Military Review

US Special Forces. Special Operations Command

19

24th Special Tactical Squadron


Currently, US special forces are among the largest in the world both in terms of numbers and the number of different units. At the same time, the American special forces are distinguished by a fairly branched structure, their special forces exist in all types of American armed forces. General management of all US special forces is provided by the United States Special Operations Command (US SOCOM).

Education and tasks of US SOCOM


The Special Operations Command was formed relatively recently, on April 16, 1987. Without exaggeration, this command is the main think tank of all American special forces and is responsible for the direct leadership, planning and conduct of special operations around the world. Today it is one of the Unified Combat Command - the elements of command and control of the armed forces adopted in the USA. Refers to functional commands along with Strategic, Space, Transport and Cybernetic.

The creation of the Special Operations Command as a single command body for all special forces units and units was influenced by the Eagle Claw operation of the US armed forces that ended in complete failure. The purpose of the operation, which began and ended on April 24, 1980, was to release 53 hostages held on the territory of the US embassy in Tehran. The operation began to develop not according to plan from the very beginning and ended in a deafening fiasco. The Americans lost 8 people dead, two RH-53D helicopters and an EC-130E plane destroyed and five Sikorsky RH-53D helicopters abandoned without even entering the battle with the enemy.

US Special Forces. Special Operations Command

US Special Operations Command Emblem

The failure of the operation caused obvious discontent at all levels of the country's military and political leadership. This operation has been comprehensively studied and analyzed. The Senate Committee, which in 1985 published a report on the results of the work carried out, recommending the separation of special forces as a separate branch of the US armed forces, investigated the circumstances and clarified the causes of the failure for several years.

The Commission and US military experts concluded that the cause of the failure of the Eagle Claw operation was the existing departmental fragmentation of special forces, as well as the absence of a single control body for all units and units of the US special forces. To correct the identified situation, it was proposed to organize the Special Operations Command. It was officially formed 33 years ago, on April 16, 1987.

The tasks accomplished by the Special Operations Command are extensive and affect various areas of activity that are consistent with US military, political, and economic goals. US SOCOM is responsible for sabotage subversive activities in hostile countries, the fight against international terrorism, for the organization and conduct of humanitarian relief operations in the conflict zone, as well as for the fight against international drug trafficking. Another specific objective of this Command is to counter proliferation weapons mass destruction, as well as nuclear weapons.


Soldiers of the American special forces in Jordan

Despite a rather large list of tasks to be solved (not all of them are listed above, and not all of them directly relate to military operations), most often American special forces are deployed today around the world in local conflicts of low intensity. The use of special forces and units is especially relevant when the redeployment and use of large US military contingents is considered premature and inappropriate for political reasons. The Special Operations Command also comes to the aid in cases where it is necessary to quickly and efficiently engage small groups of well-trained military personnel. At the same time, the special forces’s focus on work in “peacetime” does not exclude their widespread use during full-fledged hostilities, as has already happened in Iraq more than once, including during Operation Desert Storm.

Composition and structure of US SOCOM


The command of special operations of the US Armed Forces provides a single operational command and control of special forces in all types of the US Armed Forces: Ground Forces (Army), Air Force and Navy, including the Marine Corps. The structure of the US SOCOM includes the following structures: US Army Special Operations Command; US Air Force Special Operations Command; US Navy Special Operations Command; US Marine Corps Special Operations Command. In addition, the Special Operations Command includes a functional (specialized) management - the Joint (Interspecific) Special Operations Command (JSOC).

The main base and headquarters of the US Special Operations Command is aviation McDill Air Force Base, located near Tampa, Florida. According to the official website of the Command, the total number of military and civil servants in the units and divisions of the US special forces is currently more than 70 thousand people, including about 2,5 thousand of them serving at US SOCOM headquarters. Currently, the US Special Operations Command is headed by General Richard Douglas Clark, he took up this position at the end of March 2019. It is this general who currently exercises general leadership of all US special forces.


