Military Review

The military fate of the Radziwill (Konigsberg) Chronicle

55

The siege of the city of Korsun by the army of Vladimir Svyatoslavich


Rereading the work of academician BA Rybakov "Kievan Rus and Russian principalities of the XII-XIII centuries." (M., 1993), I drew attention to the information that the author gave about the "Radziwill", or "Konigsberg", chronicle: "The precious feature of the Radziwill chronicle is the presence of 618 colorful miniatures, aptly called" windows to the disappeared world "". And most importantly: “The original of the vault has not reached us, but its copy, made in the 562th century, has survived. in Smolensk and was first introduced into scientific circulation by Peter the Great "(p. XNUMX).

This is what the Radziwill Chronicle is. First, as Academician Rybakov writes, “the collection presents“ the deeds of the ancient princes ”from Kyi to Vsevolod the Big Nest.” Secondly, this chronicle collection was created in the Vladimir-Suzdal principality at the beginning of the 1292th century, that is, even in the pre-Mongol era, "possibly with the participation of Vsevolod's eldest son, Constantine the Wise." Thirdly, this is the oldest surviving chronicle: the text ends with the first years of the 1305th century. (the narrative in the Ipatiev Chronicle was brought to XNUMX, in the Laurentian Chronicle - to XNUMX). Fourthly, this is the first "front", that is, an illustrated chronicle that has come down to us. (Cm.: S. I. Podobedova Thumbnails historical manuscripts: On the history of Russian facial annals. M., 1964, p. 49-101; M.D. Priselkov History of Russian chronicle writing XI-XV centuries. L., 1940, p. 57–63, 82–87).


Meeting of the troops of Vladimir Svyatoslavich with the Pechenegs on the Trubezh River near the ford, where the city of Pereyaslavl was later built

Historians A.-L. Schletser, X. A. Chebotarev, N. E. Cherepanov and others understood the significance of this chronicle as soon as it fell into their hands, therefore, back in the 1989th century. attempts were made to publish it. However, the first scientific edition of this collection was carried out only in 1994 in Leningrad under the responsible editing of Academician Rybakov (see also: Radziwil Chronicle: Text. Research. Description of miniatures / Editor-in-chief M. V. Kukushkina. St. Petersburg - M. , XNUMX).


Single combat between Mstislav Vladimirovich and Redey Kasozhsky, murder by Mstislav Rededy with a knife

The Radziwill Chronicle was used for clarifications and additions when publishing the Laurentian Chronicle (see: Berezhkov N.G. Chronology of Russian annals. M., 1963, p. 69-71; A. V. Chernetsov To the study of the Radziwill Chronicle. - In the book: Proceedings of the Department of Old Russian Literature. T. 36.L., 1981, p. 286).


Joint campaign of Yaroslav Vladimirovich Kievsky and Mstislav Vladimirovich Chernigovsky and Tmutarakansky to Poland

The Library of the Academy of Sciences contains a copy of the Radziwill Chronicle, commissioned by Peter I. Under what circumstances was this order made? I wanted to find out. It was possible to establish that in March 1713 Tsar Peter was returning to St. Petersburg from Berlin, one of the points of his European trip for the Northern War. Passing through Konigsberg, where the chronicle got through the Radziwill family in the XNUMXth century, Peter learned about the existence of this chronicle and ordered a copy of it with miniatures. The historical studies of V. N. Tatishchev and M. V. Lomonosov began with the study of this copy. (Cm.: Lurie Ya.S. About the origin of the Radziwill chronicle. - In the book: Auxiliary historical disciplines. T. 18.L., 1987, p. 64-83).


The victory of Yaroslav Vladimirovich Kievsky over the Pechenegs and the flight of the Pechenegs from near Kiev

In the end, the original of the chronicle itself ended up in Russia: it was delivered to St. Petersburg after Russian troops entered Konigsberg in 1758 during the Seven Years War. Perhaps they were looking for him there purposefully. It is known that already in 1761 the chronicle was listed in the St. Petersburg Academic Library. After that, also in the XNUMXth century, new copies were made from the original, but the academic edition at the end of the XNUMXth century. was carried out after all from the original.


