Military Review

Technology Wars: Welding Soviet Armor

57
Technology Wars: Welding Soviet Armor

Acceptance tanks T-34, off the assembly line of the plant number 183 in Nizhny Tagil. Source: waralbum.ru


All to war with a crack!


The high-solid homogeneous 8C armored steel, which became the main one for the T-34 medium tank, brought a lot of difficulties to the production process. It should be noted that such solid armor during the entire Second World War on tanks was used only in the Soviet Union. And in this, of course, there were both positive and negative sides. In previous parts The cycle already referred to the numerous cracks accompanying the welding of hulls and towers of medium Soviet tanks. At the same time, heavy HF and then ISs were deprived of this: more plastic armor of medium hardness was much easier to tolerate excessive stresses when welding parts. Since the beginning of 1942, engineers at the Armored Institute have proposed a set of measures to simplify the production of armored vehicles and modernize welding technology. It was decided not to weld some knots at all: for example, the fastening of the rear and front frames was transferred to a rivet. In many ways, this was a borrowing after a thorough study of German armored vehicles.


Female welders at work at the Ural Tank Plant in the assembly shop of T-34 tanks. Source: waralbum.ru

The frontal and side parts of the tank were now welded at the request of TsNII-48 only with austenitic electrodes, better suited for difficult to weld ferrous metal grades. In total, now up to 10% (or more) of all electrodes consumed by an armored vehicle were austenitic. If we focus on the data provided in Nikita Melnikov’s book “Tank Industry of the USSR during the Great Patriotic War”, then about 34 electrodes were spent on one T-76-400, and 55 of them were austenitic. Among the requirements for the use of such electrodes was a ban on their operation at high current modes - up to 320A. Exceeding this indicator threatened high heating of the weld area with subsequent deformation during cooling and cracking. Please note that functions similar to the domestic “Armored Institute” in Germany were performed by the 6th Department of the Arms Directorate of the Ground Forces. It was to him that the tank factories were to submit methods of welding hulls and towers for approval in writing. Specialists of the 6th Department, in turn, checked the submitted materials for compliance with the temporary specifications for welding armor TL4014, TL4028 and TL4032. These requirements were designed for welding German armor with a thickness of 16 to 80 mm. As already mentioned in the material “Welding Tank Armor: The German Experience”, Germany did not use automatic welding. This, of course, seriously slowed down the speed of the German tank industry, but in the Soviet Union there were some problems with welding machines. Along with the unquestionable high quality of the weld, automation of welding required high-quality filler materials and strict adherence to work technology. However, it was an inevitable fee to introduce a revolutionary method of production, which had such a significant impact on the quality and speed of assembly of tanks.


Workers of the Sverdlovsk plant for the assembly of self-propelled guns SU-122. Source: waralbum.ru


Welding the commander’s turret to the roof of the T-34-85 tank tower with an automatic welding installation at the Ural Tank Plant No. 183 in Nizhny Tagil. Source: waralbum.ru


Welding the hull of the T-34 tank with an automatic welding installation at the Ural Tank Plant No. 183 in Nizhny Tagil. Source: waralbum.ru

If the main electrode and filler wire were excessively contaminated with sulfur, carbon and phosphorus (or, conversely, it lacked manganese or manganese oxide), this led to the formation of cracks directly in the weld. It was important to carefully prepare the welded items under flux. The requirements were strict: parts must be of the correct size, without violating tolerances. Otherwise, for welding, the part on the slipway had to be “pulled”, thereby creating serious internal stresses. Yes, and a simple non-compliance with the strength and voltage of the welding current led to defective joints: porosity, nostrematurity and lack of penetration. Given the low level of qualification of workers allowed in automatic welding machines, it is easy to believe in the possibility of marriage of this kind. All highly qualified welders were engaged in manual welding and could not influence the quality of welding of "Paton machines". Although they were involved in correcting defects in welding machines.




Welding of hulls of self-propelled guns SU-122 and SU-100 at the Ural Heavy Engineering Plant. Source: waralbum.ru


Cast part of body armor of the DT course machine gun. Plant number 183, 1942. Source: Russian State Archive of Economics

The sharp increase in the productivity of tank factories led to one unexpected problem by 1943. It turned out that the rest of the production was not always in time for tank construction. The machines worked for wear, sometimes there were no ammeters to control the current strength on the machines, lacked high-quality welding electrodes. All this caused periodic “bursts” of crack formation among the production T-34s. To extinguish these waves of marriage had the operational forces of factory technologists and engineers from the Central Research Institute-48.

