Welding Tank Armor: German Experience


Source: alternathistory.com


German approach


In the first part of the material It was mentioned about welding technologies during the Great Patriotic War that one of the main achievements of Soviet technologists and scientists was the introduction of automation of welding tank hulls and towers. Fascist Germany did not use automatic welding in tank factories. There was one very important explanation for this - during the main period of the war tank the industry of the Third Reich did not experience a shortage of highly skilled labor, including welders. And in the Soviet Union, during the evacuation of large enterprises to the east, personnel valuable to the industry were lost, which jeopardized not only the build quality of the tanks, but even the very possibility of production. In Germany, it came to the point that when welding the Panther and Tigers cases, individual welders were assigned to separate seams! This is written in the material "German experience in cutting armor and welding of tank hulls" engineer V.V. Ardentov in "Bulletin of the tank industry" in the victorious 1945. His work was based on the study of two armored factories in Kirchmezer and Brandenburg. Obviously, such factories in the form of individual welders for individual seams could afford these plants until the last months of the war.

Welding Tank Armor: German Experience

Jagdtigr tank destroyers in the assembly shop of the Nibelungenwerke factory. Source: waralbum.ru

Before welding the hulls, the armor plates were cut, which until 1942 was carried out mechanically. To cut the armor plates for the "thorn into thorn" connections it was much more convenient to use oxygen acetylene cutting, which was also used in similar situations in the Soviet tank industry. Here the Germans were ahead of our tank builders both in efficiency and as a cut. This was largely the result of the use of high-quality tools (gas cutting machines Messer and Griesheim) with the ability to fine-tune the thickness of the armor plate. The Germans also used highly purified oxygen — more than 99%. Finally, during the cutting of the armor, the Germans used several burners, including for chamfering. The gas cutting process itself was automated - this allowed us to speed up the process and make it much more accurate.



Source: Bulletin of the tank industry


[Center]In this image, it is clearly visible where in the thorn connection of the armor there were cylindrical keys. The articulation of the upper and lower frontal parts of the Mouse. Cuban. Author photo








[/ Center]
Samples of welded joints in the Nazi menagerie. Photo by the author.

As you know, one of the hallmarks of the corps of German tanks since 1942 was the spike connection of armored plates with a rectangular or oblique spike. At the same time, the Germans were not limited to simple articulation - in addition, for strength, cylindrical dowels or corks were introduced into the joints. In particular, this was common on Panther medium tanks, Ferdinand self-propelled guns, heavy Tigers towers and a few Mouse bodies. Such plugs were steel rollers with a diameter of up to 80 mm inserted into the joints of the joined sheets after assembly for welding. Corks were placed in the plane of the facets of the spike of the armor plates — a pair was required for each joint. In fact, after the installation of the dowels, the stud connection became integral even before welding. In this case, the dowels were mounted flush with the surface with the armor and boiled around the perimeter of the base. The spike connection of the armored plates of the tank corps markedly improved the ballistic protection of both welds and armor. First of all, this was ensured by increasing the total length of the seam, consisting of separate segments, which somewhat reduced the propagation of cracks.


German welder at work. Source: waralbum.ru

One of the problems in the manufacture of hulls of German tanks was the manufacture of cutouts and holes (for example, under the dowels of the armor joints mentioned above). It was impossible to cut them with gas, so drilling was used. Initially, for steels of grades E-18 and E-19 that underwent surface hardening, it was generally impossible to find a suitable drill, the outer layer of armor was so hard. In the case of drilling a hole prior to hardening, an uneven hardening with subsequent deformation and radial cracking formed in the region of the hole. Yes, there were cracks on the German tanks, and considerable ones, and German efforts to avoid them will be discussed ahead. Partially, the problem of uneven hardening of the armor in the vicinity of the holes was solved by a special refractory paste, which was coated with holes before being sent to the furnace. But, I repeat, this solved the problem only partially. Only at the end of 1944 at the Electrothermal Institute in Essen was this problem solved by the local tempering procedure of the hardened area of ​​armor. The unit, developed by the Germans, is described in its article by the Stalin Prize laureate, candidate of technical sciences A. A. Shmykov. The material was published in the secret for its time and familiar to us profile publication "Bulletin of the tank industry" at the end of 1945. In the postwar years, the pages of the Bulletin were rich in a detailed analysis of the engineering tricks of German engineers, the benefit of trophy equipment was enough.

