Military Review

Cold South Ossetian summer of 1920

20
100-year anniversary of the 1918-1920 genocide. From June 12 until the end of that terrible month of the 1920 year, heavy battles were fought in South Ossetia. The retreating Ossetian detachments desperately snarled at the Menshevik Georgian forces that were superior in numbers, but they could no longer change the situation. Their only task was to delay the advance of the enemy as long as possible, thereby gaining time for the evacuation of civilians. In fact, it was a real outcome - a whole people in a hurry took off and went to seek shelter to the north. The few remaining in their native land were faced with rampant violence. Starting from June 12, practically all the villages captured by the Georgian Mensheviks were either plundered or put to fire.


Cold South Ossetian summer of 1920

Partisans crossing the Mamison Pass. Painting G.S. Kotaeva


Truly Scorched Earth


On the very first day of the attack of Georgian troops on June 12, the village of Pris was burned. On June 12-13, the Ossetian settlement, a region of Tskhinvali, in which mainly Ossetians lived, was almost completely destroyed. On 14 of June the villages of Kohat, Sabolok, Klars and others were betrayed. On June 20, the aphid village burned, in which representatives of as many as four clans had once lived. Most of the villages from Tskhinval to the village of Verkhny Ruk Georgian troops burned.

Special “successes” in this fiery bacchanalia were achieved by Valiko Dzhugeli, one of the commanders of punitive Georgian detachments. This “people's guardsman” and “general” carefully recorded their actions in a kind of diaries, which were later published abroad under the title “Heavy Cross”. When the author read this artifact of Menshevik Georgia, he did not leave the feeling of psychological instability of Jugheli. His painful craving for fire was too obvious from the text:
“Now it's night. And lights are visible everywhere! .. The rebel houses are burning ... But I’m already used to it and look at it almost calmly ... The villages here are located at high altitudes and, obviously, the Ossetians imagined that they were beyond our reach! But now the lights are everywhere ... Burning and burning! Ominous lights ... Some kind of terrible, cruel, enchanting beauty ... And looking at these bright nightly lights, one old comrade sadly told me: "I am beginning to understand Nero and the great fire of Rome." The lights are on. Bivouac! The camp is sleeping. Around the dead silence. The night is clear, quiet. In the distance - the glow of a fire ... "



"General" Valiko Jugheli


Dzhugeli absolutely unashamedly describes the artillery shelling of mountain villages. He did not shy even when describing the ruin of Dzau (referring to him as Java in the Georgian manner), indicating that this was “the heart of South Ossetia” and “must be pulled out”. At the same time, Valiko justifies this by the struggle for "democracy." This song seems to be as old as the world.

Where Ossetian houses were not burned, they were mercilessly robbed, or even completely requisitioned. The story of Martha Matveevna Dzhigkaeva 1913 born in the village of Jer, recorded after known events by her relatives, is indicative:
“And the father was beaten: where are your loved ones, where did they go? Father says, I don’t know where they went, my children are here. And they began to destroy our house with us. And what did they do with our wooden house - the Georgians came and rented our house, took away and built a school for ourselves. And then we went to the forest, settled there, and then moved to Ordzhonikidze. Everywhere and everywhere we asked for bread from people, slices of bread, and we lived on this. ”


Terrible outcome


Escape from their native places, when the native shelter erected in the harsh conditions of the mountains and, perhaps, standing in its place for decades, or even centuries, is enveloped in fire, a tragedy in itself. But the suddenness of the attack, the small number of fighters able to defend themselves, the persecution by the “people's guard”, the lack of supplies and snow-covered mountains turned the tragic outcome into what would now be called a humanitarian catastrophe, which goes hand in hand with genocide.


Partisans crossing the Mamison Pass led by Gagloyev. Painting G.S. Kotaeva


A fighter of one of the Ossetian detachments Viktor Gassiev recalled how sometimes they had to watch the death of compatriots in powerless anger. So, on 13 of June, during the evacuation of one of the villages, two women, a mother and daughter of 18 years old, lagged behind a group of refugees. The group discovered the disappearance of the villagers already on the mountain pass. Soon, in the valley by the stormy river, two figures of unhappy women were seen, followed by the Georgian "people's guard" on their heels. The intentions of the "guards" were not a secret. Therefore, in order to save the honor, the mother and daughter rushed from the steep bank in an instant swallowing their mountain stream.

