not only to Peter Sapieha, but also to the crown prince of the German royal house of Anhalt-Dessau. In general, it turned out funny with the prince: Alexander Danilych refused him on the grounds that there was a case of one of the members of this dynasty marrying the daughter of a pharmacist. However, this time, luck turned away from the "darling of fate." And the crown did not bring happiness to the young Peter Alekseevich, the imperial mantle became his shroud. But we will talk about this in the next article.
Author:
Articles from this series:
Ryzhov V.A.Tsarevich Alexey. Was the son of Peter I "unfit"?
Ryzhov V.A.Russia on the way to the era of palace coups
83 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. Same lech
    Same lech 2 October 2020 05: 11
    +4
    I read the article and a bitter aftertaste remained in my soul ... turmoil in Russia always begins from above and our time is no exception ... oh, Russia is a mother why God has determined such a fate for you.
    1. Bar1
      Bar1 2 October 2020 09: 41
      -6
      you look at these old portraits of rulers and you realize that there was no smell of Russia there.
      1. Looking for
        Looking for 2 October 2020 14: 50
        0
        And Russia remained in the XNUMXth century. Russia began !!!
        1. Bar1
          Bar1 2 October 2020 14: 58
          -4
          Quote: Seeker
          And Russia remained in the XNUMXth century. Russia began !!!

          I'm talking about Russians.
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 2 October 2020 15: 24
            +8
            Quote: Bar1
            about Russians

            Why is there a new trend in the Novo Chronolozhsk get-together - to distort the Russian language? And if you need to mention the French, English or Portuguese do you have "French", "English" and "Portuguese"? laughing
            Or were historians also compiled the rules of the Russian language for you? laughing
            Spelling of suffixes SK and K in adjectives
            The suffix -sk- is written in relative adjectives that are formed from nouns with other consonants in the stem, for example: French (French), naval (navy), Kazakh (Kazakh), village (village).
            Before the suffix -sk-, the letter ь is written only after l (general, rural), as well as adjectives formed from the names of the months in -n and -р (June, September, etc., except for January).
            Adjectives with the suffix -sk-, formed from proper names, are written with a lowercase letter, for example: Gogol's satire, Turgenev's Poems in Prose. Such adjectives are written with a capital letter only when they are part of the names that have the meaning of "name, memory", for example: Lomonosov Readings, Lenin Prize.
            The suffix -k- is spelled:
            in high-quality adjectives (they have a short form), for example: narrow (narrow), cocky (impudent), weighty (weight);
            in relative adjectives formed from nouns with stems on -к, -ц, -ч; for example: Cossack (Cossack), German (German), weaving (weaver). At the base of the noun from which the relative adjective is formed, k and alternate with c.

            This is how you need to hate your people, your language, your history in order to pervert them so ...
            Yes you Bar is a vicious enemy Russian of the people ...
            1. Bar1
              Bar1 2 October 2020 15: 50
              -8
              Quote: Trilobite Master
              Or were historians also compiled the rules of the Russian language for you?

              who would say this, a rootless cosmopolitan.
              I will repeat this Gauvreau a hundred times not for you.
              The word Russian is a proper name and cannot be split into pieces.
              1. Trilobite Master
                Trilobite Master 2 October 2020 16: 41
                +6
                Well, it has begun ... Somehow you quickly became personal today.
                Quote: Bar1
                The word Russian is a proper name

                Well then, write this word with a capital letter, once your own. laughing
                Quote: Bar1
                and does not unfold into parts.

                Is the whole word a solid root? No suffixes, no endings? wassat
                Well then, I have a question for you, you are our philologist: what is the name of the language in which these "proper names" of yours speak? Rusky? Ruskievy? laughing
                Well, it's a mess in your head, I just admire it.
                How did you learn to write with such intellectual abilities? Or did the brain fail later? I suppose that you just haven't gotten around to the Russian alphabet, otherwise you would have rewritten it in accordance with your own, how to say ... concepts.
                Tell me, have you had mechanical head injuries, for example? Maybe this is the case? What do the doctors say?
                1. Bar1
                  Bar1 2 October 2020 18: 38
                  -10 qualifying.
                  I forgot to ask you what to do.
                  Do you want to comprehend with a weak mind something more than an article on VO? But only a receptacle of stamps, libels, stencils and hackneyed truths by a misunderstanding named by your head cannot accommodate and digest something that is different from your circle, therefore, flatness can jump as much as you like, but it will not fly up. with the right to vote.
                  1. Trilobite Master
                    Trilobite Master 2 October 2020 19: 03
                    +4
                    And you also do not know how to swear. Somehow rude and insipid you get it ... In Russian (I emphasize - Russian smile ) there are so many savory and capacious words in the language, and you ... However, probably, in your "Russian" there are no such words ...
                    Enough for today, I think. laughing
                    You have once again demonstrated the narrowness and inconsistency (catastrophic!) Of your thinking, inability to bring your own logical constructions to the end, blatant ignorance and simply amazing conceit, that is, all the classic signs of dementia. In combination with your yesterday's exploits, which I watched with great pleasure, the picture is quite obvious for an outside observer, so I am fully satisfied with the results. smile
                    I wish you not to disappear for a long time. In the difficult moments of my life I just need you, communication with you instills in me a fair amount of optimism - I understand that everything is not so bad for me and it could be much worse.
                    Good luck and take care of yourself. hi
                    1. Bar1
                      Bar1 2 October 2020 20: 44
                      -8
                      the new client didn't say anything, as usual white is black, and amber is morning freshness.
                      A long and red nose in things where there is no way to comprehend, I only get annoyed at the loss of my time when you communicate with such meager mind.
                      I have been communicating with this entity on the forum for a long time, but NEVER has he had a chance to defend, to bring his worthless understanding closer to the realities of the present or past. Always, he says about his own, that something is near, but not there, close, but in the subject, a lot, but specific.
                      Trying to get into the problems of philology? But this is not about him. Historical examples, when the change of the Russian language is not for the better, he does not have the opportunity to understand, although I have already said about this many times, here, just the border of the antagonism of his world and the Russian language passes. Living Russian language will not obey stupid German rules, when there are examples of true Russian patriots who spoke as our ancestors spoke.
                      I have already spoken several times about the sources of such rhetoric, first of all
                      -Radziwill chronicle-Row land
                      -Chulkov M.D. Russian writer of the 18th century, wrote Russian from one page.
                      -Shishkov A.S. Minister of Public Education under A1, wrote Russian from one page.
                      -Muravyov N.M. times N1, its constitution is Russian with one s.