But back to the local vacation of armor in the place of drilling holes. The base of the unit was a graphite electrode, connected to the drilling site, through which an electric current of 220 amperes and a voltage of 380 volts was passed. As a result, the armor was heated to the tempering temperature. Depending on the thickness of the armor and the diameter of the hole, it took from 7 to 15 minutes. After the tempering procedure, the hardness of the armor decreased by 2–2,5 times. It is noteworthy that in the domestic industry (including the tank industry), tempering was also used by electric current heating - the “know-how” of the Germans was only in the use of a graphite electrode.

Germans and electrodes


The Germans also used the holidays when welding sheets of their highly hard armor with a carbon content in the range of 0,40-0,48%. This became known to the specialists of the Central Research Institute-48 (Armored Institute) during the war, when metal engineers were looking for recipes to reduce crack formation in the T-34 armor. As it turned out, the Germans released armored plates at temperatures of 500-600 degrees (high tempering), and then welded the armor preheated to 150-200 degrees in several passes. Welders did not use electrodes with a diameter of more than 5 mm - it is difficult to believe this, given the thickness of the armor of German tanks. Electrodes with a diameter of 4 mm worked at a current strength of 120-140 amperes, with a diameter of 5-6 mm - 140-160 amperes. This technology allowed not to overheat the weld area. So, a smaller quenching and tempering zone was obtained. In addition, after welding, the seam cooled very slowly - all this in the end allowed the Germans to more or less successfully deal with cracks in the joints. In addition, austenitic electrodes were mainly used, which led to a greater ductility of the weld and its long transition to a brittle martensitic state. The TsNII-48 engineers very carefully studied the features of the tank armor welding cycle, which allowed them to successfully transfer these techniques to the T-34 production cycle. Naturally, no one in the tank industry could afford such a painstaking multi-layered weld over the entire tank corps, the German know-how was used only in the most critical welds prone to cracking.






Welding tank corps on tilters. Source: warspot.ru


A sample of a German weld. Source: warspot.ru


Source: Bulletin of the tank industry

The Germans carried out the welding of tank corps in rather comfortable conditions on huge tilters without preliminary tacks (although in some cases they nevertheless passed with a 5 mm electrode along the entire length of the connection). The tilter was a structure on which, like on a spit, it rotated around the longitudinal axis of the carcass of a German tank. The drive was either manual or electric. Due to the high precision of cutting, the gaps between the parts of the hull assembled on the tilter did not exceed (at least in the main period of the war) 3-4 mm. Otherwise, steel process gaskets were used. Long seams were broken by welders into several small ones and welded simultaneously in one direction. The end seams were also welded by two welders synchronously towards each other. This ensured the minimum quenching stress of the steel and their most uniform distribution. According to one of the legends voiced by Alexander Volgin in the material “Frame for a German menagerie”, the wages of welders at some enterprises of the Third Reich were piece-rate - for the mass of metal deposited on the tank.


Assembly of the chassis of the tank Pz.Kpfw. VI "Tiger" at one of the factories in Germany. Source: waralbum.ru

There is no need to talk about any special rules for monitoring welds in the German tank industry - there were no x-rays, no magnetic flaw detection, or primitive drilling. And there were cracks in the seams! If up to 100 mm long, then they were ground and welded, and if more, then they were smelted by an electric arc and also welded. They also acted with visually detected cracks in the main armor. By the way, over time, the Germans managed to reduce the share of cracks in the welds from 30-40% to 10-20% due to new electrode compositions. Alternating passages in multilayer joints with austenitic and ferrite electrodes were also used.