General Richard Douglas Clark, Head of US Special Operations Command

The role of the Special Operations Command has increased dramatically since the events of September 11, 2001. The terrorist attacks, which shocked the United States and the entire world, highlighted the fight against international terrorism. True, in the future, in Washington, the paradigm of this struggle will be adjusted to various operations that meet the interests of the United States around the world. One way or another, it was after September 11, 2001 that the role of the Special Operations Command increased many times over, since it was to this Command that the US Department of Defense delegated the main powers in the fight against international terrorism, shifting the main burden of the fight against combined arms (naval) units and subunits into subunits and units of special forces.

Joint Operations Command (JSOC)


The Joint Special Operations Command, which is organizationally part of the Special Operations Command, exercises operational control of all reconnaissance and sabotage units and units of the US special forces, primarily units of constant combat readiness. It is JSOC that promptly submits to the most famous American special forces detachment, Delta, which became famous thanks to numerous Hollywood feature films. The 1986 action movie Delta Squad with Chuck Norris in the lead role became canonical in this regard.

Also, in addition to the Delta Group (from the Army), the US Naval Special Warfare Development Group (NSWDG or DEVGRU) from the Navy and the 24th Special Tactical Squadron from the Air Force are under the operational subordination of the Joint Special Operations Command. At the same time, the exact number of the Delta special forces, as well as the other two listed divisions, is unknown. Most likely, DEVGRU possesses the largest number of personnel; this unit of the fleet has more than 1,5 military and civilian personnel.


Joint operations command emblem

The main focus of the Joint Command of Special Operations is countering international terrorism with the help of special forces in all overseas theaters of war. In addition to the direct operational management of special forces units of constant combat readiness, the management is also developing practical methods and the theory of interaction between all units and units of special forces of various types of armed forces (Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force). He is responsible for the theory and standardization of the training of special forces units of various types and types of troops, and also issues technical specifications for the development of specialized weapons and equipment for special forces.

The main JSOC management and planning bodies are located in North Carolina at the Fort Bragg base at the main garrison of special forces of the US Army. The estimated number of JSOC is about 4 thousand people, including civilian personnel.
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  1. Terenin
    Terenin 19 June 2020 18: 38 New
    10
    Judging from the article, this is the most special forces on the planet. winked . And especially
    "Delta", which became famous thanks to numerous Hollywood feature films
    1. Far B
      Far B 20 June 2020 02: 35 New
      +4
      Nenuacho. Osama bin Laden was banged, drowned right there, they didn’t see anyone. Medals issued. Then a helicopter with the liquidators was shot down in Pakistan by Pakistani. Hto right now, Cho will refute?
  2. tihonmarine
    tihonmarine 19 June 2020 18: 56 New
    0
    Well, if there are such specialists, then let Trump put them in order in Seattle to restore order.
    1. Morrrow
      Morrrow 19 June 2020 19: 13 New
      0
      Has no right
  3. gridasov
    gridasov 19 June 2020 19: 36 New
    -1
    Like everything else, special forces evolve in the complex of all changes. Therefore, now, it is the special forces that are distinguished by its ability to rely on the latest achievements of science and technology. Then what are the advantages of modern special forces if various terrorist and frankly gang groups can possess the same arsenal of weapons, means of communication, information, which is the so-called special forces. Not to mention motivation
    and financial interest. Trends speak of generally new techniques and tactics for conducting special operations.
    1. Doliva63
      Doliva63 20 June 2020 20: 49 New
      0
      Quote: gridasov
      Like everything else, special forces evolve in the complex of all changes. Therefore, now, it is the special forces that are distinguished by its ability to rely on the latest achievements of science and technology. Then what are the advantages of modern special forces if various terrorist and frankly gang groups can possess the same arsenal of weapons, means of communication, information, which is the so-called special forces. Not to mention motivation
      and financial interest. Trends speak of generally new techniques and tactics for conducting special operations.