The situation was not even better in the numerous wagons themselves. Cold, hunger and unbearably difficult road forced people to do unthinkable things. Here is how those days were remembered by the commander of one of the detachments, Mate Sanakoev (participant in the First World War, knight of the George Cross, knight of the orders of St. Anna of the 2 and 3 degrees, St. Stanislav of the 2 and 3 degrees, St. Vladimir of the 4 degree):
“Our situation was getting worse. No one ate bread for a long time ... There were so many people that they did not fit in the gorges. It was something unimaginable. Old men, women with children left ... In these difficult days there were cases when exhausted women threw their babies into the turbulent mountain rivers swollen from the rains, and then they themselves rushed, preferring death to shame - to fall into the hands of the Mensheviks and become the subject of their most infamous bullying ".


On the approach to the Main Caucasian Range, people were almost completely exhausted, and in front was the snowy Mamison Pass, rising 2911 meters above sea level. It is difficult to breathe in such places, but people walked with the children, hungry and frozen. Someone was simply blown away by an icy wind, someone in a starving dizziness fell into the crevices himself, and someone simply did not have enough strength. The exact number of refugees forever remaining in the icy highlands is unknown, maybe hundreds, maybe thousands.



Those who were lucky to force the pass and go to the villages of North Ossetia, faced with new difficulties. All of Russia was in a fever of revolutionary winds, and in the Caucasus, wherever you were at that time, party conflicts were aggravated by ethnic conflicts so characteristic of the region. Thus, the local authorities were completely unprepared to accept such a number of refugees: there was no food, no medicines, no decent housing, and people exhausted by the transition could only rely on the hardest work, literally for food. As a result, the refugees were scattered in several villages.

From the report of Markarov, a member of the commission to investigate the situation of refugees in South Ossetia in the Ossetian regional executive committee of the city of Vladikavkaz from 24 on August 1920:
“The situation of refugees in South Ossetia is very dire. Cholera, typhoid, hunger have exhausted them so much that each of them looks out with animal fear, in Alagir and Salugardan they are either in the yard or in dilapidated houses ... Together with Dr. Yevklov we found a terrible picture that surpasses the worst picture. Refugees for 12-15 people are lying right on the ground. Each of 4-5 patients with typhoid fever with high temperature, covered with rags ... "


From a telegram from the Congress of Soviets of the Vladikavkaz District to the Vladikavkaz Regional Committee, the Regional Committee, and the Refugee Arrangement Committee of June 24 on the 1920 of the year:
“The revolutionary rebels from South Ossetia are in a very difficult situation. It is impossible to return to their homeland, because the government of Jordan still continues to burn villages of the southerners, persecutes and expels civilians, but it is technically impossible to settle them in the free lands of the North Caucasus in the near future. "


The death of those who did not escape


As indicated above, the vast majority of the population of South Ossetia fled from their native land to the north. But in the republic there were still those who either simply could not take off or hoped for poverty and remoteness of their own village. Moreover, partisans and underground workers remained in South Ossetia and even in its capital. Soon they were to split into living witnesses and dead victims.


The shooting of thirteen communards by Georgian Mensheviks


After the capture of Tskhinval, the Georgian Menshevik authorities decided to "put things in order." Soon, 13 ethnic Ossetians were captured or arrested, among whom was an 16-year-old teenager. All of them were declared rebels and bandits and put in the basement. On 20 of June at three in the morning they were taken out into the street and taken to the outskirts of the city. There, in the presence of a doctor, Vaclav Hersh and a Georgian priest Alexei Kvanchakhadze, they tried to force them to dig a grave. 13 Ossetians resolutely refused, despite the beating. After that, Kvanchakhadze invited them to repent of the crimes, but was sent to the same address as the executioners. Finally, almost in the morning the Georgians started executing. After the first salvo, Ossetians finished off with single shots.

When, after the liberation of South Ossetia, an inquiry was carried out in this case of execution without trial, many interrogated persons supplemented the picture with new details. So, a participant in the execution of Gogia Kasradze during one of the drunks boasted that he personally shot nine Communards and kissed the barrel of his gun. Other witnesses showed that the priest Kvanchakhadze who participated in the executions, the one who asked to repent, often fell into euphoria and shouted: “Beat the Communists and Ossetians.”


