Military Review

Armor and weapons of the Bardini Museum in Florence

94
Armor and weapons of the Bardini Museum in Florence

Palazzo Mozzi, XIII-XIV centuries


Praise be to you, oh breg, - to you in the valley
Arno caresses for so many years
Gradually leaving the glorious city,
In whose name the thunder of Latin roars.
Here they took out anger on ghibelline
And Guelph was paid a hundredfold
At your bridge, which is glad
A refuge to serve the poet today.
Sonnet by Hugo Foscolo "Towards Florence". Translated by Evgeny Vitkovsky


Museums of the world. And it so happened that when on May 26 on "VO" my material was released Stibbert Museum in Florence: knights at arm's length, there was a knowledgeable person who wrote to me that, in addition to this museum and among the many other museums in Florence, there is another very interesting museum with a medieval weapons and armor - the Bardini Museum. Having received this information, I immediately contacted the administration of museums in Florence and asked for what I usually ask for always: information and photos, or permission to use photographs of museum exhibits from his website. It's just wonderful that the administration answered me, connected with the curator of this particular museum. Quite lengthy negotiations followed: what, why, where and in what form. It's good that it's in English. The result was an impressive stamp paper (this is the first time this happens to me!), In which I was given permission to use museum photographs for an article on the Military Review. So everything that you, dear readers, will see here, is used on a completely legal basis and without violating anyone's copyright. It's nice that in Italy, museum workers take such requests so seriously!


A real "antique" - a relief with gladiators-saggitarii from the era of Ancient Rome. Stefano Bardini Museum in Florence

So, today we will visit one of the very interesting, albeit minor, museums in Florence. Tourists, and our Russians are no exception, once in this city, first of all go to Santa Maria del Fiore, and then to the Uffiza gallery. For the same Stibbert Museum, few people already have enough strength. And the same can be said for the Bardini Museum. Meanwhile, it is worth a visit.


A plaque on the facade of the Bardini Museum, reminding that Pope Gregory X entered this building

It is located on Via de Renai on the corner of Piazza de Mozzi in the Oltrarno area and is one of the richest so-called "minor" museums in the city.
It is unusual already in that, like the Stibbert Museum, it is the “bequest” of the antiquary and the most influential collector of Italy Stefano Bardini (1836-1922) to the municipality of the city of Florence.


The Armory Hall is on the ground floor ...

And it so happened that at the end of the 1880th century, namely in 1273, he bought out the palazzo, where the church of San Gregorio della Pace was located, built between 1279 and XNUMX on land owned by the Mozzi bankers, at the direction of Pope Gregory X to celebrate the peace between Guelphs and Ghibellines and turned it into a Neo-Renaissance palace. Moreover, his building contained not only an amazing art gallery, but also laboratories for the restoration of tapestries, which Bardini himself sold to collectors around the world. The museum contains magnificent examples of Italian furniture of the XNUMXth-XNUMXth centuries, paintings by Donatello, Michelangelo, Pollaiolo, Tino da Camaino, wonderful carpets, old string and keyboard musical instruments, and even ... a small but very interesting armory.


In the premises of the museum. Staircase to the second floor


And along it are the knightly coats of arms of the famous Tuscan families ...

In general, the palace turned out to be quite eclectic in all respects: stones of medieval and Renaissance buildings were used for its construction, carved capitals, marble fireplaces and stairs were arranged in it, as well as painted coffered ceilings, and there are simply a great many caissons in them.


Gallery with statues. Also the first floor. And the famous coffered ceilings ...

However, the real estate complex in Bardini is not really limited to just one house. It also includes a park that stretches over four hectares on the slopes of the Belvedere hill (the famous "Bardini Garden") and which has recently been restored and offers a magnificent view of the city. It also houses the Villa Bardini with a panoramic loggia. In short, Bardini left a very good memory in Florence. Well, after his death in 1922, the museum was inherited by the city municipality, which is now its rightful owner. For a long time, namely from 1999 to 2009, this museum was closed for renovations, but today it is open to the public.


Terracotta "Madonna and children"

Now let's gossip a little and first of all find out where he got the money for all the antiques he collected. And it so happened that, having finished his education at the Academy of Fine Arts in Florence in 1854, he began to receive large commissions as a restorer of works of art, and from 1870 he began to sell them himself. Working as a restorer, Bardini successfully removed some of Botticelli's frescoes from Villa Lemmy, and received an order to remove frescoes commissioned by Jacob Salomon Bartholdi from Casa Bartholdi in Rome. Well, his restoration of St. Catherine of Alexandria by Simone Martini, now in the National Gallery of Canada and executed so masterfully that it is almost indistinguishable, in 1887 was called the most outstanding example of seamless restoration of its time.