The victory of the Russian troops over the Byzantines and the return of Vladimir Yaroslavich Novgorodsky with his squad in boats to Russia


The flight of the Polovtsy from the battlefield in the battle on the Suten River and their pursuit by Russian troops


The campaign of Yuri Vladimirovich Dolgoruky, Prince of Rostov, to the Volga Bulgaria and his victory
Author:
Articles from this series:
On the unity of the Russian world on the example of the grandchildren of Mstislav Udatny
Was Alexander Nevsky named after Alexander the Great?
55 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. antivirus
    antivirus 12 August 2020 12: 05
    -10 qualifying.
    Rurik was at the "dance" with the ancient Slavic princes ...
    .................................................. ........................... for room sizes .................. .........................
    1. tihonmarine
      tihonmarine 12 August 2020 12: 26
      +3
      Quote: antivirus
      Rurik was at the "dance" with the ancient princes ...

      Whatever Rurik he was, but the Old Russian chronicle of the XII century "The Tale of Bygone Years" says that in 862, exactly 1158 years ago, such tribes as Chud, Ilmen Slovenes, Krivichi and all called the Varangian Rurik to reign in Novgorod. The calling of the Varangians is an event from which it is traditionally customary to count the beginning of the rule of the Rurik dynasty, which united Novgorod and Kievan Rus.
      1. antivirus
        antivirus 12 August 2020 12: 32
        -4
        The calling of the Varangians is an event from which it is traditionally customary to count the beginning of the rule of the Rurik dynasty, which united Novgorod and Kievan Rus.

        AFTER ONE OR TWO INTERMEDIATION OF ANCIENT PRINCES-UNIONS, without the Varangians and before them ... there are different points of view about the "primogeniture" of the Ruriks ... what happened before them? who will say? and if not, there was nothing? or it was, but we don't know? How did the Huns (and others) live, they fought with ZEurope, and there was an organization near the Slavs?
        1. Operator
          Operator 12 August 2020 13: 13
          -4
          Before the West Slavic prince Rurik, there was no state on the territory of the Eastern Slavs - with his arrival it appeared.
          1. antivirus
            antivirus 12 August 2020 13: 42
            0
            West Slavic prince Rurik on the territory of the Eastern Slavs there was no state

            at the time of Rurik was not and he collected - this is one thing, but is there any data on
            "it was disintegrated, it is required to reassemble, as it was under" Allaric "
            1. Operator
              Operator 12 August 2020 13: 55
              +1
              I apologize - are you in general aware of the old Russian meme "Where did the Russian land come from" (and not Slovenian, Vyatka, Krivicheskaya, Polyanskaya, Drevlyanskaya, etc.)?

              Wild tribes of Gothic nomads, who spent several years in the Transnistrian bogs on their way from the Scandinavian peninsula to the Apennine, should not be offered for the role of an Eastern European "state" Drevlyans, etc.).
          2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Kote Pan Kokhanka 12 August 2020 18: 17
            +1
            Quote: Operator
            Before the West Slavic prince Rurik, there was no state on the territory of the Eastern Slavs - with his arrival it appeared.

            If you follow modern Russian historians, no has appeared.
            According to the history textbook, the Russian state arose after the capture of Kiev of the Century by Oleg!
        2. tihonmarine
          tihonmarine 14 August 2020 23: 11
          0
          Quote: antivirus
          The calling of the Varangians is an event from which it is traditionally customary to count the beginning of the rule of the Rurik dynasty, which united Novgorod and Kievan Rus.

          Yes, you just understand how it all began and do not climb into the jungle of "Russia above all."
          1. antivirus
            antivirus 15 August 2020 08: 42
            0
            I also say - is it not known that the first time began? Or were there state formations and tribal unions before Rurik?
            They went to Constantinople, and went to Rome with other "barbarians" too?
      2. Kelwin
        Kelwin 12 August 2020 14: 09
        -2
        Quote: tihonmarine
        The calling of the Varangians is an event from which it is traditionally customary to count the beginning

        And what to do with some nuance of page numbering and an odd number of sheets in supposedly Nestor? There is also an obvious forgery.
        1. Operator
          Operator 12 August 2020 14: 47
          +5
          During the existence of the manuscript of the Radziwill Chronicle, it was intertwined several times with numbering, first in Latin letters (the so-called notebooks, presumably in the 15th century), and then in Arabic numerals (sheets of notebooks, presumably in the 18th century). In the process of binding, one or several sheets were lost / withdrawn, after which the numbering got lost.
          http://radzivilovskaya-letopis.ru/articles.php?id=poddelka-letopisi
          1. Kelwin
            Kelwin 14 August 2020 11: 20
            0
            Andrey, thanks for the exile, some of the comments there are interesting) In general, the "swing" continues, and, probably, it will continue until someone takes care of the instrumental analysis. IMHO, if it was not a "Norman sheet", then there would be no problem, but this is him, and this is suspicious))
            1. Operator
              Operator 14 August 2020 15: 21
              0
              The author's style of the miniatures of the Radziwill Chronicle on all bound sheets is completely the same, so there are no third-party attachments in the stitching (there are losses - in the form of one or several sheets).