Design revision


The hard armor and cracks in it forced the engineers to change not only the technology of automatic welding, but also the manual approach. Large welding and thermal stresses, in particular, were experienced by the upper frontal part, when during it the conveyor assembly was welded onto it with the protection of the DT machine gun, eyebrows, the driver’s hinge, the safety bar and other little things. Around the protection of the machine gun, which was very carefully scalded, cracks often arose up to 600 mm long! Volume welding was in the area of ​​the bow nose, where they were fastened with powerful bilateral seams with frontal upper and lower plates, as well as with sloth brackets. Often the gap between the parts in these parts did not meet the normative and therefore had to put a particularly massive welding seam, leaving behind serious internal stresses. It was necessary to reduce the stiffness of some nodes and reduce the total share of welding in the joints, which was done by the TsNII-48 specialists in the shortest possible time. In particular, they changed the method of connecting the wing flaps with the front part of the hull roof. Using a special "buffer" strip of mild steel, which was previously welded to the wing liner, it was possible to reduce the level of the final voltage inside the seam and armor around. Then we dealt with the mentioned “infrastructure” on the frontal plate of the tank. Now weld the eyebolts, machine gun protection and hatch hinges under the new specifications could only 5-6 mm electrodes in several layers: at least four! Lockers with a roof, a windshield with sides, lockers and a roof were connected in a similar way. Everything else was cooked in 2-3 runs with 7-10 mm electrodes.


Source: Russian State Archive of Economics

Changed and the technology of the connection parts of the hull of the T-34. Initially, all the connections, except for the conjugation of the VLD and NLD, were as in the drawings made in a quarter. But shortly after the outbreak of the war, they were changed to a spike, but it did not justify itself - too many cracks appeared in the places where the seams were cut. The stud-like connection for high-hard armor was not entirely appropriate also due to the strong local shrinkage stresses after welding. What was good with plastic German armor was not suitable for domestic T-34s. Only in 1943 did the final articulation versions appear on the Victory Tank, satisfying the TsNII-48 specialists - lap-back and back-to-back.


Tank corps on the tilter. Source: Russian State Archive of Economics

The easiest processes for optimizing welding operations were hulls of heavy Soviet tanks. The quarter armor plate connection on the HF was left unchanged, but the internal reinforcement squares were replaced by internal fillet welds. Already at the very height of the war, the most optimal configurations for pairing armored plates were chosen for heavy tanks (by shelling, first of all). If the connection angle was close to 90 degrees, then it would be better to use the “spike” method or a quarter, and in all other options - completely or in the tooth. According to the results of these studies, a unique shape of the upper part of the bow assembly of the IS-48 tank was born at TsNII-2, when at a thickness of 100-110 mm the armor provided all-angle protection against 88-105 mm shells. Pairing the parts in this sturdy construction was simple, by surprise.
Author:
Articles from this series:
Victory Technologies: Automatic Welding of Tank Corps
Welding Tank Armor: German Experience
57 comments
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  1. Vladimir_2U
    Vladimir_2U 30 March 2020 07: 19 New
    +4
    Looking at the photo right away the words from the song are remembered,
    ".. children with women at the machines,
    men have been in the war for a long time .. "
    Great article, plus!
  2. mr.ZinGer
    mr.ZinGer 30 March 2020 08: 09 New
    +9
    A wonderful series of articles, if the author is a pro, then he will make any topic interesting. Waiting for new materials.
  3. Olgovich
    Olgovich 30 March 2020 08: 19 New
    +3
    Welding the commander’s turret to the roof of the T-34-85 tank tower with an automatic welding installation at the Ural Tank Plant No. 183 in Nizhny Tagil.

    I will never forgive this girl in the hardest production ever!
    Already at the very height of the war, the most optimal configurations for pairing armored plates were chosen for heavy tanks (with shelling, first of all). If the connection angle was close to 90 degrees, then it would be better to use the “spike” method or a quarter, and in all other options - completely or in the tooth.

    Classroom work of professionals hi
    1. Vladimir_2U
      Vladimir_2U 30 March 2020 08: 45 New
      +9
      Quote: Olgovich
      Classroom work of professionals
      Soviet researchers and production workers.
      Where are the howls about the bloody essence of the Bolsheviks and the "Russian science" they killed?
    2. apro
      apro 30 March 2020 08: 47 New
      -16
      Quote: Olgovich
      I will never forgive this girl in the hardest production ever!