Stone carving from the Middle Ages

So many famous works of Renaissance art bear the imprint of Bardini's brush. At the National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, there are about twenty works that have been placed in his hands for restoration. In particular, Benedetto da Maiano "Madonna and Child", Bernardo Daddi and "Portrait of Youth" by Filippo Lippi. The Metropolitan Museum of Art houses eight paintings that Bardini once owned, including Veronese Boy with a Greyhound and Coronation of the Virgin by Giovanni di Paolo from the Robert Lehmann collection, as well as a Baroque portrait bust of Ferdinando de Medici. Bardini's connections with Bernard Berenson led several of Bardini's purchases to the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum in Boston; among them are two Northern Italian stylobates supporting a column of lions and a pool purchased from Bardini in 1897. The badly damaged marble head of a curly-haired young man from the Borghese collection, used by Stanford White as a figure for a fountain in Payne Whitney's house # 972 on Fifth Avenue in New York: in a word, he not only collected himself, but also enriched many famous museums with his restored works the world.


The famous blue background, Bardini blue, crucifix, carved wooden chests and painted ceiling caissons


Room with Renaissance furniture. On the wall of the next room is one of the famous carpets from the Bardini collection

It should be noted that the collection of the museum, the collection of which consists of more than 3600 works of art, including paintings, sculptures, armor, musical instruments, ceramics, coins, medals and antique furniture is very eclectic in nature. Since he bought a lot from the local ruined aristocrats, what floated into his hands, he bought. And he kept something he liked, and carefully restored everything else (which increased the value of these artifacts dozens, if not hundreds of times!) And sold them to museums and collectors in Europe and America. Many famous Renaissance artworks bear the imprint of Bardini's brush.


Well, we got to the armor. However, before us are not only them, but also two amazing effigies - tombstones, both of which are very characteristic. The left shows us a typical Milanese armor with an enlarged left shoulder pad and a lance hook on the right; and the right one is clearly earlier than the right, a figured tarch shield and a dagger attached directly to the plate "skirt"

The National Gallery of Art in Washington has about twenty works that were given to him for restoration. In particular, it is Benedetto da Maiano's painting "Madonna and Child", altars and paintings by Bernardo Daddi and "Portrait of a Young Man" by Filippo Lippi. The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York houses eight paintings that Bardini once owned, including Veronese's Boy with a Greyhound and Giovanni di Paolo's Coronation of the Virgin from the collection of Robert Lehmann, as well as a Baroque portrait bust of Ferdinando de Medici. Several of Bardini's purchases ended up in the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum in Boston; among them are two Northern Italian stylobates supporting a column of lions and a pool purchased from Bardini in 1897.

Also effigy from the armory room, and very unusual in every way ...

He also had the badly damaged marble head of a curly-haired youth from the Borghese collection, used by the architect Stanford White as a figure for the fountain in Whitney Payne's 972 Fifth Avenue house in New York. In a word, he not only collected artifacts himself, but also enriched many famous museums around the world with his restored works.


And here is the armor on the previous photo in the niche on the left. These are armor of the XNUMXth century with characteristic puffs for puffy trousers, decorated with engraving. Helmet - bourguignot without buff and visor.


The shoulder pads are decorated with an engraved image of an antique warrior

Some of the exhibits in this museum are simply unique. For example, there is a medieval wooden crucifix and a collection of wedding chests. And also antique carpets, including the 7,50-meter, which was used on the occasion of Hitler's visit to Florence in 1938.


Something military, but what? Helmet ... or the pommel of something ...

After the death of Bardini, as is very often the case, the museum underwent significant rearrangements, which did not correspond to its original appearance. For example, the walls were repainted there. The magistrate did not like their color, and the old blue color was replaced by ocher. Therefore, when the restoration of the museum premises began, it was decided to restore its interiors exactly as they were during the life of Bardini himself. Interestingly, other collectors liked this color "Bardini blue" very much, on the contrary, and they copied it in their homes, which later also became museums, such as the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum in Boston or the Jacquemart-André Museum in Paris. During the restoration, this color was restored from the old plaster on the walls preserved under new layers of paint, as well as thanks to a letter from Isabella Stewart Gardner, in which Bardini revealed the secret of his color.