              The discrepancies between the Radziwill Chronicle and the Tale of Bygone Years in the interpretation of certain historical events are associated with the 300-year interval between their writing and the 600-year interval between the invitation of Rurik by the Slovenian tribe and the writing of the Radziwill Chronicle.

              In the event of a disagreement between written sources, the one closest to the historical event in question is recognized as true.
        2. Trilobite Master
          Trilobite Master 12 August 2020 21: 47
          +4
          Fomenko? wassat
          Here Klim Zhukov gives a very clear answer, including to your question.
          1. Kelwin
            Kelwin 14 August 2020 11: 21
            0
            Fomenko? wassat

            Not only, but he too wassat
      3. Krasnoyarsk
        Krasnoyarsk 14 August 2020 22: 45
        0
        Quote: tihonmarine
        tribes like Chud, Ilmen Slovenes, Krivichi and all called the Varangian Rurik to reign in Novgorod. The calling of the Varangians is an event from which traditionally

        And who told you that Rurik is a Varangian? This is the first thing. And second, what does the word Varangian mean?
    2. Bar1
      Bar1 13 August 2020 09: 46
      -1
      What is it, some kind of cut-off reportage. The author talked about the chronicle and, as if his mouth was closed.
      Of course, it would be nice to look at the Peter's copy and compare it with the original type.
      For example, historians Fomenko and Nosovsky did a study of the manuscript according to the original. These are stitched notebooks in which there are both torn and pasted sheets. It is possible that the Peter's copy was less affected by communication with historians. That would clarify slippery and controversial points, but nobody Academic science is arrogantly silent and does not want to answer such questions.
      Well, we just have to argue with each other at VO for years and probably already for decades, which we were allowed to do.
      1. Krasnoyarsk
        Krasnoyarsk 14 August 2020 22: 53
        0
        Quote: Bar1
        Academic science is arrogantly silent and does not want to answer such questions.

        Why is it silent? She said her "weighty" word - the Slavs (who are they? Poles? Czechs? Slovaks? Maybe Serbs?) Called on the Normans to rule Russia, which did not exist yet. It doesn't matter that the year before that Russia had defeated these same Normans. Our "academicians" have Normans and Vikings and Varangians it is the same thing.
  2. Operator
    Operator 12 August 2020 19: 00
    +1
    "Domestic historians" have not yet invented something like that - for example, the site of the Battle of Kulikovo at the mouth of the Nepryadva River laughing

    Rurik was invited to Novgorod to take the place of not the elders of the Slovenes, but the prince (since Rurik came along with his entire tribe of Rus). Those. there is not a tribe, but an initially intertribal education under a single personal leadership. In addition, Rurik put his governors in two cities, which is the formation of the state apparatus on the ground to replace the previous councils of elders of territorial communities. Rurik died in a campaign to collect tribute, which indicates the formation of fiscal instruments. All this points to the emergence of the titular state of the Russian Land.

    As an opposite example - the actions in Kiev of Rurik's relative Askold Dir (so named in the Arab chronicle of the 9th century about the Rus raid on the western coast of the Iberian Peninsula), who seized the tribal center of the Polyans and limited himself to that.
    1. saygon66
      saygon66 13 August 2020 09: 55
      +1
      - Sorry, little correction! Askold and Dir are not one person, but two! wink
      - And, by that time, Rurik seemed to have "ordered to live a long time," and Prince Oleg, who was the Prophet, was already dealing with these guys ...
      1. Operator
        Operator 13 August 2020 18: 15
        0
        The Arab chronicler does not agree with you about one Askold and one Dir.
        1. saygon66
          saygon66 13 August 2020 23: 30
          0
          - As one of the hypotheses ... The Koenigsberg Chronicle depicts ... Both, two!
          1. Operator
            Operator 14 August 2020 00: 56
            0
            The Russian chronicle was written 6 centuries after the Arabic chronicle was written by a contemporary of Askold Dir.
            1. saygon66
              saygon66 16 August 2020 15: 59
              0
              - Yeah ... Who has not written the history of Russia ... it seems, only lazy! laughing
              1. Operator
                Operator 16 August 2020 16: 10
                0
                The Arab wrote the history of the Cordoba Emirate on the Iberian Peninsula, on the western coast of which the Rus, led by Askold Dir, carried out a sea raid.
    2. Krasnoyarsk
      Krasnoyarsk 14 August 2020 22: 53
      0
      Quote: Operator
      Rurik died on a campaign to collect tribute,