      And Germany has to do with it ... it was the Communists who made us work. You, dear, are inconsistent ...
      1. akeksei.shagov
        akeksei.shagov 30 March 2020 09: 08 New
        +9
        You still say that the damned komunyaki attacked the peaceful Germans near Spalingrad ...
        1. apro
          apro 30 March 2020 09: 33 New
          -3
          For some Russians, the communists are worse than the Nazis ....
          1. Old Orc
            Old Orc 30 March 2020 10: 24 New
            +6
            For some Russians under the empire, a simple village peasant was worse than the Germans. what a German or a Nazi will do to them.
          2. qQQQ
            qQQQ 30 March 2020 11: 42 New
            +8
            Quote: apro
            For some Russians, the communists are worse than the Nazis ....

            For the vast majority of Russians, democrats are worse than communists ....
  4. Undecim
    Undecim 30 March 2020 08: 27 New
    +6
    The front and side parts of the tank were now welded at the request of TsNII-48 only with austenitic electrodes,
    A small clarification is the austenitic electrodes.
    1. AK1972
      AK1972 30 March 2020 09: 32 New
      +3
      Quote: Undecim
      A small clarification - austenitic electrodes.

      You are right, it cuts the ear. It’s the same as saying - the armor is made of iron.

      The hard armor and cracks in it forced the engineers to change not only the technology of automatic welding, but also the manual approach.


      And what is this opus? What is a manual approach?
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 30 March 2020 09: 50 New
        10
        The author should not be strictly judged for technical and technological errors, I think that he is still not a specialist in welding, and much attention is paid to the technology features in the text.
        In general, the article is interesting and opens one of the pages of the history of the tank industry of the USSR that is little known to the general public.
        As for the proposal, it had to sound like this: "Hard armor and cracks in it forced the engineers to change the technology of not only automatic welding, but also manual welding."
        I bow that this is a typo.
  5. 113262a
    113262a 30 March 2020 08: 27 New
    +4
    Given that the main production of welding fluxes remained under the Germans, in Nikopol, the whole story was on the emergency introduction of the ersatz. It will be interesting!
    1. andrewkor
      andrewkor 30 March 2020 08: 54 New
      0
      I remember at another Demidov length they found a suitable slag for use as a flux for welding machines for armor.
      1. sgapich
        sgapich 30 March 2020 09: 56 New
        0
        Quote: andrewkor
        I remember one more demid length found a suitable slag for use as a flux for welding machines for armor.

        length = blast furnace? hi
        1. 113262a
          113262a 30 March 2020 13: 22 New
          +1
          I found the technologist right on the railway embankment, on the way to the slag dump. Flux is essentially ground glass in appearance. Brown or blue gray.
        2. andrewkor
          andrewkor 31 March 2020 06: 24 New
          0
          In length - blast furnace all questions to Google. Well, I looked.
  6. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 30 March 2020 08: 52 New
    +3
    Good, comprehensive article. I look forward to continuing. Respect to the author.
    1. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid April 1 2020 22: 06 New
      +2
      Quote: Aviator_
      Good, comprehensive article. I look forward to continuing. Respect to the author.

      I join 100%!
  7. WayKheThuo
    WayKheThuo 30 March 2020 09: 54 New
    13
    The author has great respect for his work.
    Such articles are very necessary for people to understand how much labor, talent, sacrifice was invested in the Victory not only at the front, but also in the rear.
    It is these ordinary articles, devoid of any pathos, that shed light on the colossal amount of work carried out by the Soviet government in preparation for the Great Patriotic War - behind every technical decision, but what is there - behind every sketch, drawing, welded seam, there are real people. The same generation - "the same age as the century", for the most part received their education either in the late Empire, or in the USSR. Children of former peasants, small artisans, workers and other estates, whom the proud descendants of Onegin considered cattle, illiterate cattle, good for nothing but drinking vodka and multiplying.
    And look - the Soviets pulled them out of villages and urban slums, laundered them, trained them, attached them to the work, gave them a common purpose and meaning in life.
    And there is no fault of THAT Soviet power that the great-grandchildren of these people so easily and practically without coercion "merged" everything in the most mediocre way, because the country that defeated Nazism, brought man into space, built the first nuclear-powered ships and launched remote robots to the moon, in my opinion opinion, she died along with this heroic generation somewhere in the middle of the 70s of the last century, dissolving in the general stream of human stupidity, deceit and self-love, leaving behind, in addition to the real "iron", stories about people more similar to epic heroes.
    The Stalin period is truly our antiquity.
    I think so.
    1. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid April 1 2020 22: 16 New
      +1
      .... there is no fault THAT Soviet power that the great-grandchildren of these people so easily ...... leaked ....