Powder flask made of horn. The decline of tournament fashion, and the proliferation of firearms, in turn gave rise to a fashion for hunting. And the appropriate hunting weapon. Arquebuses began to be richly decorated with bone, on the plates of which images of hunting scenes were engraved or burned. In a pair, they were accompanied by powder flasks and natrusk, which were often made from a deer horn, including a bifurcated one, to emphasize the "naturalness" of the product and show their own skill in its manufacture

Interestingly, in 1918, shortly before his death, Bardini organized a sale in New York of some of his sculptures and furniture that ended up in American museums: the Metropolitan in New York and the Walters Art Museum in Baltimore. However, what remained in his house in Florence was so great that in 1923 a museum named after him was opened in Florence. And, of course, the beautiful "Bardini gardens" remain his legacy.


The national weapon of the Italians of the Renaissance was the cinquedea dagger - "five fingers" (five dales), which were often carried in a scabbard behind their backs


These are the swords with a wavy blade of the XNUMXth century. also present in the collection of the museum


Carved fireplace, shields and the first examples of Italian cannons. For a book on stories artillery photographs of them in large format would be of considerable cognitive value ...

PS The author and the site administration would like to sincerely thank Dr. Antonella Nezi and the curator of the museum, Gennaro De Luca, for the information and photos used in this article.
Author:
Articles from this series:
Stibbert Museum in Florence: knights at arm's length
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  1. Grandfather
    Grandfather 2 August 2020 04: 27 New
    +8
    a lot of photos of rooms, where everything is shallow, and few photos of weapons, the theme is not very well designed.
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 2 August 2020 06: 31 New
      +9
      It's still very beautiful and creates a good mood in the morning. smile
      Good morning everyone and this very mood, thanks to Vyacheslav for another article. And the "uncle" dozing on his own grave even touched him almost to tears. drinks
    2. The leader of the Redskins
      The leader of the Redskins 2 August 2020 07: 27 New
      +5
      And for me, as a builder, on the contrary, it was interesting to look at the architectural tricks of the Middle Ages. Exhibits can be anything, but architecture is music frozen in stone!
      But the article is also good.
      Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 2 August 2020 08: 01 New
        +7
        this is music frozen in stone
        "This music will be eternal,
        If I change the batteries "(C) laughing Good morning colleague! hi
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 2 August 2020 08: 41 New
          +7
          Quote: Leader of the Redskins
          And for me, as a builder, on the contrary, it was interesting to look at the architectural tricks of the Middle Ages. Exhibits can be anything, but architecture is music frozen in stone!
          But the article is also good.
          Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich.

          Quote: 3x3zsave
          this is music frozen in stone
          "This music will be eternal,
          If I change the batteries "(C) laughing Good morning colleague! hi

          Sing! A little more and the "guild of masons" will burst into the vastness of IN!
          Laugh, friends, do not be offended for God's sake !!!
          Vyacheslav, thanks for the morning reading !!!
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 2 August 2020 09: 06 New
            +5
            "Guild of masons"
            Masojids, as they are, are masojids !!! laughing
            1. Krasnodar
              Krasnodar 2 August 2020 11: 32 New
              +3
              Quote: 3x3zsave
              "Guild of masons"
              Masojids, as they are, are masojids !!! laughing

              And if the Jews are resettled in Mordovia, what will the AO be called - Zhidomordovskaya or Mordozhidovskaya?
              1. depressant
                depressant 2 August 2020 14: 47 New
                +5
                But I am, rather, a gloomy Illuminati.
                1. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar 2 August 2020 14: 51 New
                  +3
                  And I am a curly-burly underminer of spirituality and collegiality of the superethnos of Great Tartary fellow
                  1. depressant
                    depressant 2 August 2020 15: 03 New
                    +5
                    And I, as it turned out, was the overthrower)) On the forum about an ill-fated man named Talking Mustache (old News topic), my colleague tortured me with questions about how I do it - a bureaucrat! She answered like a questionnaire, until she came to her senses and ran away on the cute topic of Vyacheslav Olegovich. Here, as always, near and dear, it shines, warms my Illuminati soul))
                  2. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 2 August 2020 15: 10 New
                    +3
                    Even curly and burriness, I did not notice in communication with you ... Successfully disguising yourself as a Moldovan? laughing
                    1. Krasnodar
                      Krasnodar 2 August 2020 15: 22 New
                      +4
                      To my shame, I won't be able to disguise myself as a Moldovan - I forgot my language. But I can sing “Eun graedine lui Ion
                      Toete peserile dorm ... "
                      1. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 2 August 2020 15: 26 New
                        +4
                        Then you have to learn Tatar laughing
                      2. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 2 August 2020 15: 28 New
                        +3
                        I will take Turkish lessons from my father-in-law)))
                      3. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 2 August 2020 15: 44 New
                        +3
                        Oh wei! Where is Tatar and where is Turkish ?! It's like comparing "forshmak" with "herring under a fur coat"!
                      4. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 2 August 2020 15: 50 New
                        +4
                        No, well, I know "Kilmanda"))
                      5. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 2 August 2020 16: 05 New
                        +3
                        Everyone knows that. But few know how to send to the aphedron in Moldovan.
                      6. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 2 August 2020 16: 34 New
                        +3
                        Oh, well, I still remember this in different variations laughing
                      7. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 2 August 2020 16: 39 New
                        +3
                        Here! I always praise you as a polyglot.
                  3. The comment was deleted.
  • kalibr
    2 August 2020 15: 55 New
    +5
    You would have been deprived of this too, if a lot of efforts had not been made on my part ... Try to scratch out a set of decent photos from at least one museum. I'll see how you manage it!
    1. depressant
      depressant 2 August 2020 16: 21 New
      +5
      And also interested in the Guelphs and Gibbelins you mentioned - the consonances are painfully familiar))) I went to look.