Monument to Thirteen Communards in Tskhinval


Philip Ieseevich Makharadze, chairman of the Georgian Revolutionary Committee in the 1921 year, recalled the events as follows:

“The brutal People’s Guards, according to the directives of the government, N. Zhordania and N. Ramishvili did such horrors as very little is known to history ... The Georgian Mensheviks set themselves the goal of the complete destruction of South Ossetia and this goal was almost reached. It was impossible to go beyond this. Ossetia was destroyed and razed to the ground. "



The rampant violence stopped in the year 1921. In February 21, the Bolshevik troops attacked the Menshevik formations directly on the territory of Georgia. By the end of the month Tiflis was taken, and on 5 of March Tskhinval was liberated from the Mensheviks mainly by forces of Ossetian detachments formed in North Ossetia. Shortly after the victory of the Soviet regime in Georgia, a special commission was organized to investigate the consequences of hostilities in South Ossetia.


A detachment of Ossetian partisans led by Mate Sanakoev (a figure in the center)


According to the commission, in the 1920 year in South Ossetia, the "people's guard" killed and died during the retreat and in the mountains of 5 thousand 279 people. 1 thousand 588 thousand residential and 2 thousand 639 farm buildings were burned. Almost the entire crop of 1920 of the year was destroyed, which for the agricultural region is akin to a death sentence. 32 thousand 460 cattle and 78 thousand 485 cattle died, i.e. virtually all livestock in the republic. However, these figures raise questions about the degree of reliability. Firstly, the commission for the most part consisted of ethnic Georgians. Secondly, it was problematic to count the victims who died on the mountain passes and in the gorges due to technical and weather conditions. Thirdly, it is not known whether the dead refugees in North Ossetia, who are known to have suffered from numerous diseases and were in extremely difficult conditions, were counted. All this has yet to be answered.
Author:
Articles from this series:
South Ossetia. The origins of genocide politics
The Forgotten South Ossetian War of 1919-1920
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  1. svp67
    svp67 17 August 2019 09: 09
    -1
    Alas, in such wars there are no uniquely "white and fluffy", 101% sure that the Georgians, about that time, have their own stories about the atrocities of the Ossetians ...
    1. Pedrodepackes
      Pedrodepackes 17 August 2019 09: 19
      -2
      Quote: svp67
      I’m sure that Georgians, about that time, have their own stories about the atrocities of Ossetians ...

      most likely, as in any civil (interethnic) war, but these atrocities were a "response", although this also does not justify them.
    2. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 17 August 2019 10: 47
      +6
      This is not about the degree of "whiteness and fluffiness", but about the beginning of the process, about the political decision to clean up South Ossetia from the Ossetians, which came from Tiflis. Well, then there was a war, and very unequal.
      1. Pedrodepackes
        Pedrodepackes 17 August 2019 10: 58
        -2
        Quote: Aviator_
        It's not about the degree of "whiteness and fluffiness"

        and I didn’t talk about it,
        Quote: Aviator_
        about the beginning of the process

        confrontation between South Ossetia and Georgia, which spilled over into rivers of blood and mountains of corpses from both sides in our time
        1. Aviator_
          Aviator_ 17 August 2019 11: 00
          +1
          I wrote svp67 to Sergey, I have nothing against your comment.
          1. Pedrodepackes
            Pedrodepackes 17 August 2019 11: 02
            -1
            Quote: Aviator_
            I wrote to svp67 Sergey

            Yes, I have no complaints hi
    3. Angelica
      Angelica 19 August 2019 15: 18
      +1
      ... Georgians, about that time, have their own stories about the atrocities of Ossetians ...

