The end of the Peasant War of Stepan Razin and the fate of the chieftains

The end of the Peasant War of Stepan Razin and the fate of the chieftains
S. Kirillov. "At the Simbirsk line"


In the previous article (“Razinism. The beginning of the Peasant War) was told about the events of the turbulent 1670: the new campaign of Stepan Razin on the Volga, the first successes of the rebels, their defeat at Simbirsk. It was also mentioned that several detachments were sent by Razin to Penza, Saransk, Kozmodemyansk and some other cities.

"Field commanders" of the Peasant War


Of course, it is impossible to talk about all the "chieftains" of that time in one article. Let us try to briefly mention at least some of them. We have already talked about Vasily Usa and Fedor Sheludyak, and in the near future we will continue this story. In the meantime, a little about the other leaders of the rebel units of this Peasant War.


Kosheleva E. “The Army of Razin”

Mikhail Kharitonov, who came with Razin from the Don, took control of the vast territory between Sura and Volga, first capturing Yushansk, Tagan, Uren, Korsun, Sursk, and then Atemar, Insar, Saransk, Penza, Narovchat, Upper and Lower Lomovs. In the Penza region, he connected with detachments of other chieftains - Fedorov, Chirk and Shilov (there were rumors about Shilov that he was Stepan Razin, who was dressed in disguise). In Saransk Kharitonov managed to organize weapons workshops. Here are the “lovely letters” he sent around the district:

“We sent to you Kozakov of the Lysogorsky Sidar Ledenev and Gavril Boldyrev for assembly and the advice of the great army. And now we are in Tanbov November on the 9th day in the osprey, we have a force of 42, we have a pushak of 000, and we have half a potion of potions and a large pound. And you are welcome atamans and hammers, who wants to help us with guns and potions in a hurry day and night. And the Don Ataman wrote to us from Orzamasu that our Cossacks Prince Yury Dolgarukovo was beaten with all his troops, and he had 20 pusher, and 120 potions. Welcome to give birth to the blessed virgin Mary and the great sovereign and the father for Stepan Timofeevich, and for the entire Orthodox Christian faith ... But will you not come to us as an assembly for advice, and you will be chopped off from the great army and your wives and children will be chopped off and your houses will be rooted and your bellies and the stats will be taken by the troops. "

Kharitonov and Fedorov reached Shatsk (a city in the modern Ryazan region), but on October 17 they were driven back by detachments of Smolensk and Roslavl gentry, who were subjects of the Commonwealth even 15 years ago. Voivode Khitrovo wrote about this difficult and stubborn battle:

“Colonel Denis Shvyykovsky, with his Smolensk, Belsky and Roslava gentry, attacked the village with cruel attacks, sparing their heads, came to the thieves 'wagon train, sacked and smashed the thieves' people; a lot of the gentry was wounded by severe wounds, pierced through with peaks and bumps, some of the squeakers and bows were shot through. ”

In November 1670, Kharitonov was defeated by the troops of Prince Yu. Baryatinsky, retreated to Penza, was captured and was executed in December of this year.

Vasily Fedorov, mentioned above, was either a Saratov archer, or a soldier of the Belgorod regiment, who fled to the Don, where he "lived in the Cossacks." The rebel Fedorov was chosen as the "city chieftain" of Saratov. He was also captured and executed in December 1670.

Maxim Osipov, sent by Razin at the head of 30 Cossacks “with lovely letters to ride and take a freeman into the Cossacks”, in a short time gathered an entire army of 1500 people, armed with even guns. With this detachment, Osipov in late spring 1671 went to the rescue of Fedor Sheludyak, whose troops attacked Simbirsk, but were late. However, the appearance of Osipov caused great fright in Simbirsk, where his detachment was mistaken for a new army of rebels. With the 300 warriors remaining with him, he finally made his way to Tsaritsyn, but by that time this city was no longer controlled by the Razinets and Osipov’s detachment was completely defeated. This happened in late July - early August 1671.

Ataman Akay Bolyaev, also known as Murzakayko, operated in eastern Mordovia, the size of his detachment reached 15 thousand people. Prince Baryatinsky describes the battle with the Bolyaev rebels at the Ust-Uren settlement as a big and difficult battle:

“And they, thieves, stood behind the Kandaratka small river under the settlement, cleaning up the horses and pedestrians with regiments and putting up a cart, and 12 cannons with them ... the infantry was brought by the river, and the battle was great, and the cannon and musket shooting was unceasing, and I with all horse regiments he stepped on their horse regiments. ”

The rebels were defeated, Bolyaev was wounded, but a month later he again fought at the villages of Baevo and Turgenevo (December 7 and 8, 1670), was defeated and tried to hide in his native village of Kostyashevo (about 17 km from Saransk). Here he was extradited by fellow countrymen to the royal punishers and in December 1670 was quartered in Krasnaya Sloboda.

In the territory of Chuvashia there was a detachment of Izylbay Kabaev, in which "there were Russians, and Tatars, and a Chuvash with 3000 people." At the end of December 1670, he, together with the “Russian chieftains” Vasilyev and Bespaly, attacked the convoy of the governor Prince Baryatinsky, but was defeated at the village of Dosayevo, was captured and executed.

Ilya Ponomarev, who is also mentioned under the names of Ivanov, Popov and Dolgopolov, was a native of the city of Kad and a Mari by nationality. A description of his appearance has been preserved: "The height of the average person, the hair is light-colored, in the face is oblong, the nose is straight, oblong, the beard is small, with small blacker hairs."

With a "lovely letter" by Stepan Razin, he was seized in Kozmodemyansk district and sent to prison. But already on October 3, 1670, the inhabitants of Kozmodemyansk opened the gates to a small detachment of Razintsy (30 people), Ponomarev was released and elected ataman. After the failure of Tsivilsk, he took his detachment to Vetluzhsky volost, where the city of Unzha was taken. The frightened Solikamsk governor I. Monastyrev reported to Moscow that he “has no one to defend himself ... to be dangerous and scary.”

Ponomarev was also captured and hanged in Totma in terrible for the rebels in December 1670.

Alena Arzamasskaya (Temnikovskaya)



N. M. Obukhov. "Alena Arzamasskaya-Temnikovskaya." Reinforced concrete. 1971. Museum of Local Lore. Temnikov

Among the commanders of the rebels there was also one woman - a certain Alena, a native of the exit settlement (near Arzamas). Widowed, she went to the monastery, where she soon became known as a herbalist. Having learned about the Razin uprising, she managed to attract over 200 neighboring peasants to her side, whom she led to the Oka - initially to Kasimov, but then turned to Temnikov. Already 600 people came to this city with her.


Here her detachment connected with other rebel units. The chief chieftain was Fedor Sidorov, who in September 1670 was freed by differences from the Saransk prison.

Anonymous foreign author in the “Report on the details of the rebellion carried out in Moscow by Stenka Razin” reports that a seven-thousand army gathered under the command of Alena and Sidorov.