      bigenc.ru.
      "... GUELF AND GIBELLINA (Italian Guelfi, Ghibellini), the name of the two largest political parties in Italy in the 12-15th centuries, which arose during the struggle of the emperors of the Holy Roman Empire with the papacy. Guelphs (Italian form of the name of the Welf dynasty - the dukes of Bavaria and Saxony) united the opponents of the empire (mainly from the city layers - popolans), headed by the Pope.The Gibellines (the name apparently comes from the Italian form of the name of the Staufen family castle - Waiblingen) united the opponents of the Welfs and supporters The term was first used to designate various political groupings in Florence in 1215 and was later used only in Italy (in Germany it did not become widespread) .The differences between G. and G. are reflected in the heraldry of their representatives , general emblem, color and cut of clothing, etc. "
      So you hear "elves" and "goblins")))
      This is how real history is refracted in books. Who would say, did not believe that the Guelphs and Gibbelins existed. I would have thought: they are playing, devils! )))
    2. Astra wild
      Astra wild 2 August 2020 21: 51 New
      +5
      Vyacheslav Olegovich, do not pay attention to such grumbling. You used what you were given. Perhaps you would have done better, but ...
      P
      S
      She promised to criticize the case.
      "Successfully removed Botticelli's frescoes" you have a good syllable and might not repeat the silly phrase from the English-language Wikipedia.
      If he was engaged in the destruction of Botticelli, figs would have paid him. Barbarians are not paid to destroy
  • Thunderbolt
    Thunderbolt 2 August 2020 05: 09 New
    +8
    Something military, but what? Helmet ... or the pommel of something ...
    Kleinod - a small jewel - a heraldic symbol that was fixed on the top of a knight's helmet. There is little about it here.
    https://www.yaplakal.com/forum2/st/25/topic1536511.html?fbclid=IwAR2Ppy2xzlh4n60WCW7DvcCB2XM1ro5A83NX-qj8gbiww1N2y3vcOns-39w
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 2 August 2020 09: 03 New
      +7
      Something military, but what? Helmet ... or the pommel of something ...
      In Russian it is a crest, in German - helmkleinod or helmzier, in English - crest.
      Specifically on this exhibit in the catalog of the 1967 arms exhibition in the Florentine castle of Poppy, there is a minimum of information. Material - boiled leather, wood, varnish. Italy, 1420-1430
  • Olddetractor
    Olddetractor 2 August 2020 06: 36 New
    +3
    Thank you, I didn't know about the museum before. I think you shouldn't limit yourself to one article, the guns are very interesting in the last photo
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 2 August 2020 08: 53 New
      +5
      On the left of the photo is a 1-2 pound cast iron light cannon (falconet or bass in our opinion), from about the middle of the 18th century. They were often used instead of fireworks. A characteristic feature is the lack of dolphins.
      In the center of the mortar! And also cast iron. So - this is the middle, the end of the 17th century!
      Regards, Vlad!
      1. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 3 August 2020 14: 41 New
        +2
        A characteristic feature is the lack of dolphins.
        In the center of the mortar! And also cast iron. So - this is the middle, the end of the 17th century!

        Congratulations on the appearance of the picture on your avatar! drinks It would be very good if an article about the artillery of that time was published, and we discussed it with you. good
        1. Phil77
          Phil77 3 August 2020 15: 50 New
          +2
          Quote: Pane Kohanku
          Congratulations on the appearance of the picture on your avatar!

          Hi Nikolay, I just noticed this event! recourse That would add sharpness, eh?
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 3 August 2020 16: 08 New
            +3
            That would add sharpness, eh?