      I thought a lot about it, why? Probably the generation that won the war did not want to recall the hardships of their childhood and youth. I didn’t want to talk about those difficult years. It lived in the present, was directed toward the future .... And the next generations were not interested in how difficult it was before ...
      1. WayKheThuo
        WayKheThuo April 1 2020 22: 34 New
        +2
        There is such a singer - Yuri Shevchuk. Without touching on his political views, I must say that he has one great song - "I got this role." It almost completely reflects the disappointment of the generation, which at the time of perestroika were about 25 - 35 years old with the current state of the country. Kinchev said correctly: "We have been nourished by the ashes of great victories." And in general, all the work of early, relatively speaking Russian rockers, is permeated with one demand: "Change!" How and what - they did not know, and they should not know, because poets, singers, artists, writers are only the nerve of society, but not the head and not the hands.
        So it turns out that everything was fine with the nerves in the late USSR, and only one butt remained of the head and hands, because the same Shevchuk sang about the majors, and especially in this vein I remember Evtushenko's novel Berry Places.
        1. Reptiloid
          Reptiloid April 1 2020 23: 08 New
          +1
          .... the ashes of great victories .....
          probably this is about the fact that, starting from the post-revolutionary time, the development of the country went on increasing, Victory in the Second World War. Recovery, man’s flight into space, and then the great victories ceased.
          If in modern language ---- wanted "" movement "".
          Change --- and which --- is unclear.
          1. WayKheThuo
            WayKheThuo April 1 2020 23: 24 New
            +1
            Exactly. Young people always want change - this is normal, only the wisdom / knowledge / experience / cunning of the country's leadership can direct this energy in the right direction. But how could society’s requests be transformed into positive energy, and where could the feeding ups of a system like Gaidar, which saw the country only from the windows of an Obkomovo member, be directed to? And since childhood. Not only did they not know real life in the country, they did not want to know it either. These people, in all seriousness, took Hungary as an economic model of perestroika. Hungary, damn it! I am not an economist, but even it’s obvious to me where Hungary is and where the USSR is!
            And the people. What people? Before the outrage, the people were tired of coupons for everything that can be bought. I lived in the Volga region and in the Far North and everywhere, that is, absolutely everywhere I remember only one thing - endless queues for any product, except for bread and the simplest canned food, and from conversations on trains (then people were still talking to each other) one of the main questions : "What about your supplies? How about butter, milk, meat?" As a child, I was, in general, "before the lantern", but for some reason I remember it.
            In short, the country was sick economically and ideologically, and most importantly, at the right time, there was no leader in the right place, able to gather the most adequate people around him, to develop a course that met not the policies of the Party, but the aspirations of most people living in the USSR - one fucking clowns from the CPSU and the Komsomol who want only one thing - to take apart everything and afford to poke it, as well as economist-dreamers from the USSR Academy of Sciences.
            The end was a little predictable, that’s why when I served, our special officer received the second highest in economics, but I, the ordinary of the first year of service, had little time for analysis.
      2. Aviator_
        Aviator_ April 1 2020 23: 17 New
        +1
        That generation talked about those difficult years, at least in the 60s, when the youngest participants in the Second World War were over 40 years old. My father told me, and in the 70s, when I was studying in Moscow, he took me to meetings of the 889th and 46th Guards regiments, Evdokia Davydovna Bershanskaya told me personally - join the party! They, party members of Stalin's time, did not imagine what this procedure had become in the 70s. I, of course, said that I would join, but no one was waiting for me there - then for this it was necessary to be a zealous Komsomol member - a showman, the uttering of slogans from the stands was welcomed, etc. Again, since we were listed as a technical intelligentsia, then to preserve percentage in the party of the "advanced working class" should have been brought into the party at least two hegemons. This fuss was disgusting to me, and one of our "Russian-speaking" comrades, in order to wash into the party, regularly persuaded the mechanics from the stand to join the party, they politely sent him. The party has rotted away from its head, never recovering after Khrushch Kukuruzny's false report at the XX Congress, after which our society developed without a national idea, by inertia. So the restoration of capitalism took place.
        1. Reptiloid
          Reptiloid April 1 2020 23: 45 New
          +1
          I meant post-revolutionary or pre-war times. My grandmother in 1928 died 4,5 years ago. 5-7 years before her death, I began to remember how they walked in dresses made of sacks, how they gathered spikelets, how they went to school in a neighboring village for more than an hour, how they were hungry all the time, they did not know the feeling of satiety from the word "absolutely" .. .About the occupation ..... But my grandmother did not tell her children any of this. Apparently, she could not talk about it for so long.
          1. Aviator_
            Aviator_ April 2 2020 10: 14 New
            +1
            Yes, they didn't talk about the hardest thing, that's true. During the so-called "Holodomor" (father is 10 years old), he and a friend caught gophers in the steppe, so they fed their families. This is in the Voronezh region.
            1. Reptiloid
              Reptiloid April 2 2020 10: 47 New
              +2
              Have a nice day! These were the strongest generations whose childhood and youth were formed after the revolution. Where did they get such power? It can only be compared with some element.
              I am reading reprint publications about that time. Amazingly simple!
              And he began with the Murzilka Archive for 1924. After the Civil War, there was damage in everything, a shortage of everything. And they thought about children, nursery schools, children's magazines to create a socialist person!
              1. Aviator_
                Aviator_ April 2 2020 11: 15 New
                +1
                Yes, an interesting time, very unusual. There was a Great Idea and the people tried to implement it. But not all. Part of them dreamed of "their own candle factory in Samara". I reread A.N. Tolstoy "Aelita". It is there, of course, somewhat schematic, it is not "Peter the First" and not "Walking through the agony", but the very name of Troitsky Avenue in Petrograd - "Street of Red Dawn" is mesmerizing.
                1. Reptiloid
                  Reptiloid April 2 2020 11: 51 New
                  +2
                  laughing And I recently reread "Aelita"! Unfortunately, "Walking through the agony" "is only in the plans.
                  There is now Red Dawn Boulevard. In the Nevsky district. And then the Red Dawn Street (?????) was later renamed Moskvina Avenue, and in 1998 it was renamed again.
                  1. Aviator_
                    Aviator_ April 2 2020 14: 24 New
                    +1
                    And not to Kirovsky, and then to Troitsky again? This is on Vasilievsky Island, sort of.
                    1. Aviator_
                      Aviator_ April 2 2020 14: 36 New
                      +1
                      And now about the reason for the ban comments, plz. This is to the site admin.
                      1. Reptiloid
                        Reptiloid April 2 2020 15: 04 New
                        +1
                        Quote: Aviator_
                        And now about the reason for the ban comments, plz. This is to the site admin.