To be continued ...
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  1. Same lech 24 March 2020 05: 32 New
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    Thanks Eugene for the article hi ... it would be interesting to see more photos with welds ... a lot of points to the talent of the welder.
    I saw how cool welders cooked ... their weld can be said perfect.
    1. Insurgent 24 March 2020 08: 31 New
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      Quote: The same Lech
      I saw how cool welders cooked ... their weld can be said perfect.

      That's where I sawreally perfect welding seam, this is the assembly of solid submarine hulls on the NSR (Sevmash).
      Quality, and even confirmed by quality control department ...
      1. Mikhail3 24 March 2020 09: 42 New
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        Previously, really perfect seams (which I don’t know now) could be seen in any Energy Repair - repair enterprise under any Energy Management in the country. This was the case in every region; there were power plants. Every summer, power plants are put in for repair, and thousands of welds have to be made under pressure in the region of 100-150 atmospheres and a temperature in the region of 500 degrees. Believe me, the welders there were amazing ...
        1. Insurgent 24 March 2020 09: 45 New
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          Quote: Mikhail3
          Every summer, power plants are put in for repair, and thousands of welds have to be made under pressure in the region of 100-150 atmospheres and a temperature in the region of 500 degrees. Believe me, the welders there were amazing ...

          With all due respect to the welders you mentioned, they did not have such requirements as “welded” in the assembly of submarine hulls, such a “press” on their work by the Quality Control Department, with the most stringent and modern control methods.
          1. Mikhail3 24 March 2020 09: 47 New
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            The control is just that, and it’s copied just from the power engineers) The requirements of the power engineers are higher than for the nuclear submarines. In the working environment of the nuclear submarine there are no temperatures at which steel almost floats)
            1. Insurgent 24 March 2020 09: 50 New
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              Quote: Mikhail3
              The control is just that, and it’s copied just from the power engineers) The requirements of the power engineers are higher than for the nuclear submarines. In the working environment of the nuclear submarine there are no temperatures at which steel almost floats)

              I do not want and will not measure the merits of these or those welders. Let it be your way.
              1. Mikhail3 24 March 2020 11: 49 New
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                Why do you need it? There are options. At a depth of a kilometer, the pressure on the wall will be 100 atm. This is the average working pressure of high pressure steam lines. Steam pipelines are tested at 150 atm, sometimes up to 200. Plus, the temperature is 500 degrees, which pretty much changes the parameters of steel in the direction of decreasing strength. Submarine hull welders are good guys, but power engineers have higher requirements)
            2. 210ox 24 March 2020 10: 19 New
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              Surface temperatures of high pressure steam pipelines over 500 degrees.
        2. CTABEP 24 March 2020 10: 15 New
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          There, due to the thickness of the pipe, far from ideal joints as it may seem. During the technical inspection, we regularly select old welded joints with defects in the root, pores in the middle, and lack of penetration. And all this is usually old, welded in the 80s and 90s seams. Now it’s somehow gotten tougher with the control, but still some people manage to weld the fitting from st.20 to the steam manifold from 12X1MF, which of course explodes after several months of operation. So really ideal seams in the energy sector are only nuclear power plants (and even then we cook the argon-arc root there, only then they cover it with a handbrake). In the chemical industry, as a rule, better and more beautiful welded joints. Well, of course, during the great war, tanks didn’t stand there either. Although I won’t argue about the nuclear submarines, I didn’t work there, I didn’t see the seams and did not control it.
        3. 210ox 24 March 2020 10: 17 New
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          I worked in Energoremont. I confirm. There was a class as a welder, and flaw detectors and a laboratory.
        4. 210ox 24 March 2020 10: 21 New
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          There are also 240 bars. On feed pumps
          1. Foul skeptic 24 March 2020 11: 18 New
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            There are also 240 bars. On feed pumps