The boyar son M. Vedenyapin in a report dated November 28, 1670 wrote at all:

“And in Temnikov de, sovereign, there are 4000 thieves standing in the gun. Yes, in the Temnikovsky, sovereign, forest on the notches on the Arzamas road ... there are thieves from Temnikov at 10 versts 8000 with a fire battle. Yes to them ... they came from the Trotsky prison ... with a cannon and with a small gun with 300 people. "

But modern researchers believe that the total number of rebels was unlikely to exceed 5 thousand people. Their combined forces defeated the detachment of the governor of Arzamas, Leonty Shansukov.

In December 1670, Temnikovsky rebels were defeated, Sidorov managed to hide in the surrounding forests, and those remaining in the city, including Alena, were given to governor Yu.A. Dolgoruky. The executioners Alena was shocked by the fact that she silently endured all the tortures, on the basis of which it was concluded that she was a witch who did not feel pain. The author already mentioned by us, "Messages regarding the details of the rebellion ..." wrote:

“She did not flinch and showed no fear when she heard the verdict: to be burnt alive. Before she died, she wished that more people would be found who would act as they should and fight as bravely as she, then, probably, Prince Yuri would turn back. Before her death, she crossed herself ... calmly ascended a fire and was burned to ashes. "

This "Message ..." in 1671 was published in the Netherlands and Germany, and in 1672 in England and France, so in Europe they learned about this brave woman earlier than in Russia.

A certain Johann Frisch also wrote about Alena:

"A few days after his (Razin) execution, a nun was burnt, who, being with him (at the same time), like an Amazon, surpassed men with her unusual courage"
(1677 year).


K. Smirnov. "The Fight of Alena of Arzamas"

Continuation of the Peasant War


The emissaries of Razin also revolted the peasants near Efremov, Novosilsk, Tula, and Borovsk, Kashira, Yuryev-Polsky rebelled without their participation. From October to December 1670, a five-thousand detachment of neighboring peasants, led by ataman Meshcheryakov, besieged and stormed Tambov twice. But the rebels left without a leader were defeated in the Volga region, in the Tambov region and in Slobozhanshchina (Sloboda Ukraine).

Returning to the Don was probably a fatal mistake of Stepan Razin: he had nothing to do there, almost all the Cossacks sympathizing with him were already in his army, and the elders and “domovites” were not enthusiastic about the return of the rebel chieftain, fearing the punitive expedition of the Moscow troops. In Astrakhan, however, nothing threatened Razin, and his name alone would attract thousands of people ready to fight under his command.


Portrait of Stepan Razin. Engraving by an unknown author, XVII century

But Razin was not going to give up. When Vasily Us asked him what to do with the treasury kept by him, the ataman replied that he would come to Astrakhan in the spring, and ordered the construction of the plows “more than before”. At that time, detachments from Astrakhan, Krasniy Yar, Black Yar, Saratov, Samara and other cities arrived in Tsaritsyn — about 8 thousand people gathered in 370 plows. With the Astrakhan people Fyodor Sheludyak came there, who was chosen as ataman in Tsaritsyno.

Betrayal


It is difficult to say how events would develop further if the dominant Cossacks, led by the military chieftain Korney Yakovlev (godfather of Stepan Razin) did not storm Kagalnik, where the chieftain was located. At the end of April 1671, the leader of the rebels was captured and given to the tsarist authorities.


"Razin is caught and iron is laid on him." Engraved by David from Monnet, State Historical museum

Until 1979, on the wall of the Resurrection Cathedral in the village of Starocherkasskaya, one could see the chains with which, according to legend, Kornila Yakovlev fettered the captured godfather - Stepan Razin. They were stolen during the reconstruction and are now replaced by duplicates:


In the same cathedral there is the grave of Kornila Yakovlev.


Resurrection Military Cathedral, the village of Starocherkasskaya

The traitors paid them thirty pieces of silver - a “special salary” in the amount of three thousand silver rubles, four thousand quarters of bread, 200 buckets of wine, 150 pounds of gunpowder and lead.

Stepan Razin and his brother Frol were brought to Moscow on June 2, 1671. According to the testimony of an Englishman who remained unknown, about a mile from the city of rebels, a prepared cart with a gallows met on which the chieftain was placed:

“The silk caftan, which had been worn on it before, was torn off the rebel, dressed in tatters and placed under the gallows, chained with an iron chain to the upper crossbar by the neck. Both hands were chained to the gallows, legs spread. His brother Frolka was tied with an iron chain to the cart and walked on her side. This picture was observed by "a great many people of high and low rank."

The investigation was short-lived: continuous torture lasted 4 days, but Stepan Razin was silent, and on June 6, 1671 he and his brother were sentenced: "Execute with evil death - to quart."

Since the ataman was already excommunicated and anathematized by Patriarch Joseph, he was denied a confession before his execution.

Thomas Hebdon - a representative of the British Russian company, who became an eyewitness to the execution, sent a message about it to the Hamburg newspaper "Northern Mercury":

“Razin was put on a seven-foot-tall carriage specially made up for such an occasion: there he stood so that all the people — and there were more than 100 of them — could see him. A gallows was erected on the wagon, under which he stood while he was being transported to the place of execution. He was tightly chained: one very large one walked around the hips and descended to his feet, the other he was chained by the neck. In the middle of the gallows was a nailed board that supported his head; his arms were stretched to the side and nailed to the edges of the wagon, and blood flowed from them. His brother, too, was in fetters on his arms and legs, and his hands were riveted to the wagon, for which he had to go. He seemed very dumbfounded, so the leader of the rebels often cheered him up, saying once to him like this:
“You know that we started such a thing that even with even greater success we could not expect a better end.”

Stop the quote to see Hebdon's drawing:


And below is a shot from the Soviet film "Stepan Razin", shot in 1939:


Continuation of the quote:

“This Razin kept his angry appearance of a tyrant all the time and, as was evident, was not at all afraid of death. His royal majesty showed mercy to us, Germans and other foreigners, as well as to the Persian ambassador, and we were guarded by many soldiers under guard of us so that we could see this execution better than others and tell our compatriots about it. Some of us were even splattered with blood. ”



"The execution of Stepan Razin." Engraving by R. Bong according to a drawing by Medvedev

Stepan Razin was quartered at Frontal Place, and his brother Frol extended his torment for several years, shouting “the word and deed of the Sovereign” from the scaffold.

Razin, according to Marzius,

“He was so adamant in spirit that already without arms and legs, he kept his usual voice and facial expression when, looking at the surviving brother, who was led in chains, he shouted to him:“ Be quiet, dog! ”


Portrait of Stepan Razin. From Becker Engraving


Cliff of Stepan Razin (Datura Mountain), Saratov Region, height 186 meters. In 1870, A. Navrotsky dedicated a poem to him, which after 26 years was put to music (“There is a cliff on the Volga”). Nearby peasants (including German colonists) claimed that they often saw here the ghost of the executed Stepan Razin

Stepan Razin was excommunicated, and therefore, according to some reports, his remains were later buried in the Muslim (Tatar) cemetery (outside the Kaluga Gate).