                        Is this your inscription? I had when I redid the comments for a long time or wanted to redo them, and the admissible time is exhausted, it turns out.,
                      2. Aviator_
                        Aviator_ April 2 2020 17: 20 New
                        +1
                        Yes, apparently I have the same case - I looked at the map of Peter, where he began to adjust and did not fit in during
                      3. Reptiloid
                        Reptiloid April 2 2020 17: 45 New
                        +2
                        Before, I was somehow upset that Kirovsky Avenue was renamed. But --- a sign hangs on the house, house 26/28. There is a Museum, there are lectures, but again --- I have plans. And the name of Kirov is in the city.
                2. Reptiloid
                  Reptiloid April 2 2020 15: 15 New
                  +1
                  Kirovsky Prospekt on Petrogradskaya Street, the house where Kirov used to live is now returned to its former name ---- Kamennoostrovsky.
                  Trinity Avenue in the historical center of the city ---- there is also Trinity Cathedral.
                  In "Aelita" I didn’t think about Krasnye Zor Avenue, maybe because recently I was on the Boulevard of Krasnye Zory ..
  • Old Orc
    Old Orc 30 March 2020 10: 32 New
    +5
    When reading the material, the link about reducing the cost of production of the T-34 tank from 269 rubles to 000 rubles comes up before my eyes. Improving the quantity and quality through the optimization of the production process both at the individual worker level and to the ministry level. Pride takes over the ancestors.
    1. abrakadabre
      abrakadabre 30 March 2020 11: 56 New
      +6
      Improving the quantity and quality through the optimization of the production process both at the individual worker level and to the ministry level.
      Exactly. Somehow in one article I met how many inventions, rationalization proposals and the like were made only in tank production for such a result. There are thousands of minor and major improvements. Not only in design, but also in production lines, methods of work, internal logistics of enterprises. You immediately understand that in spite of malnutrition and wear and tear at the machines, people with an active attitude, an inquisitive mind and great interest worked. And not indifferent "cogs". And not one or two, but almost everything.
  • Alex 1970
    Alex 1970 30 March 2020 12: 20 New
    +3
    Something confuses me austenitic electrodes for ferrous metal. Austenitic is a stainless steel group M11, black M01, and if they are cooked just cracks and climb. Yes, even currents up to 320A! The stainless steel begins in real life from 65 A in the lower position of approximately 80 A on the root layer for diameters of 2,5 mm, less adhere above leak. Filling and cladding within 85-110 A for diameters 3,2-4,0. Well, maybe 5,0 more can be cooked within 120A, but you already have to be able to cook it very well! And in the photo of the girl without cuffs, either posing or kapets hands on the first seam!
    1. Polymer
      Polymer 30 March 2020 16: 16 New
      +4
      Quote: Alexey 1970
      either staging or kapets hands on the first seam!