            From my experience, on a nutrient 310 or 330 bar.
            240 - after the primary and secondary superheaters.
            A welder in a power plant working on heating surfaces is a quality mark right away. So they still work in such conditions - Mama Do not Cry. In a raskoryaku between packages, somewhere on screens, in a cauldron not completely cooled, where, if you touch metal with an open area of ​​skin, you will burn yourself.
            1. 210ox 24 March 2020 13: 58 New
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              There are all hard workers in such conditions .. I personally worked at the TAI, although I did not pull these pieces of iron, but I imagine that it is SUCH ..
  2. Mikhail Drabkin 24 March 2020 05: 33 New
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    Thanks to the author and +++ !!
    High quality of modern and historical photographs and drawings, mean military and accurate text without emotional evaluations, internal logic .... the material of the historical monograph is “Fedorov's” style!
    Particularly struck by the theme of the "Bulletin of Tank Construction" of 1945, dedicated to a detailed analysis of German experience ...

    Excellent material in the treasury of the 75th anniversary of the Victory ... striking heroism and the ability to adapt the Soviet people in extreme, deadly conditions.

    This is for me the basis of hope for the victory of the war against the virus! If only the leadership was worthy and growth of this enemy !!!
  3. Aleksandr72 24 March 2020 06: 32 New
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    The article does not say a word that in the manufacture of hulls and towers of German tanks there was a preliminary assembly stage before the main welding. Volgin A. mentioned in the article wrote about this: “The assembly of hulls and towers on stands using tack welds was a preliminary assembly stage. All armored plates were installed, except for the roof of the hull. The length of the tack seams was 100–150 mm. It is interesting to note that on DHHV tack welds were carried out by fitters, welders were not allowed to do this, prior to assembly of the main sheets of the body, the power set was assembled on the inside of the bottom of the body, which was different for Krupp and DHHV mu. " I hope that in the continuation of the article the author will cover this topic in detail.
    But in any case, the automatic welding (submerged arc) of Academician Paton was much more efficient and technological than any manual welding. In many respects, therefore, the Soviet tank industry during the war years was able to dramatically increase the production of tanks, so necessary to the front. And this despite the fact that there were few qualified workers, fathers and husbands in the workplace were replaced by adolescents and women (including welding). As for the quality of welding - just look at the welds raised from the T-34 swamp. The seams are almost perfect:
    1. fk7777777 24 March 2020 07: 57 New
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      Naturally, the machine is better than the human factor, there are much fewer errors in the welding process. And even more so, the possibility of using high-frequency currents, which is not possible when a person is working.
      1. 113262a 24 March 2020 08: 38 New
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        When welding steels with a semiautomatic device, alternating current is not used, especially HDTV.
  4. vomag 24 March 2020 06: 42 New
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    Good article ... look forward to continuing ...
  5. The leader of the Redskins 24 March 2020 07: 33 New
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    As a mechanical engineer, reading was very interesting and informative!
    Have readers ever wondered who, where and when electric welding was invented? Many believe that Paton, but this is not so. Invented electric welding N.N. Benardos. Our compatriot. Even at the dawn of the twentieth century. And not only invented, but organized a society and brought to life a new technology! And Paton found out about her when he was 52 years old. True, he improved and diversified the process to the impossible, at that time level!)
    1. Elturisto 24 March 2020 18: 30 New
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      But Paton is not our compatriot what?
  6. fk7777777 24 March 2020 07: 53 New
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    Thanks, it’s very interesting how they had it. Especially impressed was the fact that the welders were on the deal, that is, there is a world war, and they just have workmakers, that's normal. Business, just business.
  7. Maks1995 24 March 2020 07: 56 New
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    Good info. thank
  8. Free wind 24 March 2020 08: 01 New
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    German welder in the picture without a hat. he’ll burn his head. When welding, the Germans used direct current, there weren’t any rectifiers like that, they used electromechanical rectifiers, maybe someone remembers an electric motor with a generator. They did not complain about the quality of welding, at least ours noted high quality. welding on tigers burst when a specific plume hit, well, from ISa or ISU-152. I thought that the armor is boiling through, but judging by the documents and photos, the seam depth was 3 centimeters, with a seam width of 2-4 centimeters you can’t put the electrode deeper, although the forehead can be boiled specifically. In principle, it seems that the technology for manufacturing armored hulls does not differ much from our tanks, the hodovka is of course notorious, but many fascists liked it, the ride was smooth and the sides were additionally protected. With such pay, the garage filled up with electrodes. And the seams can be covered with something. smile
    1. Insurgent 24 March 2020 08: 36 New
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      Quote: Free Wind
      there were no rectifiers, used electromechanical rectifiers, can anyone remember electric engine with generator