      It seems to me that you confused him with Igor.
      1. Operator
        Operator 14 August 2020 23: 05
        0
        Rurik died while collecting tribute from the Karelians on the Karelian Isthmus - in the census register of the Vodskaya pyatina from 1500, the village of Rurikijärvi is mentioned at the German border (on the border with Swedish possessions in Finland in the 16th century).
        1. Krasnoyarsk
          Krasnoyarsk 15 August 2020 07: 42
          0
          Quote: Operator
          Rurik died while collecting tribute from the Karelians on the Karelian Isthmus - in the census register of the Vodskaya pyatina from 1500, the village of Rurikijärvi is mentioned at the German border (on the border with Swedish possessions in Finland in the 16th century).

          Thanks, I didn't know. But does the consonant name of the village give grounds to assert that Rurik died (died?) There?
          1. Operator
            Operator 15 August 2020 08: 21
            0
            In 879, “Rurik died in Korela in a warrior, a byst was laid in the city of Korela” - the 17th century chronicle collection “The History of the Slavic People and the Beginning of Novgorod”.

            In Priozersk (former Korela) in 2004 a memorial sign was installed.
            1. Krasnoyarsk
              Krasnoyarsk 15 August 2020 20: 07
              0
              Quote: Operator

              0

              In 879, “Rurik died in Korela in a warrior, a byst was laid in the city of Korela” - the 17th century chronicle collection “The History of the Slavic People and the Beginning of Novgorod”.

              hi hi
  3. Normal ok
    Normal ok 12 August 2020 20: 56
    +1
    As in an old joke: "good, but not enough"))
  4. nnz226
    nnz226 12 August 2020 21: 10
    +1
    however, a copy, not the original of the 13th century, the copy could also be "corrected" to please the then rulers
  5. Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 12 August 2020 21: 24
    +1
    I put the article "plus", but only conditionally.
    The facts stated in the article are interesting and reliable. The drawback of the article, and a significant drawback, I see in the fact that these facts are few. The article is very short and ends with nothing.
    What prevented you, Pavel, for example, to inquire about the protographer of the chronicle, to search and find (or make sure that there are no) works devoted to the linguistic analysis of the text of the chronicle - after all, this is irrefutable proof of the true age of the text. You mentioned Constantine the Wise, why not write a few lines about why the researchers correlate the original text of the chronicle with him? But in the scientific literature there is such information, I just, God forbid, I do not remember where.
    Another question, not covered in the article, although it seems to me that it was simply necessary to touch on it - how is the chronicle itself dated, why the XNUMXth century, and not the XNUMXth, how it got to the Radziwills, etc. That is, when tackling such a topic, it seems to me wrong to stop half-way and you need to trace the entire path of the subject of research from the moment of its birth to the present day.
    A separate paragraph can (and should!) Be devoted to the miniatures themselves. I would read about them with great pleasure, since my own hands did not reach the study of this issue, and it is interesting, as it seems to me.
    I would like to note that as an author, you, Pavel, in my opinion, are progressing, although not as fast as we would like. It seems to me that you are somewhat lacking in research activity. But, as long as you have the desire to write, a certain ability for this - too, I think it is worth continuing.
    1. Pavel Gusterin
      12 August 2020 23: 18
      -3
      Master of Trilobite (Mikhail), you write as if your opinion matters to me. Did you want to make me laugh? You did it!
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 13 August 2020 00: 37
        -4
        Are you joking? It's a pity.
        However, I am absolutely indifferent to how you treat me personally, if in the end you learn to write something really worthwhile. Well, and I will help you in every way in this, until you either rise in your work above any criticism, which I would like, or do not fall below it, which I am very much afraid of.
        So see you later. laughing
        1. Pavel Gusterin
          13 August 2020 12: 43
          -1
          Trilobite Master (Michael), if you had
          Quote: Trilobite Master
          absolutely indifferent
          , then you would not bother with my publications. I personally have nothing to do with you personally, since I do not know who you are at all. Try to cook something yourself, and then we'll see what you are.