      There are stories .... There are no atrocities.
    4. rumel
      rumel 26 August 2019 11: 44
      0
      There are stories, nothing is known about the facts of atrocities! For all these are inventions of the great Georgian nation that were widespread under Stalin and his depraved fellow tribesmen (Yenukidze, Svanidze, Beria, Dekanozov, Kobulov, Tsanava, Rapava, Goglidze, Gvishiani, Karanadze). Trying to create an image of a beautiful country of Georgia and a great people, Stalin overdid it, which already with him resulted in the "Mingrelian affair". And Dzhugeli with his bashi-bazouks was eager to reach Sochi (and even Crimea), since there were no military units on the way (only civilians). And Denikin had to defend the rear. Having received it in the teeth (and how else), the brave Georgian guard retained, however, a part of Abkhazia, where they also did their best. And there is factual confirmation of all this, not the tales of the Kartvelian elders. And I am not an Ossetian, I am a supporter of socialism (USSR), I consider the "Leninist solution of the national question" a mistake, and I consider Stalin's personality only in the context of history. And like the British, I don’t harbor hatred for any nations. As well as brotherly love. For all this is empty ... Although many have questions. To which it will soon be time to answer ...
  2. Sonmaster
    Sonmaster 17 August 2019 09: 58
    +2
    Many thanks to the author for the article.
    I’m completely unfamiliar with the topic of ideological and national confrontation in the Caucasus at the beginning of the 20th century.
    Live and learn.
  3. M. Michelson
    M. Michelson 17 August 2019 10: 40
    +3
    Unknown page. Thank.
  4. Alexander Greene
    Alexander Greene 17 August 2019 16: 29
    -2
    About Interethnic Relations

    I read the article, and it caused a double feeling in me. On the one hand, terrible things - the sufferings of Ossetians from genocide, on the other hand - such articles only incite ethnic hatred.

    The author writes that it is necessary to continue research in order to more accurately indicate the death toll. But is it worth stirring up such a past? Ossetians and Georgians live together forever, it so happened, and therefore not every story we need, such as in the article, does not lead to anything good, only harm from it ..

    The bourgeoisie incites ethnic hatred, it needs it so that the working people of different nations cannot unite in a common struggle against their oppressors, against their bourgeoisie ..

    But the working class, all the working people on both sides, have nothing to share, therefore internationalism was cultivated in the USSR, and such incidents were not advertised in the past. In the USSR, those who incited ethnic passions were resettled in places not so remote.

    “Not a single privilege, not a single nation, not a single language! Not the slightest oppression, not the slightest injustice to the national minority - these are the principles of workers' democracy ” (V.I. Lenin, PSS, T.23, S.150)

    Only the socialist union of working people of different nations will eliminate all the ground for national persecution and squabble.
    1. Proxima
      Proxima 18 August 2019 00: 03
      +1
      Quote: Alexander Green
      But is it worth stirring up such a past? Ossetians and Georgians live together forever, it so happened, and therefore not every story we need, such as in the article, does not lead to anything good, only harm from it ..

      You are absolutely wrong! For example, in Soviet times, the fact of the participation of Ukrainian police in a crime in Khatyn was hushed up. The first secretaries of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine and the Communist Party of Belarus V. Shcherbitsky and N. Slyunkov appealed to the Party Central Committee with a request not to disclose information about their participation in the brutal murder of civilians in the village. Did it help ?! Now these nonhumans in Ukraine are national heroes. Remember, silencing genocide always entails a new genocide, only more bloody. Remember that Hitler said inspiring his executioners for bloody crimes in Russia, they say now no one remembers the Armenian massacre of 1915, they will forget about your crimes... Indeed, does the "average Russian" remember about the Armenian massacre? The answer is of course not!
      1. Alexander Greene
        Alexander Greene 18 August 2019 13: 26
        -3
        Quote: Proxima
        You are absolutely wrong!

        No, dear, I'm right. I have a class approach. From the point of view of the bourgeoisie, he, of course, is wrong, but for the working people this is the only right approach. .

        "The bourgeoisie always puts its national demands in the foreground. It pushes them unconditionally. For the proletariat, they are subordinated to the interests of the class struggle." (V.I. Lenin, PSS, T.25, S.273)

        Nationalism begins with the market, the national bourgeoisie protects and expands its market at the expense of other nations and their lands .. It draws into this policy the simple population.

        Nationalism can be destroyed only if internationalism is opposed to it. The workers of all nationalities have nothing to share, they need to unite against the whole bourgeois world.

        And in the USSR, nationalism raised its head because Khrushchev rehabilitated nationalists of all bloods, and after that the KGB switched to the fight against dissidents.
        1. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 19 August 2019 15: 02
          0
          Quote: Alexander Green
          And in the USSR, nationalism raised its head because Khrushchev rehabilitated nationalists of all bloods, and after that the KGB switched to the fight against dissidents.