      Yes, most likely a staged photo. Shields also hold as they do not when welding. In this case, to make faces visible in photographs. There is no current on the holders, etc.
      But we will not judge too harshly? The staff of the welders in the process is not so impressive ...
      1. Alex 1970
        Alex 1970 30 March 2020 16: 50 New
        +1
        Well, yes, at that time the quality of the shoot itself was not very good either, so it would be even worse from a bright arc, and I don’t judge these girls at all, I just have no right. If not for their work, we would simply not have been.
        1. Polymer
          Polymer 30 March 2020 17: 55 New
          +1
          And the fact that they supposedly weld is not a tank assembly unit, but just a slipway ...
    2. Undecim
      Undecim 30 March 2020 19: 06 New
      +1
      Armor 8C is not "black metal" but medium-alloy steel with a high carbon content. The main alloying elements are nickel, manganese, chromium, molybdenum, silicon.
      1. Alex 1970
        Alex 1970 30 March 2020 19: 25 New
        0
        Is it not with the carbon content (namely 0.3 and higher) that the metal belongs to one or another group, and then, naturally, the alloying elements in its composition? I just want to understand this issue, so I did not work with armored articles. Another profile, these only became familiar in theory
        1. Undecim
          Undecim 30 March 2020 20: 50 New
          0
          The carbon content is decisive for the classification of carbon steels, what you call "black metal".
          The composition of carbon steel is iron and carbon, as well as silicon, manganese, phosphorus and sulfur in the form of impurities.
          Alloy steel, in addition to iron and carbon, contains alloying elements specially introduced during the smelting process, which determine its properties and belonging to one or another type of alloyed steel.
  • Alex 1970
    Alex 1970 30 March 2020 12: 22 New
    0
    I forgot to add that there are special transitional electrodes for different steels. Here they probably cooked, but not austenitic!
  • Operator
    Operator 30 March 2020 12: 57 New
    -5
    Well done Russian electric welding technologists - according to all indicators of the technical process, they made German savages.
  • Ivan Tartugai
    Ivan Tartugai 30 March 2020 13: 41 New
    +3
    Quote from the article:
    "As already mentioned in the material" Welding of tank armor: the German experience ", Germany did not use automatic welding.
    This, of course, seriously slowed down the speed of the German tank industry, but also in the Soviet Union there were some problems with automatic welding machines.»

    In Germany, automatic welding would have been a pleasure, but the Germans had not developed any automatic welding technology, developed neither automatic welding equipment, nor developed consumable welding consumables for automatic welding.
    In the field of automatic welding, Germany, the Germans were at zero compared to the Soviet Union, as the youth say - in the crap.
    With any new technology, there have been, are and will be problems always and everywhere.
    But the problems with automatic welding were closed, and as a result, the labor costs for welding the T-34 body decreased by eight times, compared with manual welding, and at the same time, the quality and strength of the welds became higher than with manual welding.
    And the question of the quality and strength of the welds of the hull of the tank is a matter of life and death of its crew.
    Automatic welding of Paton defeated German welding, worked for Victory, brought closer and closer Victory.
  • fk7777777
    fk7777777 30 March 2020 17: 59 New
    0
    The Germans managed to carry out rearmament for Operation Blau in 1942, which made it possible to make a breakthrough to the Caucasus. It is also not clear why, as a result of all the modernization of the T-34, they left the course machine gun on the frontal armor, and the front part of the turret mask, just where the projectile hit and ricocheted down straight into the tank. Two places where the gunner immediately aimed.
    1. hohol95
      hohol95 30 March 2020 18: 48 New
      +1
      It’s also not clear why, as a result of all the modernizations of the T-34, they left a directional machine gun on the frontal armor, and the front part of the tower mask, just where the shell hit and ricocheted down straight into the tank. Two places where the gunner was aiming right away.