      Umformer yes

      Were mercury rectifiers, such as those used in mines, to charge the batteries of electric locomotives. Up to the 60s.
      1. Aviator_ 24 March 2020 08: 49 New
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        Umformer is even in the radio amateur manual for 1967. (R.M. Tereshchuk, LB Fuchs Small-sized radio equipment, a reference to a radio amateur. "Naukova Dumka", Kiev, 1967)
        1. Insurgent 24 March 2020 08: 55 New
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          Quote: Aviator_
          Umformer is even in the radio amateur manual for 1967. (R.M. Tereshchuk, LB Fuchs Small-sized radio equipment, a reference to a radio amateur. "Naukova Dumka", Kiev, 1967)

          Moreover, the so-called "reversible converters", consisting of an alternating and direct current machine, also operate in the mode of a rectifier or an alternating current source (when powered by a battery).
          But this thing is very specific and is used where the highest degree of redundancy of power is required.
  9. Mikhail3 24 March 2020 09: 31 New
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    Obviously, such factories in the form of individual welders for individual seams could afford these plants until the last months of the war.
    I must state with great sorrow that the situation in which this approach was not implemented in our country was, of course, caused not by a lack of welders, but by a lack of brains in the management link.
    The total number of welders in the workshop could not be less than the number of seams in the armored box. There are, in principle, not so many of them. It’s much easier to point welders to the next tank than to technologically develop maps for each seam and adjust the time for operations so that the work goes smoothly.
    Which, to our great regret, is confirmed by the fact that after the war our factories did not demonstrate an increase in the quality and quantity of products per worker. That is, the growth of production during the war years was mainly ensured through psychological mobilization and an increase in working hours, and not by improving technologies.
    Introduced semi-automatic welding. It would seem - a breakthrough! And what? We look at the Soviet civilian equipment. And there are many semi-automatic welding? Oh ...
    1. Elturisto 24 March 2020 18: 32 New
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      Be sure to crap in the comments ...
      1. Mikhail3 26 March 2020 08: 52 New
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        Be sure to analyze the situation. Otherwise, dizzy from dizzy, and wrong decisions are applied. There are such strange people in the world, they are called engineers. They, unpleasant creatures, need to understand the situation from the point of view of technology and science. For everything to work, and if mistakes are made somewhere, then you need to find and fix them.
        In this, nasty engineers are not like propagandists who shoot down undertakings and water everything around with either beams of light, glowing light, or beams of diarrhea. According to the training manual approved today. The propagandists are not interested in the reality, since it is they who produce nothing but rays.
        And they do not notice the harm done by them. It is not for them to do business ...
        1. Elturisto 26 March 2020 15: 06 New
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          You are not an engineer, but a talker. Any engineer knows that automation leads to increased labor productivity, which was proved by Soviet socialist enterprises. Notice both during the war and later. For example, the introduction of a stamped bottom and a cast tower without a mask with a spaced apart booking.
          In this regard, German engineers cretins, which actually proved the Second World War.
          Only a complete degenerate will be introduced, a chess-type suspension, and even during a total war.
          Therefore, your calculations, cause only disgust and only.
          In other words, any anti-Soviet. A little rattle is poorly educated, dumb and petty ...
          1. Mikhail3 27 March 2020 08: 50 New
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            When they are rude to me, this site skips. When I answer, they “warn” me, so I won’t answer to the “talker”. Are you a former trade union? Korsorg? Otherwise, your strange post can not be explained. There was no automation, of course. Semiautomatic welding was introduced. That is, there was only a change of instrument.
            As you know, the growth of labor productivity is increased primarily by the growth of the organization of production and the improvement of the division of labor. As the Germans demonstrated. Organization of production in the form of competent arrangement of welders, their additional training for one or two seams, which made it possible to improve their quality. The development and implementation of significantly improved technological maps (you know what it is? Not a wiki, huh?), Which made it possible to facilitate and correctly organize operations. All this reduced the time of general assembly and welding, eased the work of workers, and improved quality.
            In our case, advanced technology was introduced. However, due to the outdated and inefficient organization of labor, more people had to be involved and more labor was squeezed out of them to increase the output. Sweating relied on natural patriotism. That is, people destroyed themselves by burning out reserves (then they lived much less) to win.
            Workers deserve all respect, honor and fame. Leading cadres, who did not undertake something comparable with the Germans, proved to be incompetent, vile creatures, who once again traveled on someone else's heroism. We have millions of such creeps riding on the working ridge. Such are the facts.
            1. Elturisto 27 March 2020 11: 00 New
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              Sweatshirt, this is probably a conveyor-?
              Can you distinguish between electrode welding and automatic submerged arc welding?
              Competent arrangement of welders- :).
              Wow, what a technical achievement :)
              By the way, the talker is a compliment ....
              They go on a working ridge, it’s the pro-German 3 kopek trolls who sell their homeland for a handful of rotten sauerkraut that the owners feed them ...
              1. Mikhail3 27 March 2020 12: 27 New
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                Sweating, sir, is an increase in labor productivity by reducing recovery time. When a person is forced to work faster than his neuromuscular frame allows. And the work is due to the destruction of the body by volitional effort. Before, before the revolution, there was such a Russian word - it was worked out. I burned myself. From this they die.
                When you argue with me by means of journalism about engineering issues, this is both pathetic and scary. I recall the Soviet propagandists who completely broke the connection between the government and the people, because of the vigorous cries of which the people completely stopped believing and sympathizing with the authorities. And the USSR died. Not when Gorbachev betrayed him, but much earlier. When the truth gave way to lies under the mantra "the people will not understand." The people, he understands that ...
                Because there is a reality. Not what is written on the screen or paper, but real seams, real tanks, real labor productivity. About her, about this harsh, unyielding, difficult reality, any words are broken. Reality can only be changed by deeds. And for things to happen, you need to understand reality. And do not lie to yourself closing your eyes ...
                1. Elturisto 27 March 2020 14: 43 New
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                  Yes, everything is clear, the losers mastered metals because they didn’t have enough qualified masons ... you saw at least real, seams, real tanks. You already worked here on the site ... although ... it is not clear that you could work that out. .. and yes ..5 point ...
  10. d ^ Amir 24 March 2020 09: 34 New
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    thanks, very informative
  11. BAI
    BAI 24 March 2020 09: 46 New
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    a few cases of "Mouse"