Frol Razin promised to give the authorities "thieves 'treasures" and "thieves' letters" hidden in a tarred jug, but neither the mysterious jug nor the treasures were found. About his execution, which took place on Bolotnaya Square on May 26, 1676, the Secretary of the Netherlands Embassy Balthazar Koyet reported:

“He’s been in prison for almost six years, where he was tortured in every possible way, hoping that he would say something else. He was taken through the Pokrovsky gate to the Zemsky courtyard, and from here, accompanied by a judge and hundreds of foot archers, to the place of execution, where his brother was also executed. Here they read a sentence appointing him to behead and deciding that his head would be planted on a pole. When his head was chopped off, as is customary here, and put on a stake, everyone went home. ”

On the same day as Stepan Razin (June 6, 1671), “a young man whom the chieftain passed off as the elder prince (Aleksei Alekseevich)” was executed at Lobnoye Ploshad, as described in a previous article. His real name remained unknown: he did not name him even under the most cruel tortures.

It has been suggested that under this name Ataman Maxim Osipov (mentioned at the beginning of the article) or the Kabardian prince Andrei Cherkassky who was captured by the Razin could be hiding. However, it is known for certain that Osipov was captured only in July 1671 - a month after the execution of False Alexei. As for Andrei Cherkassky, he remained alive and after the suppression of the uprising continued to serve Alexei Mikhailovich.

It is curious that at the end of the reign of Alexei Mikhailovich appeared False Simeon (posing as another son of this ruler from Maria Miloslavskaya, who was 12 years younger than Tsarevich Alexei). He "appeared" with the Cossacks, it is believed that this impostor was a certain Warsaw tradesman Matyushka.

Campaign of Fedor Sheludyak


Before the execution, Stepan Razin proudly declared to the whole people (and the authorities collected about a hundred thousand people):

“You think you killed Razin, but you did not catch the real one; and there are many more Razin who will avenge my death. "

These words were heard and spread throughout Russia.

Already after the uprising was suppressed in the city of Pronsk, one of the artisans heard from a soldier Larion Panin that “the thief and traitor Stepan Razin and his thieves' rabble had been beaten and his de, Stenka, had been wounded,” said: “Where can you beat Stenka Razin!”

Panin reported to him the governor, and these seditious words scared the local authorities so much that the case was investigated in Moscow, where the verdict was pronounced:

“The great sovereign pointed out, and the boyars sentenced peasant Eropkin Simoshka Bessonov to punish him for such words: beat him mercilessly, but he had to cut his tongue so that henceforth it wouldn’t be different to speak such words.”

And the comrades-in-arms of the rebellious ataman really continued the struggle after his arrest and death. They still controlled the Lower Volga region, and in the spring of 1671 Fedor Sheludyak again led the rebels to Simbirsk. On June 9 (after three days of the execution of Razin) this city was besieged, but it was not possible to take it. Having suffered heavy losses during two assaults, which were led by the ataman Fedor Sveshnikov and Tsaritsyn resident Ivan Bylinin, the rebels withdrew. In addition, news came of a serious illness, and then of the death of Vasily Usa, who remained in Astrakhan. This chieftain was buried with all sorts of honors, in all the Astrakhan churches a memorial service was served for him. For the rebels this was a very heavy loss, since Vasily Us was the second person in their midst after Razin, and even European newspapers reported on his death (for example, “Dutch Newsletters” - “Chimes”). A few days before his death, Metropolitan Joseph and governor S. Lvov, captured in 1670 near the Black Yar, were accused of relations with the Moscow authorities and Don foremen, which they issued to the authorities of Stepan Razin. Until that time, one and the other, according to Fabrizius, were not subjected to special harassment and even received their share in the division of “Duvan” - along with all the inhabitants of the city: “Even the Metropolitan, General and Voivode should have taken their share of the spoils”.

As for Simbirsk, in 1672 for the “double brave defense” from the troops of Razin and Sheludyak this city was granted a coat of arms depicting a lion standing on three paws with its tongue sticking out, a sword in his left paw, a three-petal crown over his head.


The first coat of arms of Simbirsk

Siege of Astrakhan by tsarist troops


Fyodor Sheludyak brought only two thousand people from Simbirsk to Tsaritsyn, but there was not enough food in this city, scurvy began, and therefore the ataman decided to leave for Astrakhan. It was he who led the resistance to the approaching tsarist troops (30 thousand people), which were led by the Simbir governor I. B. Miloslavsky (he defended this city during his siege by the army of Razin). The number of defenders of Astrakhan did not exceed 6 thousand people. Despite the obvious superiority in forces and the reinforcements received (detachments of Prince K.M. Cherkassky), the siege of this city lasted three months.

And on the Don at that time, many "malleable people" refused to "kiss the cross" on fidelity to the tsar.


Cossack Council

Only after three days of unrest on the Cossack Circle in Cherkassk, Kornil Yakovlev managed to convince the Don Army to take the oath. But from the campaign to the rebellious Astrakhan, the Don people evaded, saying that they expect a raid of the Crimean Tatars.

Finally, Prince I. Miloslavsky, who led the troops besieging Astrakhan, made a solemn promise that, if surrendered, "not a single hair will fall from the citizens' heads."

On November 27, 1671, Astrakhan was surrendered, and, most striking, Miloslavsky kept his word. But the joy of the Astrakhan was premature: in July 1672, Prince Y. N. Odoevsky, the former head of the Detective Order, who did not take any oaths, was appointed city governor instead of Miloslavsky. Astrakhan by this time was completely pacified, there was no unrest and no reason for mass executions, but they followed - and immediately. One of the first was captured by Fyodor Sheludyak, who was hanged after long and cruel tortures.

The Dutch officer in the Russian service, Ludwig Fabrizius, who in no case can be "accused" of sympathy for the rebels, wrote about Odoevsky:

“He was a ruthless man. He was very fierce against the rebels ... He raged to the point of horror: he ordered many who live to quarter, who to burn alive, who to cut out of the throat, who to bury alive in the ground ... If someone was looking for someone out of compassion to the villain that it’s still a sin to do this to Christians, he replied that it was still too soft for such dogs, and he immediately ordered the one who interceded another time to hang up. Such was the fate of the guilty and innocent. He was so accustomed to human torment that in the morning he couldn’t eat anything without having been in a dungeon. There he ordered, sparing no strength, to whip, fry, poke on the rack. But then he could eat and drink for three. "

According to Fabricius, as a result of such official zeal Odoevsky in the city "there were only old women and small children."