                      the sources are quite suitable, so there is something to think about, what is going on with the modern rules of the Russian language.
                2. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 2 October 2020 19: 29
                  +2
                  cosmopolitan rootless
                  Bravo, Mikhail! How quickly did you evolve from an agent of Tatar intelligence to Darth Vader !!! laughing
                  1. Trilobite Master
                    Trilobite Master 2 October 2020 19: 58
                    +2
                    I doubt that Comrade Bar is fully aware of the meaning of this phrase, but still nice.
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 2 October 2020 20: 12
                      +2
                      I strongly doubt it too
    2. Looking for
      Looking for 2 October 2020 14: 52
      -1
      It is for such a result that such "opuses" are designed to sow distrust. disappointment and resentment.
  2. Ragnar Lodbrok
    Ragnar Lodbrok 2 October 2020 05: 54
    +9
    The popular opinion about the "bad boyars" who prevent the "good tsar" from taking care of his subjects spread widely and strengthened.

    As is always relevant with us, at all times)
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 2 October 2020 05: 56
    +6
    The popular opinion about the "bad boyars" who prevent the "good tsar" from taking care of his subjects spread widely and strengthened.
    ..This opinion is alive and growing in our time ... smile
    1. Same lech
      Same lech 2 October 2020 06: 03
      +3
      ..This opinion is alive and growing in our time ...

      I cannot agree ... the current boyars in their greed differ little from the boyars of past years ... well, the tsar-father is the tsar to look after their interests ... though he's very smart ... he knows when to give the people bread ... and when to organize shows.
      Everything is according to the Roman postulate and the behests of ancient Rome ... bread and circuses to the people ... everything else to the Senate ... he he he State Duma lobbying the interests of the ruling class of boyars.
      1. Boris55
        Boris55 2 October 2020 07: 41
        -2
        Quote: The same LYOKHA
        Everything according to the Roman postulate and the precepts of ancient Rome

        All judicial legislation, in the entire "civilized World", is based on "Roman law", written by the then bourgeoisie, in the interests of the bourgeoisie, so as to give the "free people" the illusion of justice. The 1993 Constitution was written to us by the bourgeois lackeys in the interests of the bourgeois. When the "tsar" appealed to the people to amend the Constitution in the interests of the entire people, a small part of this people rose to defend the interests of the bourgeois.
  4. Deniska999
    Deniska999 2 October 2020 06: 32
    +3
    10% of the budget was spent on buying wine - this is what it means not to leave a will and allow the transfer of power to girls of easy virtue.
    1. AllBiBek
      AllBiBek 2 October 2020 17: 20
      +3
      The devil is in the little things; 10% of the budget was spent on alcohol. And to the question of what happened to that which did not reach the budget, Count Menshikov answers.
      1. Astra wild
        Astra wild 2 October 2020 19: 49
        +1
        Major Allbibek, you do not remember history well: Alexander Danilovich Menshekov had the title: "Most Serene Prince of the Roman Empire". Presumably, Peter hinted to the Austrian emperor that A. D should be noted with a title. It seems that before him there was no such title in Russia
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 2 October 2020 20: 31
          +2
          Major Allbibek, you do not remember history well:
          My Beautiful Stranger!
          1. This user is named Anatoly.
          2. He is a professional in the field of historical science, unlike you and me, amateurs.
          1. AllBiBek
            AllBiBek 2 October 2020 20: 39
            +2
            I have a different specialization). There, the whole history of our civilization - the permissible error in dating).
            By the 18-19 centuries of the Patriotic and European, the soul does not lie at all, I do not know why this is so.
            So, I read the comments, here it is often more interesting than the material itself. Especially when the author has a sacred owl, a sacred globe, and a mania to pull one over the other through the techniques of yellow journalism aka vulgar sensationalism.
            Something like that.
            Sincerely, Anatoly
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 2 October 2020 20: 45
              +2
              I have a different specialization
              I know. I just wanted to note that sometimes, in the comments of this section, there are people who are directly related to the science called History.
            2. Phil77
              Phil77 2 October 2020 22: 44
              0
              Quote: AllBiBek
              I have a different specialization).

              Listen to Anatoly, listen!
              A woman, she feels with her heart. laughing
              History, isn't she female too?
              However? However, like any other science. wink
              1. AllBiBek
                AllBiBek 3 October 2020 00: 01
                0
                Not all, not all.
                Any "lead", for example, is average.
                Oriental studies. Local history. Source study.
                A bunch of them.
        2. Phil77
          Phil77 2 October 2020 22: 34
          0
          Quote: Astra wild
          had the title: "Most Serene Prince of the Roman Empire".