            Sonya is sacred drinks yes, I just noticed ...
            My Mikado fell out of the window two weeks ago. I went to the windowsill to warm myself and slipped ... Fortunately, I live on the second floor, and there was nothing. He then came to himself for a long time from what had happened. laughing
            The weekend was not in the city, I did not go to VO. And there was such a topic - clothes! good Eeeeh, but we have not discussed it further, Sergei ... crying
            1. Phil77
              Phil77 3 August 2020 16: 13 New
              +2
              Oh! My previous cat Vasya fell from the 10th floor! They searched for a week, and then my father went to the store and so accidentally saw her on the street. How happy it was when the prodigal daughter returned! And then she fell again ... and that's it. Now in the land of eternal successful hunting. That was a long time ago. Then there was Filya the First, lived for fourteen long years. Well, the current one is Filya Two! drinks
              1. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku 3 August 2020 16: 17 New
                +2
                Then there was Filya the First, he lived for fourteen long years, and the current one is Filya Two!

                Mine is eight. My friend and wife used to rent a "kopeck piece", in one room - they, in another - their companion-friend. She had a cat named Kuzya, a young black one. And he got into the habit of prowling along the cornice, and lived on the seventh floor. Fell several times, each time was unharmed. After a while he received the nickname "paratrooper". laughing
                1. Phil77
                  Phil77 3 August 2020 16: 20 New
                  +2
                  Something has not been seen on the Seryogu-Bubalik website for a long time, is he probably working on an article? wink
                  1. Pane Kohanku
                    Pane Kohanku 3 August 2020 16: 39 New
                    +2
                    Something has not been seen on the Seryogu-Bubalik website for a long time, is he probably working on an article?

                    The main thing is to be alive, healthy and in a good mood. drinks haven't seen him for a long time ...
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 2 August 2020 07: 08 New
    +8
    Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich!
    In terms of negative criticism, I would like to note that recently in your articles there have been repeated paragraphs. This material is no exception.
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 2 August 2020 09: 09 New
      +5
      And also the repeated repetition of the phrase: "And it was so."
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 2 August 2020 09: 12 New
        +6
        I already joked about this, but I perceive it as a kind of logo.
  • Free wind
    Free wind 2 August 2020 07: 14 New
    +2
    Mamzel is a caretaker in one of the photos, interestingly yelling "do not touch anything" in a nasty voice, like ours. The phrase "successfully destroyed the frescoes" is not clear. Give me a jackhammer, or even better an excavator, I will "successfully destroy" not only the frescoes, but a couple of museums at the same time, for a modest reward, I dare say. wassat
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 2 August 2020 08: 57 New
      +4
      Quote: Free Wind
      Mamzel is a caretaker in one of the photos, interestingly yelling "do not touch anything" in a nasty voice, like ours. The phrase "successfully destroyed the frescoes" is not clear. Give me a jackhammer, or even better an excavator, I will "successfully destroy" not only the frescoes, but a couple of museums at the same time, for a modest reward, I dare say. wassat

      Don't give the respected uncle any more matches, he has already stolen a box of dynamite !!! laughing
    2. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 2 August 2020 09: 14 New
      +5
      Now I know who to call for dismantling! laughing
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 2 August 2020 09: 52 New
        +5
        Quote: 3x3zsave
        Now I know who to call for dismantling! laughing

        Anton Bulldozer just don't let Free Wind !!! laughing
        hi
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 2 August 2020 10: 11 New
          +5
          laughing "If the motherland did not ask you
          Why did you get into the trencher "(c)
        2. Phil77
          Phil77 3 August 2020 16: 33 New
          +2
          Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
          Anton Bulldozer