          In the USSR, nationalism was propagated by the Bolshevik revolutionaries. Or they forgot about the forced Ukrainization of the newly-joined New Russia - with the dismissal of those who do not know the language without observance of labor legislation? Or about how to create a separate Ukrainian history from Austria, the nationalist Grushevsky was invited - the chairman of the Central Rada and the author of the constitution of independent Ukraine, specially for which they made a department and institute.
          Quote: Alexander Green
          Nationalism can be destroyed only if internationalism is opposed to it.

          But for some reason, the Bolsheviks themselves did not follow their principles. The national identity of only the Russian people was destroyed - in the framework of the struggle against Great Russian chauvinism, for which the Russian people had to pay and repent. And in all other nations of the USSR, everything national was cultivated and nurtured in every possible way.
          And how cunningly it turned out - at first only Tsarist officials were accused of Great Russian chauvinism - they say that they pursued such a policy. And then suddenly it turned out to be guilty whole Russian people:
          No one has oppressed the Poles so much as the Russian people. The Russian people served in the hands of the tsars as an executioner of Polish freedom.
          © VIL
          1. Alexander Greene
            Alexander Greene 20 August 2019 10: 28
            0
            Quote: Alexey RA
            In the USSR, nationalism was propagated by the Bolshevik revolutionaries.

            You confuse nationalism with national awareness, thanks to the correct national policy, the Bolsheviks managed to save Tsarist Russia within the USSR ..
            And about the attitude of the Bolsheviks towards the Russian nation, read the article by V.I. Lenin "On the national pride of the Great Russians".
            1. Alexey RA
              Alexey RA 20 August 2019 15: 05
              0
              Quote: Alexander Green
              You confuse nationalism with national awareness

              The trouble is that national awareness immediately led to the appearance of small-town nationalism.
              ... anti-Russian nationalism is a defensive form, some ugly form of defense against Russian nationalism, against Russian chauvinism. If this nationalism was only defensive, one could still not make a fuss about it. It would be possible to concentrate all the strength of their actions and all the strength of their struggle on Great-Russian chauvinism, hoping that as soon as this powerful enemy is knocked down, at the same time, anti-Russian nationalism will be knocked down, because he, this nationalism, I repeat, ultimately account is a reaction to Great Russian nationalism, an answer to it, a well-known defense. Yes, that would be so if, on the ground, anti-Russian nationalism did not go beyond the reaction to nationalism
              © IVS
              Quote: Alexander Green
              thanks to the correct national policy, the Bolsheviks managed to save Tsarist Russia within the USSR ..

              At the cost of severing land from Russia in favor of other republics and turning Russia into one of the two donors of the union budget (the second was Belarus, the other republics had a negative “union balance”)? There is nothing to say - the correct national policy.
              Quote: Alexander Green
              And about the attitude of the Bolsheviks towards the Russian nation, read the article by V.I. Lenin "On the national pride of the Great Russians".

              Vladimir Ilyich was distinguished by a fair ... flexibility of judgment. Therefore, it is better to read those of his works, which he wrote after the Bolsheviks came to power.
              Therefore, internationalism on the part of the oppressing or the so-called “great” nation (although great only by its violence, great only as great as the Sordimord) should consist not only in observing the formal equality of nations, but also in such inequality that would compensate the oppressing nation , the nation is large, the inequality that actually develops in life.
              © VIL. To the question of nationalities or "autonomy".
              That is, pay and repent should the whole nation. Not the officials of the old apparatus, as VIL wrote about this earlier, but the entire Great Russian people. And chauvinism and nationalism are exclusively Great Russian.
              It came to the point that Ordzhonikidze, Stalin and Dzerzhinsky became rude Great Russian snords at the VIL! And only because they dared to condemn the flagrant violation of the principles of internationalism by the Georgian comrades - for which the FWL was immediately attacked: Georgians can be nationalists, and who condemns them is the Great Russian chauvinist.
              From such international politics, little ones. smile
              1. Alexander Greene
                Alexander Greene 20 August 2019 16: 40
                +1
                Quote: Alexey RA
                From such international politics, little ones.


                It is unfortunate that you did not understand anything from the article you quoted by V.I. Lenin, it must be carefully read the whole, and not tear quotes out of context.
                Pay attention, further Vladimir Ilyich as if writes about you:

                “He who did not understand this, he did not understand the truly proletarian attitude to the national question, he essentially remained on the petty-bourgeois point of view and therefore cannot help but slide into the bourgeois point of view every minute.