          So he was a count. belay
        3. Phil77
          Phil77 2 October 2020 22: 37
          0
          Quote: Astra wild
          Major Allbibek, you do not remember history well:

          Oh, how right you are Vera!
          Major inattentively read Tolstoy's novel * Peter the First *. Oh, in vain! recourse
          And the film probably has not seen! wink
        4. AllBiBek
          AllBiBek 2 October 2020 23: 56
          -1
          So before Peter the Great, there was not much. For example, there were no admirals in through-land Switzerland ...
          And many people tried to lick Menshikov with titles in an interesting place. It seems like they tried to write him down to the gentry, and, oddly enough, they brought the cheers to the princely family, and from them - in a roundabout way - they wooed his ancestors into Rurik's comrades-in-arms.
          True, the tradition of betting on the wrong horses among the Lithuanians and Poles began even then, so the result is predictable.
    2. Niel-le-Calais
      Niel-le-Calais 2 October 2020 22: 41
      +1
      Quote: Deniska999
      allow the transfer of power to girls of easy virtue.

      Well, three amantas are considered a virgin.
      Yes, and the tsar knew who he was taking then .. Tea is not Lopukhin's ..
      But these are the girls that attract men.
      As Tolstoy wrote, no one was wearing a skirt so fervently, and no one laughed like that.
      I do not understand the author - he is an institution of favoritism. In the RI / RC, he was the same as in Europe.
      The most beautiful king in Europe was ruined by the favorites.
      The favorites of the French are the most famous, but Katya managed to get married.
      Because the king wanted it that way.
  5. [comment-show]
    Olgovich
    Olgovich 2 October 2020 07: 23
    -10 qualifying.
    Believethat the tsar could no longer do without Catherine, because she learned to shoot and relieve some attacks, during which Peter rolled on the floor, screamed from a headache and sometimes lost his sight.

    What a handy word: wrote it down and gossip.
    the Empress Catherine II herself became interested, who personally examined them, apparently glad to myselfthat her husband was the third Peter, and not the first.

    Another convenient word is for ridiculous conjectures on behalf of Catherine.

    Anna (for Russia would much better, if it was she who stayed at home, and the "merry" Elizabeth left for Kiel

    Or worse. She died in 20 years... And what would happen to the country?
    And yes, what are "would" worth?

    It was then that the Russian guards for the first time changed the fate of Russia, and the announcement of Catherine I the autocratic empress
    can be considered the first palace coup in Russian history.

    Catherine was already Empress from 1924, and the guards after the deceased emperor remained loyal to the empress.

    Outraged Field Marshal A.I. Repnin, a supporter of Pyotr Alekseevich, who was then president of the Military Collegium, tried to find out who dared to withdraw the regiments from the barracks and send them back without his order.

    To which Buturlin, the commander of the Preobrazhensky regiment, reasonably replied that the regiments he called by the will of the empress, which all subjects must obey, "Not excluding you"

    Catherine was loved not only by the guards, but also by the common people - soldiers, sailors and artisans constantly crowded in her front halls: some were looking for help, others asked the queen to be their godmother. She did not refuse anyone and usually gave each of her godchildren a few ducats. (C).

    be that as it may, Yekaterinburg, the Catherine Palace and the Order were named after her: the great man loved her and with this she left a noticeable mark in history, including Empress Elizabeth and the grandson of Emperor Peter III ...
    [/ comment-show] [comment-deleted]
    The comment was deleted.
    [/ comment-deleted]
  1. VLR
    2 October 2020 08: 19
    +4
    Catherine had no rights to the throne in the presence of a living and healthy grandson of Peter I and the absence of a will in her favor. She was only the wife of the monarch. A similar
    many others - both before and after. The wife of Paul I (mother of Alexander I), by the way, having learned about the murder of her husband, appeared and began to shout: "I wish to reign." Palen and the other leaders of the conspiracy quickly explained to her that they were not trying for her. But Buturlin's guards did their best for Catherine - it was a palace coup.
    Anna Petrovna died after catching a cold after giving birth in Kiel. It is not a fact that the same thing would have happened to her in St. Petersburg.
    Even the most loyal historians of the House of Romanov did not dare to declare Catherine I the Great. Moreover, it is known that Nicholas I was ashamed of both Catherines - both the First and the Second, and in his time a ban was imposed on the historical research of their reigns. And even to pronounce their names at his Court was, to put it mildly, not recommended.
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 2 October 2020 08: 55
      +5
      Catherine had no rights to the throne in the presence of a living and healthy grandson of Peter I and the absence of a will in her favor.
      "Kolmi, however, should we have more concern for the integrity of our entire state, which, with the help of God, is now more widespread, as everyone seems to be; what for we have deliberated this charter to make, so that this would always be in the will of the ruling sovereign, and will determine the inheritance, and to the certain, seeing what indecency, he will cancel the packs, so that children and descendants do not fall into such anger, as it is written above, having this bridle on themselves. "
      Actually, the whole order of succession to the throne of the whole empire. There are no even hints of possible quite cases when, for some reason, "this" will not be able to express his will.
      As Woland said, "a man is mortal, but that would be half the trouble. The bad thing is that he is sometimes suddenly mortal, that's the trick!" This "trick" Peter the Great did not foresee at all.
      So in the light of the legislative act that existed at that time, the Charter on the inheritance of the throne, no one had any advantages to enter "the kingdom".
      That is, Peter laid down the possibility of a full-fledged struggle for power with his own hand and enshrined in law.
    2. Olgovich
      Olgovich 2 October 2020 09: 58
      -9
      Quote: VlR
      Catherine has no rights to the throne if she is alive and well grandson of Peter I and there was no will in her favor.