    Yes, there were only 2 of them.
  12. Vladimir_2U 24 March 2020 10: 16 New
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    Great cycle, thanks to the author! Even the Americans had a peculiar welding technology, so I saw it from the corner of my eye. (not welding))))
  13. AK1972 24 March 2020 10: 36 New
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    Long seams were broken by welders into several small ones and welded simultaneously in one direction. The end seams were also welded by two welders synchronously towards each other. This ensured the minimum quenching stress of the steel and their most uniform distribution.
    The described welding procedure, on the contrary, leads to high welding voltages, especially when welders are cooking towards each other. At the meeting point, the maximum residual welding stresses arise, because the base metal does not have the ability to deform in the process of shrinkage and solidification of the seam, it is in these places that cracks arise. In order to avoid residual stresses, it is recommended to stitch in opposite directions (counter-opposite) and from the middle to the edges, the reverse-step method is also used. Please believe personal experience. In addition, when welding multi-pass seams, each subsequent roller is tempering for the previous one (self-tempering effect), which reduces the hardening hardness of the HAZ (heat affected zone), which, together with preheating, reduces the cooling rate and avoids subsequent heat treatment.
    1. Dmitry V. 24 March 2020 13: 10 New
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      Quote: AK1972
      At the meeting point, the maximum residual welding stresses arise, because the base metal does not have the ability to deform in the process of shrinkage and solidification of the seam, it is in these places that cracks arise. In order to avoid residual stresses, it is recommended to stitch in opposite directions (counter-opposite) and from the middle to the edges, the reverse-step method is also used.