      At what distance could a gunner get into an apple of a machine gun?
      In addition, by 1943 his reservation was changed and the machine gun was equipped with an optical sight!
      The Germans engaged in the modernization of their tanks systematically with their production.
      And our design bureaus first needed to establish uninterrupted production of tanks (sometimes at factories not suitable for this) and only after that take up their modernization! hi
      1. fk7777777
        fk7777777 30 March 2020 20: 19 New
        0
        on military photos there are a lot of such hits, Manstein’s memoirs, where he himself describes where the German gunners tried to aim, especially from 88 mm cannons, he describes the ricochet in detail under the mask of the gun. We really didn’t realize a bit later, and corrected the situation, but with a machine gun, and the mechanical drive hatch, it remained.
        1. hohol95
          hohol95 30 March 2020 22: 59 New
          +1
          From 88 mm anti-aircraft guns could get! They are in silhouette higher than specialized anti-tank guns. So their line of fire was higher than the line of fire of the VET!
          In the photo there are many damaged T-34s with holes just in the frontal armor plate!
          The driver's hatch had nowhere to go. The machine gun was also left, and with an optical sight, it began to help! Reinforcing 45 mm by 60 mm after the appearance of the "cat family" no longer makes sense! 60 mm penetrated without problems with 88 and 75 mm guns!
          But the drag of the front rollers of the chassis would entail!
  • Tests
    Tests 30 March 2020 18: 35 New
    +1
    Alexey 1970, dear, author of rights about austenitic electrodes for manual welding.
    Have you ever worked with low-magnetic steels or with cold-resistant? If you have time and interest, please look, for example, about U-3 steel: https://www.auremo.org/materials/stal-45g17yu3-yu3-ei839.html
    Olgovich (Andrey), dear, automatic submerged arc welding is many times easier and many times less harmful than manual electric welding.
    1. Alex 1970
      Alex 1970 30 March 2020 18: 48 New
      0
      And what kind of steel was used in T 34, I looked for it, it is given in different sources either 8C or X3, it seems that they were old, I did not find the ultimate strength or yield strength only the chemical composition, Yu 3 steel is not mentioned anywhere, so I ask whether this steel was cooked exactly austenitic electrodes, reduced steel of the same pearlite class.
  • hohol95
    hohol95 30 March 2020 18: 37 New
    +1
    Welding of hulls of self-propelled guns SU-122 and SU-100 at the Ural Heavy Engineering Plant. Source: waralbum.ru

    Strange photo caption. Wasn't the SU-122 discontinued before the appearance of the SU-100?
    Perhaps the photo shows the parallel production of the SU-85 and SU-85M cases!
    1. fk7777777
      fk7777777 30 March 2020 20: 21 New
      0
      To be honest, then nonsense, howitzer to fluff to change, you need a howitzer, and down at hand.
      1. hohol95
        hohol95 30 March 2020 22: 51 New
        0
        And were there resources for this?
        And with large claims to the howitzer M-30 did not create a workable alternative. One experimental U-11 howitzer turned out to be expensive for the treasury, the second D-6 did not pass the shooting test !!!
        Mikhail Nikolaevich Svirin
        Self-propelled guns of Stalin. History of the Soviet self-propelled guns 1919 - 1945
        ... In general, the self-propelled gun passed the tests of shooting and mileage, but its weight was considered excessive, and the cost of the U-11 gun was high. Therefore, the commission recognized the need to make changes to the design of self-propelled guns for further improvement, after which it could be recommended for armament of the artillery units of the spacecraft.
        ... The 122-mm gun D-6 of the SU-122-3 was capricious during testing and after numerous breakdowns was withdrawn from testing.

        The troops asked for an average self-propelled gun with a 122 mm howitzer, but they refused to work on them!
        And in production there were only heavy ISU-122 / ISU-122S!