      See yourself above
      : author: The result of the painful reflections of Peter I was the decree on succession to the throne, issued on February 5, 1722, which canceled the time-honored tradition of passing on the throne to direct descendants in the male line by seniority. Now the current monarch of Russia could appoint as his successor anyone.,
      Decree deprived formal rights to the throne of Peter 2

      And yes, what if he is, as you put it, "degenerate"?
      Quote: VlR
      She was only the wife of the monarch

      It was Empress: By the Manifesto of November 15, 1723, Peter announced the future coronation of Catherine as a sign of her special merits. Ceremony took place in the Assumption Cathedral on May 7 (18), 1724. Especially for this occasion was made the first crown in the history of the Russian Empire
      Quote: VlR
      ... But Buturlin's guards did their best for Catherine - it was a palace coup.

      So who did they turn over? Peter 2 was not an emperor and had no rights (see Decree)
      Quote: VlR
      Anna Petrovna died after catching a cold after giving birth in Kiel. It is not a fact that the same thing would have happened to her in St. Petersburg.

      Anna died in postnatal "fever" - that is. as a result of blood poisoning (infection), which would be anywhere
      Quote: VlR
      Even the most loyal historians of the House of Romanov did not dare to declare Catherine I the Great.

      She had a GREAT HUSBAND and great children.

      It is immortalized in the names of Yekaterinburg and the Yekaterinsky Palace Ts Sela.

      This is enough to take a prominent place in History, IMHO.
      1. Deniska999
        Deniska999 2 October 2020 10: 34
        +2
        But that does not negate the fact that she had no place on the throne. You can capitalize the Empress as much as you like, but that won't make her any better. Although you can pay tribute to the fact that she has turned on such a man.
        1. Olgovich
          Olgovich 2 October 2020 13: 08
          -7
          Quote: Deniska999
          but that won't make her any better.

          "Better, Worse" -... These categories are not relevant.

          She is the beloved woman of Great Peter and the mother of his children.

          It's enough
          1. Astra wild
            Astra wild 2 October 2020 19: 37
            +1
            Ol'govich, about "the beloved woman of the Great Peter" - somewhat doubtful: Peter was not constant in relations with women. Perhaps, I repeat, perhaps he fell in love with Maria Hamelton. Although there is a lot of ambiguity with Hamelton: somewhere on TV I heard that Hamelton, let's say, showed interest in Peter's government papers, but he didn't like that
            1. Olgovich
              Olgovich 3 October 2020 06: 41
              0
              Quote: Astra wild
              Olgovich, about "the beloved woman of the Great Peter" - somewhat doubtful: Peter was not constant in relations with women.

              Then explain what it is for crowned "unloved", in fact, commoner в the empress Russia and had from her and recognized her children.

              There is no benefit from this, on the contrary: before Peter, she was NOBODY,
    3. Trilobite Master
      Trilobite Master 2 October 2020 18: 43
      +3
      Quote: VlR
      Catherine had no rights to the throne in the presence of a living and healthy grandson of Peter I and the absence of a will in her favor.

      And here there may be some kind of legal incident. In Russia, from ancient times, they inherited "the father's place", that is, if the father did not occupy any princely table (in relation to the XNUMXth century, one can speak of a title), then the son could not apply for this table. An example of this are the numerous outcast princes. Peter II's father was not an emperor and could not inherit this title; moreover, he was accused of high treason and found guilty. In this case, according to Russian customs, he was deprived of his entire fortune, including the right to inherit generic titles. So, it was difficult for him to transfer any rights to his son, because he had no rights.
      Thus, there are also questions to the legal point of view of the legitimacy of Peter II - and significant ones. Let's just say - Catherine's supporters had something to object to Peter's supporters.
    4. Astra wild
      Astra wild 2 October 2020 19: 07
      +3
      "Nicholas 1 was ashamed of both Catherines" this can be explained: "Catherine" 1 was not at all interested in state affairs and was only engaged in lewdness, and Nicholas 1 was responsible for his duties.
      Catherine 2. She, to put it mildly, did not act nicely with her husband, and then Tsarevich Pavel Dynamo. She led a not entirely moral lifestyle, Nikalaya 1 was jarred
      I have an ambivalent attitude towards Catherine II: I appreciate her achievements and intelligence, but I don't really like her morality.
      Although if I were in her place, I might have fornicated too. I can’t vouch, can you?
    5. Niel-le-Calais
      Niel-le-Calais 2 October 2020 22: 49
      0
      Quote: VlR
      Anna Petrovna died after catching a cold after giving birth in Kiel. It is not a fact that the same thing would have happened to her in St. Petersburg.