      Here - it seemed strange to me too
  14. Operator 24 March 2020 12: 53 New
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    Damn, well, to what extent the Germans were technologically backward during the WWII period — they used a much more labor-intensive manual electric welding of the armored vehicles, which largely determined the meager amount of tank production compared to the USSR.

    A separate question: how to ensure the absence of brittleness of metal in heated areas of armor during manual electric welding (the answer is no way).

    I wonder how the Americans cooked the hull of their tanks?
    1. Evgeny Fedorov 24 March 2020 13: 07 New
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      If I’m not mistaken, then the Americans also had automatic welding machines in the tank industry.
      1. Operator 24 March 2020 13: 11 New
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        Anti-Hitler technologies rule laughing
  15. Dmitry V. 24 March 2020 13: 08 New
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    Welders did not use electrodes with a diameter of more than 5 mm - it is difficult to believe this, given the thickness of the armor of German tanks.


    It is a very laborious process to fill a deep welding seam with a 5 mm electrode - therefore, the Germans had a low welding performance in the tank industry.
    A very high qualification of the welders was required to fill the seam without caverns.
  16. Dmitry V. 24 March 2020 13: 35 New
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    How far welding technology has gone now - to microprocessor control of welding currents in the process of transferring welding material.

    For example, modern welding processes of the STT type (a special invertor power supply providing STT welding - Surface Tension Transfer - droplet transfer due to the surface tension of the weld pool, are used to avoid splashing of the welding material droplet, the surface tension force of the droplet and bath already merged together " retract "a drop deep into, forming a high-quality welding seam.) allows to reduce heat transfer and, as a result, cracking of seams.
    Such a welding process is used in industry - for example, in the construction of trunk pipelines to form a root seam. The filling seam is performed by conventional sources.

    https://studopedia.ru/14_40706_protsess-STT-Surface-Tension-Technology-svarki.html
    By the way, an American company developed Lincoln Electric.

    Or Cold Metal Transfer (CMT) - cold metal transfer, revolutionary tech process from Fronius
  17. Undecim 24 March 2020 13: 45 New
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    Welders did not use electrodes with a diameter of more than 5 mm - it is difficult to believe this, given the thickness of the armor of German tanks.
    It is just not difficult to believe in this, if you have at least basic knowledge in matters of arc welding.
    In multi-pass welding, electrodes with a diameter of more than 5 mm are not used.
    Large diameter electrodes are not used for welding horizontal, vertical and ceiling seams.
  18. Ivan Tartugai 24 March 2020 21: 30 New
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    Quote from the article:
    Fascist Germany did not use automatic welding in tank factories. There was one very important explanation for this - during the main period of the war, the tank industry of the Third Reich did not suffer from a shortage of highly skilled labor, including welders.