          Quote: Trilobite Master
          I will help you in every way in this, until you either rise in your work above any criticism, which I would like, or do not fall below it, which I am very much afraid of.


          You made me laugh again. While this is the only thing that you get ...
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 13 August 2020 15: 33
            0
            You did not understand me. I don't care how you treat me, but I don't care what you write. Exclusively and only because you publish it. Your publications are very weak now, but it seems to me that you can make them better than anything else. Some progress regarding the article on the name of Alexander Nevsky is seen, which I noted. If you continue to improve - well, I will praise and discuss your work, stay at the same level or reduce the requirements for your work - bad, I will criticize in essence, make comments. Nothing will change - I will sarcast and giggle. It won't help - I'll cross you out of the authors whose creations are at least in the least interesting to me, I'll ignore you, like Samsonov.
            You can go to my profile and see my publications on this resource. They are objectively much higher in level, at least in research, than yours. Let's just say it is higher. But everything is in your hands. Go for it.
            You may not believe me, but I will be sincerely glad if I have a reason to admit that your work has surpassed mine.
            And what do you think about yourself or about me, I really deeply purple.
            1. Pavel Gusterin
              13 August 2020 22: 07
              0
              Quote: Trilobite Master
              I will delete you from the list of authors whose creations are at least in the least interesting to me, I will put you on the blacklist


              You can right now!

              Quote: Trilobite Master
              You can go to my profile and see my publications on this resource. They are objectively much higher in level, at least in research, than yours.


              Thank you dear! The main thing is that you have not forgotten to use the word "objectively".

              You are becoming funnier and funnier in my eyes.
              1. Trilobite Master
                Trilobite Master 13 August 2020 23: 12
                0
                Quote: Pavel Gusterin
                You can right now!

                And don't dream. smile
                Until I come to the final conviction that you are hopeless, I will try to help you get out of ... in short, from where you are now, upward, to the light. smile
                So get ready for publications, try, study the material, think - you will undoubtedly benefit from this, then you will thank me again. good
                1. Pavel Gusterin
                  13 August 2020 23: 26
                  0
                  Quote: Trilobite Master
                  then you will say thank you to me


                  I already tell you a BIG THANKS for making me laugh, and more than once!
    2. Krasnoyarsk
      Krasnoyarsk 14 August 2020 23: 02
      0
      Quote: Trilobite Master
      A separate paragraph can (and should!) Be devoted to the miniatures themselves.

      At first glance, what can you say about miniatures? Only the fact that the author of the miniatures did not see the Pechenegs in their eyes - their vestments and weapons are the same as those of Russian soldiers. Is this possible?
  6. agoran
    agoran 12 August 2020 21: 40
    0
    "Rurik was invited to Novgorod to take the place of not the elders of the Slovenians, but the prince (since Rurik came along with his entire tribe of Rus)."
    Look: Novgorod was a rich city not only in trade.
    The territory was large, the area of ​​trade was even larger.
    But Novgorod the Great grew not only by trade.
    Many mobs on boats were sent for the prey, and few defenders remained to guard the city.
    The finances of the city made it possible to hire Rurik and his squad to protect them.
    Well, the birch bark letters that were found speak of IOUs, trade orders, letters to my brother about the product, and the scribbles of "the boy Anfim".
    1. Operator
      Operator 13 August 2020 01: 43
      0
      Together with Rurik from Porus (the left bank of the Rus - Neman), not only a squad, but also the entire Rus tribe - about several thousand people - sailed to the center of Slovenian distribution Novgorod. Therefore, the name of the state became Rus, not Slovenia.
  7. avaks111
    avaks111 13 August 2020 06: 35
    0
    I think the chronicle is forged! I do not believe that such a thing could survive from the 13th century to today!
  8. saygon66
    saygon66 13 August 2020 10: 09
    0
    - And where are Truvor and Sineus? Or, in view of their untimely death, are not marked in this document? smile
    - The Varangians felt creepy,
    But they think: "Well here?
    The attempt is not a joke
    Let's go, if the name is ... "
    - And so, three brothers came,
    Middle-aged Varangians ...
    They look - the land is rich,
    There is no order at all ... (S)