If you believe the Dutchman (and there is no reason not to believe him in this case), it should be recognized that Astrakhan was completely ruined not by an external enemy and not rebels, but by a government official, and not in the process of suppressing the uprising, but several months after its completion. And this governor was far from the only sadist and a bloody maniac who surpassed in their cruelty even the atamans Stepan Razin, who were not even distinguished by special scrupulousness. In other places, the level of cruelty of the new bosses also “went off scale”.

The revenge of the authorities was truly terrible: for three months, royal punishers executed more than 11 thousand people. Others were beaten with whips; thousands of people had their tongues cut out or their hands chopped off.

Johann Justus Marcius, who defended his dissertation on the uprising of Stepan Razin in 1674 in Wittenberg:

“Indeed, the massacre was horrific, and those who fell into the hands of the victors were awaited by severe cruelties as punishment for high treason: some were nailed to the cross, others were put on a stake, many were hooked by their ribs.”


Leontiev O. “Reprisal against the rebels of Stepan Razin”

The appointment of Odoevsky and similar people as governors of the conquered regions, on the one hand, testifies to Alexei Mikhailovich’s fear of a new outburst of popular anger, and on the other hand, confirms the well-known thesis that he does not have the talent of a statesman: the tsar easily succumbed to external influences and could not calculate the long-term consequences decisions made. The fire of the Razin rebellion was literally filled with blood, but the memory of the atrocities of the tsar’s boyars and landowners, avenging their fear and humiliation, remained forever among the people. And when, after 100 years, Emelyan Pugachev “commanded” the nobles “to catch, execute and hang, and to act in the same way as they, without Christianity, repaired the peasants”, a new civil war, according to According to Pushkin, "shook Russia from Siberia to Moscow and from the Kuban to the Murom forests":

“All the black people were for Pugachev. The clergy favored him, not only priests and monks, but also archimandrites and bishops. One nobility was openly on the side of the government ... The class of clerks and officials was still small and decidedly belonged to the common people. The same can be said of officers who have served out from the soldiers. Many of the latter were in the gangs of Pugachev. "

(A. S. Pushkin, “Remarks on the riot.”)

But back to Astrakhan: the deceived citizens tried to escape from the city then. Some made their way to Slobozhanshchina, others - to the Urals or even to Siberia. Some of them went north to the Old Believer Transfiguration Solovetsky Monastery: its rector Nikanor received everyone.


“View of the Solovetsky Monastery, printed from ancient planks stored in the sacristy there”, D. Rovinsky St. Petersburg, 1884

Here they died on January 22, 1676, after the black man Feoktist indicated a secret passage to the tsarist troops besieging the monastery. The massacre of the defenders of the monastery and its monks shocked even by no means sentimental foreign mercenaries, some of whom left memories of this amazing, which lasted from 1668 to 1676. the war of an entire state against one monastery.


The massacre of the participants of the Solovki uprising

The death of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich


And Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich was dying at that time — painfully and terribly: “He was relaxed before death, and before that he was convicted, and we are tormented by endless torment.”


Elval. "The death of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich on January 29, 1676." Engraving, early 1840s.

It seemed to the Tsar, who had organized cruel large-scale persecution of his compatriots who remained faithful to the former rites, it seemed that the Solovetsky monks rubbed his body with saws and he screamed screaming at the whole palace, imploring them:

“My Lord, the fathers of Solovki, the elders! Freaking off, let me repent of my theft, supposedly I have unjustly done, rejected the Christian faiths, playing, crucified Christ ... and bowed to your Solovetsky monastery ”.

He even sent an order to end the siege of the Solovetsky monastery, but the messenger was late for a week.

Alexei Mikhailovich Romanov died on January 29 (February 8), 1676, but the unrest of the peasants did not subside even after his death, breaking out in different parts of the state. They managed to eliminate their last foci only in the 1680s.
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  1. Korsar4 11 February 2020 06: 27 New
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    +8
    Blood poured without ceasing, from all sides.
    1. Boris55 11 February 2020 08: 08 New
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      +15
      Quote: Korsar4
      Blood poured without ceasing, from all sides.

      The civil war is the most merciless, and the war for faith is all the more so.

      Thanks to the author for all the articles.
      1. Olgovich 11 February 2020 11: 19 New
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        -9
        Quote: Boris55
        and the war for faith - even more so.

        Was it an uprising ... for faith? request

        А will you not go to us gather for advice, and you be from the great army in execution, and your wives and children will be chopped down and your houses will be rootedand your bellies and stats will be taken on the troops. "

        it’s immediately obvious that the “popular” uprising and the way to attract supporters is very convincing. yes
        Traitors paid them thirty pieces of silver - “special salary” in the amount of three thousand silver rubles, four thousand quarters of bread, 200 buckets of wine, 150 pounds of gunpowder and lead.

        and who gave the author the right to call law abiding Cossacks ... "traitors"? belay

        They stayed loyal to the king and the state. Unlike the apostate Razin and the rest traitorshis associates.

        It is significant that many other of these traitors gave their same villagers and countrymen.
        expected in punishment for high treason cruel torments:
        Treason has always been punished cruelly, usually death.
        Everywhere.
        1. Mitya2424 11 February 2020 13: 28 New
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          +5
          They did not swear the worst traitors in August 1671, and Razin surrendered in April of that year.
          1. Olgovich 11 February 2020 15: 00 New
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            -8
            Quote: Mitya2424
            The most complete traitors, they swore to August 1671, and Razin surrendered in April of that year.

            Is that um sarcasm? recourse
            In August, they swore allegiance, and in APRIL ...- surrendered?

            By the way, with this formulation of the question:
            But will you come to us without going to the council for advice, and you will be from the great army in execution, and your wives and children will be cut down and your houses will be rooted, and your bellies and statues will be taken on the troops "
            -You will give any oaths, but, as we see, insincere ....
          2. zloybond 12 February 2020 17: 10 New
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            +2
            I think so - swore allegiance to the king - serve. Broke the oath - do not be surprised when the harsh and merciless hand of justice punishes you. All the oaths know from the very beginning that punishment is harsh in case of anything. They always did this to traitors. Those who remained faithful to the oath and did not commit treason - we can only say, well, thank God that they are not traitors. It has always been and always will be. The oath is a holy cause. My ancestors swore allegiance to the Tsar of Moscow in 1652. And this date was passed on to all generations as the immutability of the oath. Well, thieves and traitors - what to take from them - if you can’t use them with good use in hard labor - then only execution. Why spend public money on the maintenance of a traitor. My opinion.
        2. Alexander Greene 11 February 2020 18: 54 New
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          +7
          Quote: Olgovich
          They remained loyal to the king and the state. Unlike the apostate Razin and other traitors, his comrades-in-arms.

          Neither Stepan Razin nor his associates were traitors. They stood up for their own, for the oppressed Russian people. And it was not a religious, but a class struggle of the times of feudalism, and Razin was given out not just by home-grown peasants, but by a cohort of future rural kulaks, which their offspring would turn into with the development of capitalism.
          1. Olgovich 12 February 2020 08: 19 New
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            -6
            Quote: Alexander Green
            They stood up for their own, for the oppressed Russian people.