      This is the version of Peter III's educator Jacob Shtelin in his "Notes on Emperor Peter III"
      "St. Petersburg Vedomosti" reported that Anna "departed with fever". In the works of many historians of the 4th - early 15th centuries, it is indicated that the cause of death was postpartum fever, and death occurred shortly after childbirth - March 1728 (4), 15. A study of the letters of Anna and her environment shows that this is not so. The fatal illness overtook the duchess only in April, and death occurred on May 1728 (XNUMX), XNUMX.
      If you play an alternative story, then Anna is no worse than the younger one in health. But she gave birth, unlike the youngest. And those who give birth without modern conditions, then they risked living less.
      And who said that she would be better than the youngest? She is certainly more educated, but the empresses were ruled by men.
  2. Kwas
    Kwas 2 October 2020 14: 09
    0
    Alas, your comment is the only one that separates FACTS from CONCEPTIONS.
  • Van 16
    Van 16 2 October 2020 07: 53
    +3
    About Peter, Ekaterina and other very interesting play by Gorin "Jester Balakirev". It is clear that this is fiction, but not bad.
    Thanks to the author, very good article!
  • KVU-NSVD
    KVU-NSVD 2 October 2020 10: 14
    +3
    The girl must be given her due - she did three useful things - she took off Peter's seizures, gave birth to Elizabeth and Anna, and ascending the throne did not climb into state affairs, but quickly and cheerfully drank herself to death
    1. Niel-le-Calais
      Niel-le-Calais 2 October 2020 22: 52
      0
      Quote: KVU-NSVD
      but quickly and cheerfully drank herself

      the ideal female ruler?
      Ekaterina 2 somehow turned out better.
      Although she reminds me of someone ... from France ..
      But she lived much longer.
  • Operator
    Operator 2 October 2020 10: 39
    +1
    The author's strange position is to insist on the existence of the right in an autocratic country laughing

    A series of military coups up to 1801 testified only to the oligarchic nature of state power in Russia - the autocrat ruled only insofar as he coordinated his actions with the aristocracy. Purely concrete rudiments of democracy, of course.
  • Pavel57
    Pavel57 2 October 2020 11: 41
    0
    So was the Romanov line interrupted?
    1. VLR
      2 October 2020 12: 29
      +6
      Peter III was the maternal grandson of Peter I. And the attitude to a particular dynasty was traditionally considered according to the father - the father gave the surname and title. That is, if we rest against formalities, it turns out that after Catherine II, who, having no rights to the Russian throne, was an exception and can be considered a usurper, Russia was ruled by representatives of the Holstein-Gottorp clan.
      But, I repeat for the "patriots" whom this information may offend: we are talking about formal signs. The descendants of Peter III themselves emphasized in every possible way their belonging to the Romanovs and their "Russianness", although with each generation the percentage of Russian blood was decreasing. A historical anecdote is associated with this -
      Alexander III, hearing that the father of Paul I, most likely, was Count Saltykov, exclaimed, allegedly:
      "Thank God, that means I have at least a little Russian blood in me."
      But when it was clarified that Paul's father was probably still Peter III, he was also not upset, saying:
      "Thank God, then I am the legitimate Russian emperor."
      1. Pavel57
        Pavel57 2 October 2020 13: 10
        +2
        In contrast to the Peter's decree, which provided for the sovereign the right to appoint an heir himself (and thus opened the way to the era of palace revolutions), the Pavlovsky Act introduced inheritance by law, “so that the state would not be without heirs, so that the heir was always appointed by the law himself, so that there was not the slightest doubt about whom to inherit, in order to preserve the right to give birth in inheritance, without violating the rights of the natural, and to avoid difficulties in passing from clan to clan. "
        In contrast to the Peter's decree, which did not provide for differences in rights for male and female heirs, the act introduced the so-called "Austrian", "semi-salic" primogeniture, in which male descendants had an advantage in inheritance; as a result, after the adoption of the act, there was not a single woman on the Russian throne.
        The Pavlovsk Act prohibited the occupation of the Russian throne by a person who did not belong to the Orthodox Church:
        In 1820, Emperor Alexander I supplemented the rules of succession with the requirement of equality of marriage as a necessary condition for the succession to the throne. Children born in unequal marriage lost their right to the throne.
        1. Kwas
          Kwas 2 October 2020 14: 05
          +2
          Quote: Pavel57
          In 1820, Emperor Alexander I supplemented the rules of succession with the requirement of equality of marriage as a necessary condition for the succession to the throne. Children born in unequal marriage lost their right to the throne.

          As a result, any "independent" German prince of a microscopic principality was considered "equal", and even the richest and most powerful Russian nobleman was not. It is not surprising that the imperial family was gradually moving away from the interests of the people and the state. With the natural consequences of 1917.
          1. Astra wild
            Astra wild 2 October 2020 16: 50
            0
            I was still amazed that the wives of ALL the heirs were princesses, and Peter had a wife, albeit a seedy, but boyar family.
            1. Niel-le-Calais
              Niel-le-Calais 2 October 2020 22: 57
              +1
              Quote: Astra wild
              I was still surprised that the wives of ALL heirs were princesses

              if about Peter 1, then the Lopukhins were chosen by Natalia for a reason ... Yes, and Peter was not yet a king ..
              If they also chose another Peter for a reason
              For example, Peter 3 and his wife
              Elizabeth settled on the face that she pointed to, in opposition to Bestuzhev, the French-Prussian party, to which Frederick of Prussia also pointed - Princess Sophia-Augusta-Frederick of Anhalt-Zerbst. Her father was only a general of the Prussian service, commandant of Stetin; the mother, in caring for a rather poor household, managed to lose her sense of tact and good character, having acquired a tendency to acquisitiveness and gossip
              1. Phil77
                Phil77 2 October 2020 23: 38
                0
                Quote: Niel-le-Calais
                The Lopukhins were chosen by Natalia for a reason

                And why exactly the Lopukhins, and why not without reason?
                1. Niel-le-Calais
                  Niel-le-Calais 3 October 2020 10: 43
                  +1
                  Quote: Phil77
                  And why exactly the Lopukhins, and why not without reason?