          Whoa! Anton? Bulldozer? laughing laughing laughing Shall we beat swords into plowshares? bully
    3. VIP
      VIP 2 August 2020 19: 53 New
      +1
      This is true. The phrase is kind of clumsy. It seems like a hangover said
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 2 August 2020 07: 30 New
    +6
    right - clearly earlier,
    The right effigy is very unusual. The deceased is depicted in a helmet with a closed visor. I wonder why?
    1. Free wind
      Free wind 2 August 2020 09: 33 New
      +5
      Why, why, terrible as death, you will see and die without seeing Paris. laughing
      1. depressant
        depressant 2 August 2020 15: 45 New
        +4
        Interested in the saggitarians - in the very first illustration.
        sagittarius - "archer", "shooter". They are usually depicted with bows, tapered helmets, and scale armor. Saggitarii are gladiators who are capable of fighting from a distance. Surely during the performance of the sagittarii, some special security measures were taken, since the range of their bows is from 150 to 200 meters. Well, the viewer cannot be killed from the center of the large amphitheater, but injury can be inflicted.
        The saggitarium was the elven prince Legolas, son of the king of the Northern Mirkwood. Remember how you shot? And do you know what strikes? High culture of bookmakers living through their eras. Maybe that's why they worry. A kind of casually thrown hint - a saggitar. And what an image! What's in a book, what's in a movie. The everlasting connection of times.
  • Undecim
    Undecim 2 August 2020 09: 30 New
    +7
    It also includes a park that stretches over four hectares on the slopes of the Belvedere hill (the famous "Bardini Garden") and which has recently been restored and offers a magnificent view of the city.
    I looked in my photo archive. Found.
  • Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 2 August 2020 12: 28 New
    +6
    Gorgeous, just gorgeous. hi Vyacheslav Olegovich, isn't it time to think about publishing a book under the working title "Museums You Haven't Been", "Away from Hiking Trails", or, finally, "Strangers Don't Walk Here"? smile
    No, seriously, I think such a book in Russian would be in demand and could serve not only for entertainment. Many are tired of "propping up" the Leaning Tower of Pisa, and they don't know what else to do. smile
    1. kalibr
      2 August 2020 15: 58 New
      +5
      Quote: Trilobite Master
      No, seriously, I think such a book in Russian would be in demand and could serve not only for entertainment.

      Dear Michael! I think so too. But the problem is, there is a terrible breakthrough in publishing right now. I wrote an application for TWO such books in March ... And there is still no decision on them!
      1. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar 2 August 2020 16: 37 New
        +4
        Is there a crisis in the publishing business?
        1. kalibr
          2 August 2020 16: 38 New
          +4
          Quote: Krasnodar
          Is there a crisis in the publishing business?

          Another one!
          1. Krasnodar
            Krasnodar 2 August 2020 16: 39 New
            +4
            After 2014 or is this a trend with the development of the Internet?
            1. kalibr
              2 August 2020 16: 45 New
              +5
              And after 2014, the Internet also added ... It turned out that in the most reading country in the world, interest in books was artificially created by their shortage. Reading books meant being "on horseback". When the books became publicly available, 80% of our citizens became uninteresting to read them at once. The market of printed books in '14 sank by 37%, and now I don't even know by that much ... There are 35 thousand books on the author.ru website! Much more. Why else buy books. Look, only I have there "The Adventures of the Barsi Cat", "The Season of Love", "Three from Ensk" (part 1), "Creator God" (part 1) ... And how many others write? On any topic ...
              1. Krasnodar
                Krasnodar 2 August 2020 17: 11 New
                +4
                Thanks, got it! hi
              2. Trilobite Master
                Trilobite Master 2 August 2020 19: 36 New
                +6
                Quote: kalibr
                in the most reading country in the world, interest in books was artificially created by their shortage.

                It seems to me that in this case we need to talk not about a shortage of books in general, but about a shortage of books of an entertaining nature, and about a shortage of entertainment in general. The Soviet media was more focused on education and education than entertainment.
                It is difficult to say whether it is worse or better than now, when bad taste is flourishing and cultivated. Both are bad.
                Probably something in between is required. Still, it seems to me that the creator should go his own way, and not by indulging the demands of the masses, as now, or the political conjuncture, as it was in the USSR. Both of these give rise to a horde of graphomaniacs, in one case the consequence of their "creativity" is an insatiable boredom among readers, which engenders a desire to find alternative sources of entertainment (USSR), in the other, a decline in morals and tastes that engender laziness and, yes, bad taste (our ).
                1. kalibr
                  2 August 2020 19: 39 New
                  +4
                  Quote: Trilobite Master
                  Probably needs something in between

                  Average is always the best, but how do you find it?
                  1. Trilobite Master
                    Trilobite Master 3 August 2020 00: 18 New
                    0
                    With a smart one is troublesome, with a fool it is bad.
                    You need something in between. Where can I get it?