            Robbing Persia, Dagestan and Russian cities?
            Quote: Alexander Green
            and the class struggle of the time of feudalism

            Aha: therefore, he swore allegiance to the highest feudal lord of the opposite class - "the king, whom he carried with him
            Quote: Alexander Green
            and a cohort of future rural fists,

            Fists ..- Cossacks? fool lol
            1. Alexander Greene 12 February 2020 18: 24 New
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              Quote: Olgovich
              Robbing Persia, Dagestan and Russian cities?

              He did not rob the city; he expropriated the expropriators, distributing the good to the poor inhabitants.
              Quote: Olgovich
              Aha: therefore, he swore allegiance to the highest feudal lord of the opposite class - "the king, whom he carried with him

              You are building a historian out of yourself, as you do not understand that at that time there was no proletariat, there was no Marxism either, so the leaders of the uprising had to look for a good king.
              Quote: Olgovich
              Fists ..- Cossacks?

              First of all, do you hear, for the first time, that the Cossacks under capitalism split into fists, middle peasants and poor.
              Secondly, judging by your facsimile in the form of a silly face, you didn’t understand the book. Sorry, sick.
  2. Dur_mod 11 February 2020 07: 19 New
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    In Ukraine, current officials only come to steal, knowing that they won’t be anything for it, the power system will cover up, if they want to bribe someone who needs it. Why in Europe, especially in France, the people immediately go on a riot and the authorities sooner or later make concessions to them, the officials there are afraid to sneeze so that they are not removed, and we have a people and an inert mass?
    Ps There are few real violent ones, so there are no leaders?
    1. sivuch 11 February 2020 12: 00 New
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      In fact, officials are stealing not only in Ukraine. In Israel, the former prime minister was planted
      1. Catfish 11 February 2020 14: 04 New
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        It is a pity that only in Israel, we have here an uncopped field here. And not only with officials. laughing
        1. Pane Kohanku 11 February 2020 15: 09 New
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          we have here at the field itself uncopped. And not only with officials.

          It’s interesting to look at the list of presidents of South Korea. A good part of them became owners of criminal cases. hi one even committed suicide, however, having already retired.
  3. Lamata 11 February 2020 07: 36 New
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    Thanks to the author. That's just about Alena, there is a splint in the article, Alena's saber fight with someone)))) It could not be)))))) women and weapons at that time things are not compatible.
    1. Phil77 11 February 2020 08: 09 New
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      Good morning to all!
      Quote: Lamata
      That's just about Alena, in the article there is a popular print, Alena's saber fight with someone)

      Well, after all, it depends on what woman! And many thanks to the author for an interesting cycle!
      1. Lamata 11 February 2020 08: 52 New
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        A peasant and a nun where is a saber fight, and even a horse learns? In the cloister? or peasant community? even let the bourgeois, where to study, and what was the attitude to the woman at that time, read?
        1. Pane Kohanku 11 February 2020 10: 26 New
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          A peasant and a nun where is a saber fight, and even a horse learns?

          Igor, it seems, Pugachev also had a similar "Valkyrie warrior" ... Just from either the Cossacks or the Bashkirs. what I could be wrong!
          1. Lamata 11 February 2020 18: 45 New
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            The first time I've heard!!!
            1. Pane Kohanku 11 February 2020 18: 50 New
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              The first time I've heard!!!

              well, he was married to a Cossack. But she did not seem to participate in the hostilities.
              Apparently, I recalled the image of a young Bashkir girl on a horse and with a bow from the novel "Emelyan Pugachev". There was such a heroine, she fought for the rebels, I don’t remember the name, I read it for a long time ... or is it from the Faramund novel ... or I rave again ... Well, anything can happen! Romance, sir! drinks
              1. Lamata 11 February 2020 19: 05 New
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                Not, oh, that I once married him on some Bashkir woman a long time ago, but before that the Cossacks married what estuary, despite the fact that he already had a legal wife.
          2. Aviator_ 13 February 2020 11: 14 New
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            It seems that Pugachev had a similar Tatar. I didn’t see any documents about it, it is described in Pavlenko’s work of art “Emelyan Pugachev”.
            1. Pane Kohanku 13 February 2020 11: 33 New
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              I didn’t see any documents about it, it is described in Pavlenko’s work of art “Emelyan Pugachev”.

              it will be necessary to re-read. I read for a long time! request
        2. Phil77 11 February 2020 10: 29 New
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          So after all, it’s not mentioned anywhere that she participated in logging. Well, this is how the artist saw her image, slightly embellished his right. Joan of d'Arc is also almost everywhere depicted in armor, which does not mean that she did not climb out of them . hi
          1. Lamata 11 February 2020 20: 14 New
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            It is truth too. accepted)))
      2. Catfish 11 February 2020 15: 14 New
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        Hello, Sergey! hi Someone even sees her, but I doubt that this nun would look that way.
        1. Korsar4 11 February 2020 17: 39 New
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          “Ah, noblewoman! Beauty is molded, scarlet with lips, eyebrows allied ”(c).
          1. Catfish 11 February 2020 18: 01 New
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            “Ah, noblewoman! Beauty sculpt

            I agree, especially when fried, under a hundred.
            1. Pane Kohanku 11 February 2020 18: 37 New
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              I agree, especially when fried, under a hundred.

              I look, the fighting cat has dispersed. wink
              This is not our method. With the ladies it is necessary to be more humane - call an exorcist! drinks
              1. Catfish 11 February 2020 19: 20 New
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                ... I see, the fighting Cat has dispersed.


                If you believe the Strugatsky - “Fight”. smile
                No, I'm luring minusers. See for yourself, Golovan was kicked out, but his work lives on. request
                1. Phil77 11 February 2020 19: 45 New
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                  Where did he go? Am I missing something? request
                  1. Catfish 11 February 2020 19: 58 New
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                    Ebanany him the other day, for arrogance and rudeness ... By common efforts. And you, my friend, are skipping. sad
                    1. Phil77 11 February 2020 20: 09 New
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                      It’s clear, no. I’m not skipping. I’m just reading Becket, I’m enjoying a classic English detective story. The action takes place in the village, the protagonist is a former Londoner, and now a village doctor. Are you not interested in the topic of Chinese pirates? I still remember with pleasure your cycle on pirates of the Western world. hiPalm trees, white sand, mulattos ... and! Well, then you yourself know.
                      1. Catfish 11 February 2020 20: 13 New
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                        Do you vote for Madame Wong, or for an earlier time?
                      2. Phil77 11 February 2020 20: 16 New
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                        Well, you can start from the Middle Ages, and there it will slowly reach Wong. Why not the cycle? It seems to me that many will be interested.
                      3. Catfish 11 February 2020 20: 28 New
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                        I agree, it remains to persuade Valery. smile
                        Palm trees, white sand, mulattos ... and! Well, then you yourself know.