                  The Naryshkins needed allies. Especially among the rifle regiments.
                  Which Sophia twisted as she wanted.
                  The choice fell on the Lopukhins. After all, the Trubetskoys did not succeed. And the rest did not have a normal girl for extradition. (Well, in the sense of the one who liked the mother)
                  The marriage brought Peter to adulthood. The custody of Sophia was filmed.
                  The Lopukhins' clan is large and has connections in the rifle regiments. Perhaps Tsikler was lured away by him with Boris. And the very first regiment too.
                  In general, the Lopukhins and Boris Golitsyn spun the archery merry-go-round so that Sophia lost all support.
                  So my mother guessed it.
                  It was worth mentioning in the article about Evdokia / Elena at birth Praskovya Illarionovna.
                  This is the last Russian queen. Non-alien wife.
                  Lived for a long time (not very happy, but love was)
                  And she even renounced her rights to the throne, and Anna herself came to her funeral.
                  Russian women are certainly not German (not the Ankhen Mons and not the Skavronsky)
                  but they also differed in health, fornication, though they did not excite the kings ...
                  everything was drawn to overseas girls ..
                  1. VLR
                    3 October 2020 11: 41
                    0
                    And this was in the first article - about Peter's marriage to Evdokia, nee - Praskovya
              2. arturpraetor
                arturpraetor 3 October 2020 01: 13
                +1
                Quote: Niel-le-Calais
                Elizabeth settled on the face that she pointed to, in opposition to Bestuzhev, the French-Prussian party, to which Frederick of Prussia also pointed - Princess Sophia-Augusta-Frederick of Anhalt-Zerbst. Her father was only a general of the Prussian service, commandant of Stetin; the mother, in caring for a rather poor household, managed to lose her sense of tact and good character, having acquired a tendency to acquisitiveness and gossip

                It's still more fun there. In European ruling houses, even small ones, it was customary to maintain ties with their distant relatives through marriage. The Holstein-Gottorp had ties with the Anhalt-Zerbst, quite related (Catherine's mother was from Holstein-Gottorp, the second branch that ruled the principality-bishopric of Lübeck, and from which the kings of Sweden later came, her older brother, by the way, was to marry Elizabeth Petrovna, but he died before the final conclusion of an agreement on the wedding), and Karl Peter Ulrich was planning baby Fike as a wife even when he was a petty tomboy in Kiel, and it was the Holsteins who planned this .. In fact, after much thought, Elizabeth only confirmed what his German teachers, patrons and relatives planned for the future Peter III. This is not counting the patronage of the Prussians. In fact, there are a lot of things intertwined, and even stay Karl Peter Ulrich Duke of Holstein - he will be Sofia Augusta Frederick's hubby with a 99,9% probability.

                By the way, I would have looked at this, what would Fike do if her husband remained a duke in Holstein. Would she reconcile, bring him to an early death, or would she have staged a coup in the same way?
                1. Astra wild
                  Astra wild 3 October 2020 12: 23
                  +1
                  "would calm down, bring to an early death" is from the field of alternative history. I am skeptical about alternative history, but given the characters of Peter-Ulrich and Sophia Augusta. There are 2 possible options: he would be amused by shagistika and other things, and his wife was in charge of Holstein.
                  And the second option: "die from an apolixic blow", and the widow controlled as much as she could, but this is all from the realm of fantasy
                  1. arturpraetor
                    arturpraetor 3 October 2020 15: 46
                    +1
                    Well, fantastic, not fantastic, but we must also remember that the second branch of the Holstein-Gottorp became the heir to the Swedish crown in 1751 only because the only representative of the first left for Russia and became the crown prince. Without the latter, Karl Peter Ulrich and Fike would have become king and queen of Sweden already in 1751. And there - the era of freedoms, and a fierce struggle between "hats" and "caps", absolutists and "democrats". And against this background, such an agile figure as Fike could cook a lot of porridge, maybe even more than Louise Ulrika of Prussia ...

                    In general, it is sometimes interesting to figure out how it could have turned out, since the probabilities often come up ... Quite funny. Even if you don't do AI like me smile
                2. Niel-le-Calais
                  Niel-le-Calais 6 October 2020 21: 01
                  +1
                  Quote: arturpraetor
                  By the way, I would have looked at this, what would Fike do if her husband remained a duke in Holstein. Would she reconcile, bring him to an early death, or would she have staged a coup in the same way?

                  and if the king of Sweden?
                  Flight of alternative history ...
                  1. arturpraetor
                    arturpraetor 6 October 2020 21: 09
                    0
                    Quote: Niel-le-Calais
                    and if the king of Sweden?

                    There, just above (below) just said about this. Pushing Karl Peter Ulrich and Fike into the Swedish era of freedom is like throwing gasoline on a fire. One thing is for sure - the Swedes would not be bored! laughing
                    1. Niel-le-Calais
                      Niel-le-Calais 6 October 2020 21: 27
                      0
                      Quote: arturpraetor
                      One thing is for sure - the Swedes would not be bored!

                      the weak-willed king would be just right for the senate.
                      Well, here's the little wife ...
                      But. She has accumulated theories of coups in Ingushetia, where she has an example of Elizabeth as a power, coups and fornication as a vivid example.
                      It is hard to say what she would have gathered in Sweden. But for Karl Ulrich, Sweden is more familiar.
                      1. arturpraetor
                        arturpraetor 6 October 2020 21: 45
                        0
                        Quote: Niel-le-Calais
                        It is hard to say what she would have gathered in Sweden.