                What is important for the proletariat? For the proletariat is not only important, but also essential to provide him with a maximum of confidence in the proletarian class struggle on the part of foreigners»
                (V.I. Lenin, PSS, T.45. S.359).

                Do you think that Ordzhonikidze, an official in the Caucasus, is beating his face even if it’s good for the representative of the Georgian nation? A wonderful picture: the tsar’s holding muzzle gives foreigners in the mouth and the Soviet leaders, too. What are they better then?

                This incident could have caused Georgia not to participate in the USSR project; the Georgian people would not voluntarily join such an association.

                It was important for the Bolsheviks to create a single powerful socialist state, but by force to drive into the Union, to unite into a single state after the revolution it was no longer possible, because during the capitalist development of Russia, nationalities turned into nations, and fought for self-determination, through which it was impossible to step over.

                Only the proclamation of the principle of self-determination, the upbringing of internationalism and voluntary unification helped to bring all the outskirts of the former tsarist Russia into a single state. And for this it was necessary to show that the central government is no longer the power of "keep your face."

                Today, for example, such a unification into a single state is impossible, because today with such an attitude towards other nationalities as you are now demonstrating, you will not drag anyone into the Union. Therefore, the new Union of the former Soviet republics can be restored only on the Leninist principles of internationalism.
  5. Goral
    Goral 28 August 2019 22: 07
    -1
    Again thirty-five. Instead of the Bolshevik rabid propaganda in the style of the last century, it is better to take documents and archives from the times of the Georgian Democratic Republic and newspapers of those times and just go through the facts and wonder why this Bolshevik infection / rebellion, raised by Ossetian gangs, was not supported even by the majority of the Ossetian population of Central Georgia. I hope all readers are well aware that there was no South Ossetia at that time, but there was the Gori district of Georgia, the northern part of which was a kind of Georgian-Ossetian ethnic striped. So, the revolt of the Ossetian gangs from the Dzhavsky district and the pogrom they organized in the city of Tskhinvali, which they themselves captured, was not supported by either the Ossetians of Znaursky or other districts of Georgia. Therefore, its suppression did not present any difficulty for the government forces. Moreover, the repressions affected exclusively the area of ​​the clash between the Bolsheviks and the Georgian forces. The Ossetian population was not affected anywhere else. It is clear that in those days no one was particularly ceremonious with human rights and, in spite of the dews of humanism, did not particularly clog their brains. I advise you to read on this topic a very interesting work by the late Professor Avtandil Menteshashvili "The Origins of Separatism in Georgia" in Russian. Everything is documented on the shelves
  6. Goral
    Goral 28 August 2019 22: 09
    0
    Menteshashvili, Avtandil Mikhailovich.

    Historical background of modern separatism in Georgia / Avtandil Menteshashvili. - Tbilisi, 1998 .-- 147 s

    https://search.rsl.ru/ru/record/01000598672
  7. Goral
    Goral 28 August 2019 22: 10
    -2
    Instead of the Bolshevik rabid propaganda in the style of the last century, it is better to take documents and archives from the times of the Georgian Democratic Republic and newspapers of those times and just go through the facts and wonder why this Bolshevik infection / rebellion, raised by Ossetian gangs, was not supported even by the majority of the Ossetian population of Central Georgia. I hope all readers are well aware that there was no South Ossetia at that time, but there was the Gori district of Georgia, the northern part of which was a kind of Georgian-Ossetian ethnic striped. So, the revolt of the Ossetian gangs from the Dzhavsky district and the pogrom they organized in the city of Tskhinvali, which they themselves captured, was not supported by either the Ossetians of Znaursky or other districts of Georgia. Therefore, its suppression did not present any difficulty for the government forces. Moreover, the repression affected only the area of ​​the clash between the Bolsheviks and the Georgian forces. The Ossetian population was not affected anywhere else. It is clear that in those days no one was particularly ceremonious with human rights and, in spite of the dews of humanism, did not particularly clog his brains. I advise you to read on this topic a very interesting work by the late Professor Avtandil Menteshashvili "The Origins of Separatism in Georgia" in Russian. Everything is documented on the shelves
    Menteshashvili, Avtandil Mikhailovich.

    Historical background of modern separatism in Georgia / Avtandil Menteshashvili. - Tbilisi, 1998 .-- 147 s
    https://search.rsl.ru/ru/record/01000598672