    The author explains the lack of automatic welding among the Germans, so that the Germans had so many highly qualified welders that there was no need to introduce automatic welding, and that with the introduction of this highly qualified German welders there would be nothing to occupy. Would they really hang out on the workshop from boredom.
    Automatic electric arc welding under a flux layer will always give a higher quality of the weld than manual welding by a highly qualified welder.
    If the Germans had developed the equipment and developed the technology for automatic welding of plate steel, then they would definitely use it.
    It is a matter of life or death. The choice is small, or rather it is not.
    And in order to ensure more or less sufficient strength of the weld joint for joining thick sheets, the Germans used a very laborious spike weld, and even with dowel inserts up to 80 mm in diameter.
  19. Tests 24 March 2020 21: 44 New
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    Mikhail3 (Mikhail), dear, I worked as a welder at Zvyozdochka, and I managed the enterprise, which involved in the repair of TPP-1 and TPP-2 in Severodvinsk, as well as crane equipment of all GRTSAS enterprises, plus there was a license to work at objects of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation . He worked on the project of work at the Prirazlomnaya MLP, which SEVMSh did, in terms of installing crane equipment. The welders of SEVMASH and Zvyozdochka are a cut above those in the energy sector. By their level, welders are only at Atommash. For some reason you are talking only about the hull of the boat, not remembering the reactors. Well, the materials on the nuclear submarines, except for steel - colored and titanium.
    AK1972 (Alexey), dear, you are right at 202%. The author did not note yet unimportant points: the direct current was of what polarity, what kind of edge cutting the Germans used on different thicknesses of steel, how metal surfaces were prepared and how they prepared the electrodes, air humidity mode, its temperature, dust content and gas contamination in the workshop. Given that tilters changed, we can assume that the Germans did not cook ceiling seams.
    The author wrote about the current strength for electrodes of different diameters, but not a word about the voltage. And another important point, in armor, in addition to iron and carbon 0,4 - 0, 48% what else was, what alloying additives and in what quantity.
    Judging by the photo that the author presented in the article - OTK and SEVMASH, and Zvyozdochki such connections would not be missed from the word ABSOLUTELY. There are inflows, undercuts, external pores, fusion of the seams in the last photo of the author is not at all - three separate seams are clearly visible, even frozen metal drops away from the seam are not removed. The level of work of the Severodvinsk vocational school technician of Soviet times is in the 2nd year, before he brewed the vertical slats for X-ray, as they wrote VIRTUAL and sent him to practice in the brigade ... It’s clear that the war, but we had Paton, a welding genius, many people decided to use flux problems, automatic feeding of welding wire - solved other problems.
    1. AK1972 25 March 2020 09: 42 New
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      Quote: Tests
      AK1972 (Alexey), dear, you are right at 202%.

      Thank you, colleague Eugene. The author has not written much, but he is not a professional and is not obliged to know our little tricks. Welding in general is a complex process and many factors that are not always obvious to the layman affect the quality of the weld. In relation to chem. composition of the steel you are absolutely right. For this, there is the concept of an equivalent carbon content, and it is precisely this parameter that allows you to choose welding materials, determine the need and temperature of preheating, the need and modes of post-welding heat treatment. As for the photos of the seams, then here I agree with you and I wanted to write about it myself. At our production, the OTK controller would also not have accepted such terrible seams, and in my life I would not have allowed such a unique one for welding critical structures (this is to the author's statement about the superprofessionalism of German welders). It's always nice to talk with a colleague, as our circle is quite tight.
  20. Ivan Tartugai 25 March 2020 09: 34 New
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    Quote from the article:
    And in the Soviet Union, when evacuating large enterprises to the east, valuable personnel were lost for the industry, ...

    From the memories of Paton EO:
    From the head of the corps department (Nizhny Tagil Uralvagonzavod) I have heard such complaints more than once:
    - In the shops acute shortage of skilled hand welders, the quality of the seams suffers from this!
    And in the same summer, an event occurred that was destined to make a real revolution in the minds of factory engineers.
    Near the city, a tank hull was tested at the training ground. On the on one of its sides, the seams were welded in the old way by hand, on the other - by automatic submerged arc welding, as well as all the seams on the bow.
    The tank was subjected to brutal shelling from guns with a very short range of armor-piercing and HE shells. The very first hits of shells on board, hand-welded, caused considerable damage to the seam.
    After that, the tank was turned, and the second side, welded by an automatic machine, fell under fire.
    Shooting was conducted direct fire from an insignificant distance. Seven hits in a row! ..
    Our seams withstood, did not succumb.
    They proved to be stronger than the armor itself and continued to firmly connect the armor plates mutilated by shelling. Also, the seams on the bow were brilliantly passed the fire test, none of them passed under heavy fire.
    Twelve hits led to holes in the nose, but the seams did not suffer any damage.
    It was a complete victory. automatic high-speed welding!
    The test in conditions equal to the most difficult front-line situation, confirmed high quality automatic machines.
    I perked up. What we have always believed in has now been proven in the most visual way.
    The results of the shelling should convince everyone!