                        Yes. really hard. Since, on the one hand, there were no particular coups before this - but on the other hand, an active political struggle between the two parties, multiplied by the struggle of foreign influence for control of the Swedish government ... A very muddy political background in which Sofia Augusta Frederica could catch a lot ... Although it is difficult to even say exactly who she will bet on, in those hands. Maybe she would try to become a mother of democracy, or maybe she would follow the path of Louise Ulrika of Prussia, helping to restore absolutism ...
                      2. Niel-le-Calais
                        Niel-le-Calais 6 October 2020 22: 31
                        +1
                        Quote: arturpraetor
                        A very muddy political background in which Sophia Augusta Frederica could catch a lot

                        given her fascination with Voltaire and the community (before Diderot), a Swedish cocktail would suit her perfectly.
                        Considering the criteria by which she was chosen, she would have become famous on any throne.
                        A punchy girl, albeit a sinful one.
      2. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 2 October 2020 18: 32
        +1
        Quote: Pavel57
        after the adoption of the act, not a single woman was on the Russian throne.

        Yes, but, I think, not at all because of the adoption of this act. It's just that, starting with Paul, the Romanov family always had an overabundance of males. That is why women did not shine.
    2. Okolotochny
      Okolotochny 2 October 2020 16: 35
      0
      Alexander III, hearing that the father of Paul I, most likely, was Count Saltykov, exclaimed, allegedly:
      "Thank God, that means I have at least a little Russian blood in me."
      But when it was clarified that Paul's father was probably still Peter III, he was also not upset, saying:
      "Thank God, then I am the legitimate Russian emperor."

      A real Russian, in Suvorov's way I found an answer hi
    3. Astra wild
      Astra wild 2 October 2020 18: 06
      +1
      Traditionally, this historical anecdote has a little edition: when historians told him that Pavel is the son of Saltykov, he said
      - Thank God we are Orthodox.
      After a while, other historians came and reported that after all, Paul is the son of Peter 3. Alexander said
      -Thank God we are legal
      1. Niel-le-Calais
        Niel-le-Calais 6 October 2020 21: 22
        0
        Quote: Astra wild
        After a while, other historians came and reported that after all Paul was the son of Peter 3.

        I wonder how ..
        DNA analysis or something ...
        it would be interesting to know that neither Peter nor her Seryozhenka nor Pavel's fathers ..
        I read a couple of topics on this part. Some are inclined to consider Sergei as their father, others Peter. Catherine is generally kept a virgin for 9 years (yes, any girl will find how to calm physical intimacy for such a line)
        Some even say that Paul is generally a left baby
        Indeed, in fact, Catherine gave birth only to the dead. And Bobrinsky from the best manufacturer (Grishka is a hero with excellent health).
        Outwardly, he is clearly similar to Peter.
        DNA analysis would decide everything.

        what about anecdote
        There is a funny historical anecdote: as if Alexander III instructed Pobedonostsev, his teacher and respected adviser, to check the rumor that the father of Paul I was not Peter III, but Sergei Vasilyevich Saltykov, the first lover of the future Empress Catherine II. Pobedonostsev first informed the emperor that, in fact, Saltykov could be the father. Alexander III was delighted: "Thank God, we are Russians!" But then Pobedonostsev found facts in favor of Peter's paternity. The Emperor, however, rejoiced again: "Thank God, we are legitimate!"
        The moral, if it can be deduced from the anecdote at all, is simple: the nature of power is not in blood, but in the ability and desire to rule, the rest can be adapted to this. At least, this is the nature of imperial power - each empire carries with it a huge number of unresolved contradictions, one more - no big deal.
  • Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka 2 October 2020 13: 53
    +6
    Quote: Olgovich
    It is immortalized in the names of Yekaterinburg and the Yekaterinsky Palace Ts Sela.