                        Of course I know, well, where are we going without Antonov Tank. drinks
                      4. Phil77 11 February 2020 20: 36 New
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                        Ha, ha, ha! * Suspicious, always suspicious! *. I don’t remember from which movie the phrase !!! laughing laughing laughing
                      5. Phil77 11 February 2020 20: 51 New
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                        I got it! In the original, the phrase goes like this: * Guessed, damned. He was always smart ... * M. Bulgakov. “Master and Margarita.” I apologize. sad sad sad
        2. Pane Kohanku 11 February 2020 23: 40 New
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          No, I'm luring minusers. See for yourself, Golovan was kicked out, but his work lives on.

          I have not noticed yet. soldier as he was kicked out, no one minus. Think for yourself.
          1. Catfish 12 February 2020 00: 34 New
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            Yes, I understood everything. smile drinks
    2. Phil77 11 February 2020 19: 13 New
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      Greetings Konstantin! Ek, you were raging, right. laughing As Nikolai rightly remarked, by the way. Good evening to the distinguished assembly! So, he quite rightly remarked: this is not our method!
      1. Catfish 11 February 2020 19: 23 New
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        Hello, Sergey. But what is OUR method after all, because "calling the exorcist" is certainly not our method, in Russia they didn’t know such a word, say, they will beat us for swearing in a public place. laughing
        1. Phil77 11 February 2020 19: 27 New
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          And in Russia, a reprimand was used for this purpose! Such a special 20-minute prayer. But I read it, yes, the priest admitted to this action. That's something like that.
    3. Korsar4 11 February 2020 21: 02 New
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      “They tied Galya to the pine with braids” (c).
  • polar fox 11 February 2020 08: 18 New
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    Quote: Lamata
    women and weapons at the time, things are not compatible.

    Cossacks were chopped up no worse than husbands ... the peasant women were also not very inferior ... judging by their ancestors.
    1. Lamata 11 February 2020 08: 51 New
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      Cossack may be, but not a nun and a hooker. Weapons to the peasants were forbidden to have.
      1. Fishery 11 February 2020 18: 57 New
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        it is unlikely that she was born a nun) but the fact that the monks fought quite successfully is periodically not a secret.
        1. Lamata 11 February 2020 20: 16 New
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          So among the monks, then how many were left. and just healthy men. Recall the siege of Solovki in the 19th century insolently, the Trinity Sergius Lavra in troubled times. Monasteries were not only the concentration of spiritual life but also fortresses.
      2. Marine engineer 11 February 2020 19: 08 New
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        Weapons to the peasants were forbidden to have.

        Could you explain how it was legalized in the described period? Thank.
        1. Fishery 11 February 2020 20: 42 New
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          )) You do not confuse with China and Japan? there were guns and squeals on the nightingales in the monastery, peasants and axes were always among the peasants, flail, and the spear, by the way, is not much different from the spear) will fly into the chest and the chain mail will not save.
        2. Fishery 11 February 2020 20: 58 New
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          The ability of black-sown peasants to own weapons, in particular bow and arrows, should be associated with the development of fur trade in the north and northeast of Russia in the XNUMXth century.

          In these regions, local and patrimonial land tenure was poorly developed, therefore only a set of young people with hunting skills made it possible to implement the principle of compulsory service from the land.
        3. Fishery 11 February 2020 21: 00 New
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          all peasants owned a horn and an ax, and this was taken into account even in military campaigns when they were mobilized, and was considered a full-fledged weapon.
          1. Lamata 11 February 2020 21: 50 New
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            Did they also own a saber? or halberd? no, more than the peasants did not have them. And the ax and the horn, yes. There were hunters too, especially north and Siberia, I do not argue, Avot serf Russia, no.
            1. Marine engineer 11 February 2020 22: 55 New
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              The peasants are practical people, what kind of saber and halberd in the household is good? I believe this inventory was not in the households of both the French and German peasants.
              It’s another matter of stag beetle and bear and the boyar (merchant) to plant on it, fat as they say "salt, sugar to taste."
              About "serf Russia", here I think you need to be careful. Serfs in the time of Razin are not serfs in the time of Saltychikha.
            2. Fishery 11 February 2020 23: 07 New
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              and when the slingshot or arrow flies from the serf or from the posadskyi the difference is big?)) a saber to a peasant on foot unnecessarily, the ax is quite a weapon, but hornbills and bows were used in the war of 1812 and later
        4. Lamata 11 February 2020 21: 48 New
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          I won’t say for sure, I’ve studied the history of state and law for a long time, but the peasants were not allowed to have cold steel and firearms, exceptions, axes, knives, household equipment, and guns too,
          1. Marine engineer 11 February 2020 22: 15 New
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            "The peasants were not allowed to have a cold weapon and a firearm"

            I believe you are mistaken, the "permit system" and the Russian Guard were still very, very far away.
            1. Lamata 12 February 2020 08: 30 New
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              but the power was, and vigil.
  • Korsar4 11 February 2020 08: 46 New
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    Alena Arzamasskaya - an amazing image. Epic. And her bow, which they could not pull - like Odysseus.
    1. Phil77 11 February 2020 10: 32 New
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      Well, yes! A kind of Vasilisa Mikulishna. angry
  • Stirbjorn 11 February 2020 10: 27 New
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    Good article series! Author's note administration good
    1. DMB 75 11 February 2020 19: 52 New
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      I join, I read it with great pleasure !!! Now, I hope to read a series of articles from the author about Emelyan Pugachev!
    2. Kote Pan Kokhanka 11 February 2020 20: 16 New
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      Quote: Stirbjorn
      Good article series! Author's note administration good

      And award a prize !!! good
  • Operator 11 February 2020 10: 49 New
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    "The traitors were paid their thirty pieces of silver - a" special salary "in the amount of three thousand silver rubles, four thousand quarters of bread, 200 buckets of wine, 150 pounds of gunpowder and lead", - the author got confused in three pines: the Don Cossacks who followed the ataman Razin and nominated the false prince and false patriarch (as to the Troubles) were traitors to the Russian state.
    1. karabass 11 February 2020 13: 48 New
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      Your statement is incorrect from a legal point of view - the Cossacks, the Don Cossacks, in particular at that time, were not citizens of the then Russia, and therefore were not traitors.
      It’s just that people simply lived poorly, and at that time it was humiliating to plow the land for the Cossack, and besides, there was a direct prohibition for renegades who wanted to humiliate themselves with black work: “whoever plows (the land) —that to beat and rob
      Therefore, the Cossacks are not traitors, but honest, kind people whom the Lord himself commanded to rob and kill the rich, so as not to starve to death!
      1. Trilobite Master 11 February 2020 18: 52 New
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        Quote: karabass
        there was a direct prohibition, under pain of the death penalty: - "whoever plows (the land) - beat and rob him