                    (c) Bulat Okudzhava smile
        2. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 2 August 2020 17: 10 New
          +6
          Yes, damn it, in this business, crisis is a permanent state!
      2. VIP
        VIP 2 August 2020 20: 23 New
        +5
        They have no commercial potential.
        Vyacheslav, did you try to offer these books to the Belarusian publishing house? I saw in our city, books of the Minsk publishing house, but they were not bought
        1. kalibr
          2 August 2020 21: 11 New
          +4
          Now the situation is the same everywhere. What's in the Russian Federation, what's in Belarus.
  • depressant
    depressant 2 August 2020 13: 49 New
    +8
    First, in the illustrations for "The Adventures of Baron Munchausen" these ceilings were present - the intersection of longitudinal and transverse beams. Later found in paintings by medieval artists from my once rich collection of albums. I thought it was just beautiful decor. And I did not know that these were coffered ceilings (thanks, Vyacheslav Olegovich!))). The caisson is a chamber, and it turned out to be not an end in itself, but a consequence of an architectural solution that reduces the load of heavy ceiling slabs on the beams. The lattice holds better than even the frequent parallel lines of the beams. Well, as it was supposed in those days, in rich houses, palaces and castles, caissons were decorated with paintings and moldings, and were carved. So, live and learn!))
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 2 August 2020 15: 05 New
      +4
      Bravo, Lyudmila Grigorievna! Where did the album collection go?
      1. depressant
        depressant 2 August 2020 15: 14 New
        +6
        I stayed in my house, which has long been a stranger. More than a hundred albums - a luxury that I will never have. Among them are several albums with armor, Milan edition. How useful now! ((
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 2 August 2020 15: 18 New
          +4
          It's sad ... I sold a collection of coins for a penny, when there was nothing to feed my family.
          1. depressant
            depressant 2 August 2020 15: 56 New
            +7
            I sympathize. It hurts to part with a collection. Gathers separately, remember each case of acquisition, but leave together without looking back. And the memory looks after.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 2 August 2020 16: 15 New
              +6
              "Looking back, we see only ruins,
              The look, of course, is very barbaric, but true "(C)
          2. kalibr
            2 August 2020 19: 48 New
            +5
            I had a Winchester in 1895, a hussar saber with the inscription "For Bravery", a German dagger in 1918. Everything was gone ... due to the financial difficulties of a young family ...
    2. kalibr
      2 August 2020 19: 40 New
      +3
      Quote: depressant
      The caisson is a chamber, and it turned out to be not an end in itself, but a consequence of an architectural solution that reduces the load of heavy ceiling slabs on the beams.

      Exactly!
  • Icelord
    Icelord 2 August 2020 15: 27 New
    +2
    And yet not a Cinquedea, but a Cinquedea. Five fingers
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 2 August 2020 16: 22 New
      +6
      Do not find fault with the name of the weapon. In different languages, different pronunciation.
      1. Hantengri
        Hantengri 2 August 2020 17: 33 New
        +5
        Quote: 3x3zsave
        Do not find fault with the name of the weapon. In different languages, different pronunciation.

        Right. In Kazakh, this "not cinquedea, but cinqueeda", in general, will be - beshbarmak and in Uzbek - beshpanja. laughing
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 2 August 2020 18: 18 New
          +5
          Hmmm, intrigued ...
          1. Hantengri
            Hantengri 2 August 2020 18: 21 New
            +5
            All this translates as "five fingers". Only chikuenda is a knife, beshbarmak is horse meat with dough, and beshpanja is a shashlik. )))
    2. kalibr
      2 August 2020 21: 33 New
      +5
      Cinqueda or "cinquedea" (from Italian cinquedea - which translates as "five fingers") can be attributed to both swords and daggers. It is a weapon with a short triangular blade. It was distributed in northern Italy from 1450 to 1550. Wiki
  • NF68
    NF68 2 August 2020 17: 04 New
    +3
    There are many interesting things in Florence. You can't take that away from the Italians. They are warriors, to put it mildly, almost all are not important, but as far as art is concerned, here they are still highly quoted in the world.
    1. depressant
      depressant 2 August 2020 17: 43 New
      +6
      This is yes. I noticed the mention of Felippo Lippi. In fact, there are two of them - Fra Felippo Lippi and Felipino Lippi. Felipino is the son of Felippo. The father is a nondescript commoner from the family of a butcher, the son is good, but the father's paintings, in my opinion, are better. And over time, over time, a lovely girlish face, framed by flowing gold hair, begins to appear on them - now she is in the image of a Madonna, now a servant. The son's pictures are not very interesting, but for some reason it is he who is considered a professional. In general, in the paintings of that time, the general imprint of the delicate taste of the creators, the paintings are extremely aesthetic. The contemporary takes with subtext, thought, and this is at best. Most of the current ones, without creating a common style, follow the path of copying in such a way that the viewer, dropping his jaw, is amazed: "But this is more real than reality!" And the value is only in this, that is, it is vanishingly small.
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 2 August 2020 19: 24 New
        +5
        And over time, over time, a lovely girlish face, framed by flowing gold hair, begins to appear on them - now she is in the image of a Madonna, now a servant.