      And what is special forces, is there a definition? wassat
      1. gridasov
        gridasov 20 June 2020 21: 50 New
        -1
        Of course have ! At a minimum, these are people whose competence includes tasks that are feasible only with certain psychophysical and qualification skills, as well as with certain financing and providing a complex of power, information, technical and other types of support, the level of which corresponds to the degree of significance of these tasks. And this of course can be expanded.
        1. Doliva63
          Doliva63 20 June 2020 21: 55 New
          +1
          Quote: gridasov
          Of course have ! At a minimum, these are people whose competence includes tasks that are feasible only with certain psychophysical and qualification skills, as well as with certain financing and providing a complex of power, information, technical and other types of support, the level of which corresponds to the degree of significance of these tasks. And this of course can be expanded.

          The answer is not counted. Well-trained infantry is suitable for him.
  4. DeKo
    DeKo 19 June 2020 20: 09 New
    +1
    Dear author. US special forces and Russian special forces, completely different organizations.
    1. Terenin
      Terenin 19 June 2020 22: 34 New
      -1
      Quote: DeKo
      Dear author. US special forces and Russian special forces, completely different organizations.

      The Americans themselves recognized that the Soviet special forces were considered the coolest special forces in the world. The five best included Israelis, Koreans, the British and the Americans themselves - in fifth place ...
    2. Terenin
      Terenin 19 June 2020 22: 41 New
      +2
      Quote: DeKo
      US special forces and Russian special forces, completely different organizations.

      Moreover, in Russia, special forces are different because of different specifics and tasks, hence their different training and selection criteria ...
    3. Doliva63
      Doliva63 20 June 2020 20: 47 New
      0
      Quote: DeKo
      Dear author. US special forces and Russian special forces, completely different organizations.

      Russian special forces - which is one of them? FSB, FSIN, Ministry of Emergencies or what? laughing
      1. Yarhann
        Yarhann 21 June 2020 16: 33 New
        0
        We have rightly noticed the special forces we have enough - in fact, this is the power wing of various departments. But there are also special forces in various branches of the armed forces. The difference from the American special forces is only in the organizational structure, and then everything is the same - there simply cannot be otherwise.
  5. Terenin
    Terenin 19 June 2020 22: 28 New
    +1
    The role of the Special Operations Command has increased many times, since it was to this Command that the US Department of Defense delegated the main powers in the fight against international terrorism,

    Here they sailed to Iran in 2016 am probably swear at the terrorists ...
    A brief story of how the US Marines were captured and their weapons taken away ...
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LajV7vjMvp8
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  7. Lepsik
    Lepsik 20 June 2020 03: 16 New
    +2
    typical losers. over the past 40 years, solid epic fools in the style of "dumb and dumber"
  8. riwas
    riwas 20 June 2020 03: 21 New
    +1
    The command of special operations of the ground forces includes: headquarters; command of the Special Forces troops, consisting of the headquarters of seven special forces (GrSpN, "green berets"); 1st operational unit of JV Delta; command of communications with the civil administration (SA) and psychological operations (PSYOP), which includes the 95th brigade for relations with the civil administration and the 4th group of psychological operations, the 160th army aviation regiment of special operations; 75th Rangers Regiment (Black Berets); Center and school of special methods of warfare. J. Kennedy; 528th Special Operations Support Brigade.
    The Delta group (800-1000 people) is the most elite land anti-terrorist unit of the MTR and consists of three operational units (squadrons): A, B and C, each of which consists of four groups of sixteen people. The groups have specialization in use: parachuting, diving, mountain and infantry.
  9. Tom Johnson
    Tom Johnson 22 June 2020 01: 34 New
    +2
    Welcome from Tampa Florida
    1. Pete mitchell
      Pete mitchell 22 June 2020 22: 46 New
      +1
      Quote: Tom Johnson
      Welcome from Tampa Florida

      Have a nice one you too. At least couple of words in russian, otherwise admins will be disappointed and charge you lol
      1. Terenin
        Terenin 22 June 2020 23: 09 New
        +2
        Quote: Pete Mitchell
        Quote: Tom Johnson
        Welcome from Tampa Florida

        Have a nice one you too. At least couple of words in russian, otherwise admins will be disappointed and charge you lol

        This guy from Florida obviously didn’t click on a Russian translation.