        In the 90s, little brothers who wanted to settle down and start their own business were literally told the following: "if you are a brother, then live by concepts, and if a huckster, then pay like everyone else." Very similar. smile
        Quote: karabass
        Therefore, the Cossacks are not traitors, but honest, kind people,

        Well, yes, yes ... Honest, so to speak, expropriators. smile In my childhood, in my childhood mind, for some time I understood the name of the game "Cossacks-robbers" just as I wrote it, that is, for me it was one concept, and not a juxtaposition of one and the other. It turned out I was thinking correctly. smile
        By the way, about the ban on working on the ground - for me this is news. If not difficult, explain in more detail. In which regions he practiced, how did the Cossack majority relate to him, how in practice he was implemented, etc. Really interesting.
        1. karabass 11 February 2020 19: 45 New
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          I can say for sure that the Donets had a direct ban, I don’t know about the others. The Don was forbidden for two reasons: firstly, there were such Chigi people - they lived in the upper Don, then, as the Horde collapsed, they seamlessly joined the Cossacks, they cultivated the land. Also in the lower reaches there were many fugitives from Russia who, after being "taken in", were accepted into the Cossacks, but secretly tried to sow the plots secretly. the old Cossacks believed that it was possible to keep livestock for the Cossack, to trade (it was a particularly honorable occupation) to fight, but in no case could one pick their hands on the ground (at that time a terrible shame) Therefore, a direct ban was introduced on the land cultivation by Cossacks on pain of the death penalty. Canceled this ban Peter 1
          1. Trilobite Master 11 February 2020 20: 58 New
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            I had a certain idea of ​​the Cossacks at this time and it completely does not correspond to what you write. I was always sure that the bulk of the men who came to the Don were engaged in agriculture, at worst, cattle breeding, sort of cowboy cowboys, smile and only the most marginal (or, conversely, elite, it’s how to look) layer existed solely due to the robbery of neighbors or their co-religionists. In the latter case, this robbery could take the form of a regular tribute "for protection."
            Below you write about the existence of the Cossack state, but this your thesis is completely contrary to the thesis of the prohibition of cultivation, because then the "state" simply does not have any economic base - there is simply no one to collect "taxes" from.
            Until you convinced me.
            It would be interesting to familiarize yourself with the sources of your knowledge.
            1. karabass 12 February 2020 08: 53 New
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              There are many sources, if you have a desire to find this data is not difficult
              Cossack foremen were paid a tenth of military production (to the treasury)
              the same fee was taken from Armenian Jewish and Russian merchants (the Cossack did not pay duties) for the right to trade. Tatar merchants (only Crimeans, the Nogai were banned from entering the Don army) also traded duty-free)
              Caught Armenian slave traders (Tatars and Jews were allowed) were chopped off - today they chopped off his heels, tomorrow just a little bit, the day after tomorrow yet, and so until he dies
  • Undecim 11 February 2020 13: 31 New
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    Quote: Operator
    the author became entangled in three pines: the Don Cossacks were the traitors of the Russian state, who followed ataman Razin and nominated the false prince and false patriarch (as in the Troubles).

    The author, obviously, as a historian, was formed during the Soviet era, so he did not fornication in the pines, but followed the line of the Marxist perception of the movement, traditional for Soviet historiography, led by S.T. Razin, as one of the culmination points of the social protest of the Russian masses.
    The fact that the protest was precisely “social” and not “economic” should be emphasized, because this, apparently, is one of the reasons why in the post-Soviet scientific space the themes of popular movements in pre-revolutionary Russia sharply lost their former attractiveness and popularity .
    To understand the issue, it is worth recalling the difference between “exploitation” and “oppression”.
    "Exploitation" is an economic category, profit-making by the class of owners of the means of production by appropriation of labor by direct producers, working people.
    "Oppression" is a social category, suppression of the will, emotions, consciousness of a person, deprivation of his rights and opportunities for a free life and development. The highest form of social oppression is the exploitation of man by man.
    Obviously, just this moment in the realities of the modern state, the question of peasant wars sharply pushed aside not even a second, but a very distant plan. A modern state does not need advertising of social protest at all.
  • Operator 11 February 2020 14: 52 New
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    Quote: karabass
    Cossacks, Don in particular at that time were not citizens of then Russia

    At that time, Russia was not a democracy, but a monarchy, so the Cossacks were subjects, of course.

    And in which country were subjects allowed to nominate from their midst a false prince to seize power in this very autocratic form? laughing
    1. karabass 11 February 2020 15: 42 New
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      On August 28, 1671, Don Cossacks became part of the Russian state
      "To go under the Moscow Tsar, and whoever doesn’t agree to beat and rob"
      And BEFORE this number, they were no one's subjects
      Therefore, in order to put forward the prince to seize power in a neighboring state, they did not need ANY permission, just the desire and the possibility
      1. Operator 11 February 2020 15: 47 New
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        Something you completely divorced from reality - the Don Cossack army was created by the diploma of Tsar Ivan the Terrible 99 years before the date you specified.

        But even if you take your word for it, it turns out that the main core of the Razintsy on the territory of the Russian Kingdom generally had the status of interventionists laughing
        1. karabass 11 February 2020 15: 52 New
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          No need to take a word, everything is in the archives, Until the date I mentioned, the donors sent EMBASSIES and AMBASSADORS to neighboring states, including Moscow! And were an independent state
          Yes, in the status of interventionists, not traitors! Do you recognize?
          1. Operator 11 February 2020 15: 54 New
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            In my reality, the Don Army area was originally part of the Russian Kingdom.

            Ambassadors in that period are representatives of the present.
            1. Senior seaman 11 February 2020 17: 46 New
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              In this case, you have an alternative reality.
              You can talk about a certain vassality, but not about a single state.
          2. Trilobite Master 11 February 2020 19: 20 New
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            Quote: karabass
            And were an independent state

            The whole question is precisely this: were they generally a state, that is, a subject of international law?
            In my opinion, they weren’t, simply because they did not have the institutions necessary for carrying out the state functions. So, freemen. Without law, without order.
            Once again, I recall the 90s, I have a lot of analogies with them today, the topic, apparently this.
            Here in St. Petersburg, in the area called "Rzhevka" for some time there was such a freemen - in the area of ​​st. Brotherly. The place was amazing - wastelands, abandoned, resettled, but not demolished houses, water and electricity were turned off and many, many, probably several hundred, maybe thousands, of people (homeless people) who constantly lived there. They simply did not count. Both in the winter and in the summer. Homeless people gathered there, a criminal wanted, the debtors were hiding from creditors, and deserter soldiers from nearby military units flocked there. Naturally, the main type of their craft was the commission of crimes. It was impossible to find and pull out the villain hiding there, "there was no extradition." There was no power there, except for the power of the local godfathers. There were women there, in this, as we called it, “republic”, of course, cohabited with men, gave birth, died, buried ... I know little about the inner kitchen of this world, but judging by what I saw as my own with his eyes, it was his own, his own closed world, with clear boundaries, on the territory of which no laws acted except their own, no coercive forces besides their own, and any intrusion from outside into this world was perceived as external aggression. Sometimes the police visited them, raids were carried out - they raised the search indicators, but by and large it did not change anything.
            This "republic" was finished in the early 2000s. For this, almost a military operation was needed, as far as I know. She existed, probably a little less than ten years.
            So, the question. Don't you think that in order to be considered a state, you need something more than what was available in the Cossack communities?
            1. Phil77 11 February 2020 19: 43 New
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              And your * Rzhevka *’s great image probably served as the notorious Khitrov Market area? Where uncle Gilyai studied the life of slums.
              1. Trilobite Master 11 February 2020 19: 54 New
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                Quote: Phil77
                your great * Rzhevka *