        Lucrezia Buti is a novice of the Dominican monastery of St. Margaret in Prato, for whose chapel Filippo Lippi painted a picture. The artist asked the novice to pose for the painting, seduced and simply stole from the monastery. This is how his illegitimate son, Filippino Lippi, was born, and eight years later his daughter Alessandra. Cosimo de Medici himself petitioned Pope Pius II to be allowed to marry, and he gave such permission. But Lippi refused to marry.
        Traditionally, it is believed that the Madonna and Child and Salome in the frescoes of the cycle History of St. Stephen and John the Baptist in the Cathedral of Prato were painted by Lippi from Lucretia.
        1. depressant
          depressant 2 August 2020 20: 51 New
          +7
          So I suspected! )) It was asking - the son of not a butcher breed)))
        2. VIP
          VIP 2 August 2020 21: 20 New
          +4
          Stunned, but dad should be given a penny
          1. Undecim
            Undecim 2 August 2020 21: 23 New
            +4
            Why is he a penny? By the way, thanks for the "thank you".
            1. Astra wild
              Astra wild 3 August 2020 21: 26 New
              +2
              Viktor Nikolaevich, I think: vip simply said.
              Personally, you would approve of Lippi’s action: you fool the girl’s head. Real men don't do that.
              1. Undecim
                Undecim 3 August 2020 21: 45 New
                0
                Yes, he did not leave anyone. Today it is called "civil marriage".
        3. Astra wild
          Astra wild 2 August 2020 22: 05 New
          +3
          "Cosimo de Medici himself interceded before the Pope Reception II" such noble persons found themselves in a stupid position. Really nobody wanted to make a byaka for this Lippi? They had great opportunities to train him.
          I don't even know what I would have done in the place of Pius or the Medici, but I know one thing: he would have paid dearly for putting him in a stupid position
          1. Undecim
            Undecim 2 August 2020 22: 20 New
            +2
            It's hard to put such persons in a stupid position. And byaku Lippi was slipped. According to one version, he was poisoned either by Lucretia herself, having learned that he had acquired a new mistress, or a new mistress, for the sake of which he refused to leave Lucretia. Lippi lived a very turbulent life and not only painted. There are interesting books about him, but in English.
            1. Astra wild
              Astra wild 3 August 2020 21: 17 New
              +1
              Viktor Nikolaevich, perhaps I hurried with the reception: he said "amen" and that's it. With the Medici, a little different: he asked the Pope himself and naturally their lordship would be annoyed that his efforts were gone down the drain.
              I personally want this, but if his fate punished, then I agree
  • VIP
    VIP 2 August 2020 19: 28 New
    +6
    Quote: depressant
    But I am, rather, a gloomy Illuminati.

    ..And I'm Dominican. Now we need a company: Templars and Teftons
    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 3 August 2020 14: 35 New
      +1
      .And I'm Dominican. Now we need a company: Templars and Teftons

      If you do Teuton, then Michael, and I can offer a philosophizing Bacchante in my own person. laughing drinks
  • VIP
    VIP 2 August 2020 19: 32 New
    +6
    Quote: HanTengri
    Quote: 3x3zsave
    Do not find fault with the name of the weapon. In different languages, different pronunciation.

    Right. In Kazakh, this "not cinquedea, but cinqueeda", in general, will be - beshbarmak and in Uzbek - beshpanja. laughing

    Once I tried beshbarmak and almost grabbed my own fingers. The taste was awesome
  • VIP
    VIP 2 August 2020 20: 09 New
    +6
    "the old blue color was replaced by ocher" tried to provide "stone carvings of the Middle Ages" against the background of ocher and could not.
    Actually, I'm not an artist, but from the point of view of a diligent, it looks better on blue
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 2 August 2020 21: 19 New
      +4
      You are absolutely right. Bardini specially selected this color as the most suitable background for marble and gilding.
  • VIP
    VIP 2 August 2020 21: 17 New
    +5
    Thanks to that knowledgeable person for giving the lead on Bardini. Thanks to the administration of the museum for not being sent by the forest.
    And thanks to the author, too, for the interesting story.
    1. kalibr
      2 August 2020 21: 31 New
      +5
      This person is Undecim and in all respects he deserves your gratitude!
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 2 August 2020 22: 03 New
        +4
        By the way, there are many more places in Florence that are practically unknown to tourists, but they deserve an article. True, there is little militarism, and some local critics demand exclusively narratives about fratricidal weapons.
  • Bersaglieri
    Bersaglieri 3 August 2020 11: 10 New
    +3
    But I missed this museum ... eh. Thanks for the interesting material!