    The Orthodox Church emphasizes that Yekaterinburg is named after St. Catherine. Although we all remember Tatishchev and de Genin perfectly when sending a petition to name the fortress factory Yekaterinburg, they had a completely pragmatic goal !!!
  • Astra wild
    Astra wild 2 October 2020 16: 33
    0
    "members of the same imperial house and closest relatives", and here is just a discrepancy: 1) Valery, you yourself cited information that Peter was replaced, and since then he could not have anything to do with the Romanovs.
    2) Peter-Ulrich was not Russian by birth and upbringing, and if so, it’s not surprising that he turned in the opposite direction.
    3) You know the story well that Catherine 2 gave birth to a son from Saltykov, and the relationship between Pavel and Catherine was so "kindred" that the Lord himself ordered to turn in the opposite direction.
    1. VLR
      2 October 2020 17: 03
      +2
      Well, what do you mean, I mentioned in the last article that after the return of Peter I from abroad there were rumors that "the Germans had replaced him." And he did not claim that it was so.
      Peter III and Elizabeth - here it is more difficult: the half-German Peter was just acting in the interests of Russia, leading Russia out of an unnecessary war, into which for some reason she was drawn by the half-Russian Elizabeth: to clearly answer the question about the reasons for Russia's participation in the Seven Years' War and the goals that no one has succeeded in the course of being pursued
      Well, the relationship between Catherine II and Paul is the relationship of the usurper of the throne and his victim, complicated by the condemnation of the not entirely decent behavior of the mother, who made the title of her lover a public office.
      But there were other examples of antagonism between the deceased emperor and his successor - I have listed them.
      1. Astra wild
        Astra wild 2 October 2020 17: 55
        +1
        Valery, I understand perfectly well that you did not assert, but gave it as an example.
        About the Seven Years War. What were the reasons, I do not know and it is purple to me. I read the book "Peter1" 2 times: the book is interesting. I remember that both the Azov campaign and the Northern War were actually imposed on Russia, and if you analyze it, there was a fig in our history of such wars. I readily admit that it was the same with the "Seven Years War".
        For what reason did Peter-Ulrich bring Russia out of the war, or maybe to save his idol Frederick? He was just then pounded like a punching bag.
        As for Catherine-Pavel, I remember what you wrote and therefore said "kinship" relationship. These are the reasons for antagonism.
        You are a good historian and you know that not only in Russia there have been somersaults when the heir turned in the opposite direction. Psychologists and geneticists have talked about this more than once.
  • Pavel57
    Pavel57 2 October 2020 16: 38
    +2
    Quote: Astra wild
    Peter-Ulrich was not Russian by birth and upbringing, and since it is so, it is not surprising that he turned in the opposite direction.

    And Sophia August Frederick of Anhalt-Zerbst's upbringing was definitely not Russian.
    1. AllBiBek
      AllBiBek 2 October 2020 17: 45
      +1
      Excuse me, but which of the Russian nobles had it like that?
      Most of them spoke French better than Russian.
    2. Astra wild
      Astra wild 2 October 2020 17: 57
      0
      If she had a Russian upbringing, then: "I am John Silver's parrot"
  • Astra wild
    Astra wild 2 October 2020 20: 42
    0
    "The eldest daughter of Pastor Gluck, in whose family Martha was brought up," I doubt it a little. That she was brought up in a pastor's family, perhaps I do not argue. But how will the pastor's daughter know Martha's "tariff"? Here I doubt it a little
    1. Phil77
      Phil77 2 October 2020 22: 33
      0
      Quote: Astra wild
      But how will the pastor's daughter know Martha's "tariff"? Here I doubt it a little

      * My thoughts are my horses! * What is * Martha's tariff? belay
    2. Niel-le-Calais
      Niel-le-Calais 2 October 2020 23: 06
      +1
      Quote: Astra wild
      But how will the pastor's daughter know the TS "tariff" of Martha

      Well, the data on "Martha's rate" also needs to be double-checked.
      This is also taken from Franz Villebois, adjutant of Peter I, describing their first meeting:
      “The satisfaction of the tsar, which he received from his nightly conversation with Catherine, cannot be judged by the generosity that he showed. into the hand when parting. "
      In addition, under the carts of the convoy of the Russian army, one could find out about the tariff (any army drags along with it full-time priestesses of services)
      And she was not so small to the pastor.
      As a little girl, she ended up in the house of Pastor Gluck, where she helped with the housework for the orphanage. According to rumors, young Martha did not differ in pious behavior and the pastor, in order to return the girl to the right path, decided to marry her to the Swedish dragoon Krause
      And the soldiers are not particularly spoiled. And with her dragoon, she, too, was not married for long.
      The girl is prominent, she knew the strength of her body. for men.
      Yes, and not a greyhound and not a dynamite (if translated into a modern way)
      By the way, Peter did not disdain "tariff girls". And it turned out much more expensive than Martha ...
      Someone remembers his innkeepers in Holland and England ..
      And his adventures in Moscow and St. Petersburg at night ...
      1. Phil77
        Phil77 2 October 2020 23: 24
        0
        Like a walker?
        1. Niel-le-Calais
          Niel-le-Calais 2 October 2020 23: 40
          +1
          easy to communicate with men.
          1. Phil77
            Phil77 2 October 2020 23: 42
            0
            Quote: Niel-le-Calais
            easy to communicate with men.

            Eck, you are intelligent, right! good
            1. Niel-le-Calais
              Niel-le-Calais 3 October 2020 10: 46
              +2
              so before epidemics (syphilis, for example)
              people took fornication quite easily.
              That in antiquity, that in the Middle Ages.
              They even put them on a pedestal.
              It was already syphilis with the church that made harlots bad ..
              And before that, everything was even good.
              Relieving stress and feminine beauty have always been appreciated.
  • Sergey Oreshin
    Sergey Oreshin 3 October 2020 22: 57
    0
    Quote: Olgovich
    She is the beloved woman of Great Peter and the mother of his children.

    It's enough

    Enough to rule Russia ???
    I just thought that in order to qualify for a state post (I'm not even talking about the most important!), You need to be well versed in economics, finance, law, foreign policy, etc.
    And it turns out how simple everything is: "you find yourself a good and intelligent man (woman), give birth to children for him (her) - and voila, consider my candidacy for the throne of the Russian State"
  • Sergey Oreshin
    Sergey Oreshin 3 October 2020 23: 03
    0
    Quote: Astra wild
    the wives of ALL heirs were princesses, and Peter had a wife, albeit a run-down, but boyar family.

    In fact, before Peter, Russian grand dukes and tsars, as a rule, married Russian hawthorns and noblewomen. There were exceptions (Sofya Vitovtovna, Sofya Paleolog, Elena Glinskaya, Maria Temryukovna), but quite rare