                I think such slums were enough not only in St. Petersburg and not only in those times.
                I just described what I saw with my own eyes and heard with my own ears. The question is different - could such places be considered "states".
                1. Phil77 11 February 2020 20: 24 New
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                  No, I would call this education ... Damn! And how would I call it? Only pirate republics, Cossack freemen come to mind.
                  1. Trilobite Master 11 February 2020 21: 05 New
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                    Quote: Phil77
                    Cossack freemen.

                    That is exactly what I wanted to say. Cossack freemen are not states. Unless, with a stretch - proto-state formations. Chiefdoms.
                    We have here on the site there is one person who has studied the issues of the Cossacks in detail, though I have not seen him for a long time. His name is Artyom, the call sign is arturpraetor. It may appear, clarifies the issue.
                    1. Phil77 12 February 2020 12: 48 New
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                      Hi Michael! Yes, Artyom hadn’t been on the site for a long time. I read his articles about the Spanish Navy with great interest. Was a business trip possible?
                      1. Trilobite Master 12 February 2020 13: 39 New
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                        Greetings, Sergey.
                        I looked in profile, Artem was on the site yesterday afternoon. Just stopped commenting for some reason.
                      2. Phil77 12 February 2020 18: 27 New
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                        Probably working on a fascinating series of articles. wink However, we are waiting! hi
          3. karabass 11 February 2020 20: 18 New
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            It depends on what to compare. There was a government, officials, Cossacks sent embassies, waged wars, entered into unions, collected taxes
  • Senior seaman 11 February 2020 15: 50 New
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    In fact, Don Cossacks were not subjects of the Russian Tsar, since the Don Army was a de jure and de facto independent state before the suppression of the Bulawinsky uprising, and even relations between Moscow and Cherkassk went through the Ambassadorial order. Those. through the then counterpart of the Foreign Ministry.
    In fact, the laws of the Russian state did not apply to the Don (there is no extradition from the Don!), Taxes were not collected, and there were no representatives of the tsarist administration.
    Cossacks often acted contrary to Moscow’s policies: they participated in the Time of Troubles, supported the Old Believers, and sheltered the fugitives.
    1. Operator 11 February 2020 16: 00 New
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      And what is so special - the Don Don Region was a region of the Russian Kingdom with its own legislation such as republican / cultural-national autonomy in the USSR / RF (you do not want to say that these two states did not / do not exercise sovereignty over their entire territory).
      1. karabass 11 February 2020 17: 14 New
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        Damn it did not know that you are so stubborn!
        Is there only one opinion YOUR? and the rest is nonsense, right? Do you want to say this by defending your mistake?
      2. Senior seaman 11 February 2020 17: 42 New
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        In the territories of national autonomies, federal laws apply. There are federal authorities (Ministry of Internal Affairs, Prosecutor's Office, etc.)
        That is, there is not the slightest resemblance to the Cossack Republic.
  • bubalik 11 February 2020 17: 47 New
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    Here he was issued by fellow countrymen to royal punishers.

    ,,, the countrymen got it very clearly, and why the "royal punishers", and not the legitimate authority?
    1. Pane Kohanku 11 February 2020 18: 45 New
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      strongly visible fellow countrymen got, and why the "royal punitive", and not the legitimate authority?

      hmm, Sergey, and you do not find a repetition of history? drinks When the next “fighter” was defeated, and began to bore his nukers, they simply handed him over to the other side! So it was with Pugachev and Ungern (what is not an example of a “messiah”?) laughing oh, yes, the Kolchak Czechs also passed, as it was, for a free ride with buns and moonshine. laughing
      why "royal punishers" and not legitimate authority

      I will take your side! drinks
      1. 3x3zsave 11 February 2020 19: 13 New
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        I think, and with Spartak, somehow it happened.
        1. Pane Kohanku 11 February 2020 23: 23 New
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          I think, and with Spartak, somehow it happened.

          Duck, it seems, and Spartak’s bodies were not found, or what? request
      2. Phil77 11 February 2020 19: 20 New
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        It’s rather a matter of purely human psychology, dear Nikolai. We felt that the case smelled of conditional kerosene, and again! We ourselves are innocent! He’s all a bastard! Knit him, Orthodox! wink
        1. Pane Kohanku 11 February 2020 23: 24 New
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          We felt that the case smells like conventional kerosene, and

          Sergey, exactly what it is! drinks
          1. bubalik 11 February 2020 23: 33 New
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            ,,, you can’t feed everyone no
            "The white people came - robbing, the red ones also robbing, well, where should the poor peasant go ...".
            1. Pane Kohanku 11 February 2020 23: 41 New
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              "The white people came - robbing, the red ones also robbing, well, where should the poor peasant go ...".

              The poor peasant is the most terrible image during the civil war. It’s not possible to sit back quietly ... request
              1. Phil77 12 February 2020 12: 52 New
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                Hi Nikolay! So they didn’t sit out too much. Recall the numerous units * of green * and other * batek of angels *! angry
  • vindigo 11 February 2020 20: 09 New
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    It is clear why in 1917 such a massacre of those in power began. Over the centuries accumulated.
  • Starshina wmf 13 February 2020 06: 57 New
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    who betrayed Razin, they also enjoyed the benefits of the uprising. They themselves participated, but they betrayed and fled as they smelled of fried. What are these traitors? Of course, the Cossacks are free people, especially at that time. They’ll swear an oath to some king. Which is still far away. They were simply frightened for their corruptive skins. Some of their defenders also fled to the west or lived quietly under the reds. And now they are screaming at all angles how honest they are. They didn’t clutch their teeth at the party card.
  • Rey_ka 13 February 2020 10: 17 New
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    Is it strange to me alone that on the engravings of that time around palm trees?
    1. VLR
      VLR 13 February 2020 12: 40 New
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      Europeans painted "wild Muscovy."
      The article "The Persian Campaign of Stepan Razin" cited an engraving of Astrakhan from the book of Three Streets by Ian Streus (the author personally visited Astrakhan - sailed there on the ship "Eagle"). And what do you think - there are palm trees too. But in the very first edition in this figure there were no palm trees. They appeared in subsequent ones - apparently, the publishers decided that the book would be better sold with palm trees.