Military Review

Konstantin Danzas. The tragedy of the Caucasian officer and second Pushkin. Part of 2

28
January 27 (February 8 new style) 1837, on the outskirts of St. Petersburg near the Black River, next to the great poet Alexander Pushkin stood Konstantin Danzas. After a second, a shot of Dantes (more precisely, d'Antes, and after adoption, Gekkern) will divide history and the whole country, and Danzas in particular, on the “before” and “after”. When the seriously wounded Pushkin, Danzas picks up his hands, Konstantin will not yet know that the people's love for the poet for him will result in the efforts of gossipers, haters and libelists into an ocean of abominations poured on his soul, the soul of a wounded military lieutenant colonel.


The author will not dwell on all aspects of the tragedy on the Black River - let us single out Danzas himself and how he was thirsty to slander. Even the title of friend of Alexander Sergeevich tried to wipe next to the last name Danzas.

First, accusations that he agreed to become Pushkin's second fell on Constantine. It’s important that the duel Alexander Sergeevich tried to prepare in secret, as many of the poet’s friends (such as Zhukovsky, for example) wanted to dissuade him or to completely disrupt the duel. Thus, in an effort to restore justice, Pushkin was alone. Realizing this position of a friend of the lyceum fraternity, Danzas agreed to be his second precisely because of a sense of friendship and the greatest trust that Constantine could not deceive. And Danzas did not give consent out of idle curiosity, because, depending on the outcome of the duel, Konstantin Karlovich could have been pulled up on the gallows without a hitch, and most importantly completely in accordance with the laws of the Russian Empire.


Alexey Naumov's painting "Pushkin's Duel with Dantes"

Then Constantine began to be blamed for the fact that he did not try to dissuade Pushkin. And here it was worth knowing the character and reputation of Danzas - an unshakable brave officer with a keen sense of justice, who, while still a lyceum student (he was nicknamed the Bear), threw himself into any dispute up to a scuffle for mockery and especially insult. He defended his friends with the same fervor. Of course, if they remained lyceum students, Danzas could well have thrown himself into a hectic scuffle, from which Dantes would have crawled out with a broken nose. But both Konstantin and Alexander were already adult representatives of aristocratic families with the corresponding laws of honor. To imagine that such a person would dissuade a friend from protecting his own dignity and the truth itself is absurd.

And the accusations that Danzas did not report the forthcoming duel to the authorities looked completely unthinkable. Pushkin's lyceum friend, a nobleman, a military officer, and suddenly engaged in informing, knowing full well what punishment from heaven would fall upon Alexander Sergeyevich ... It was absolutely impossible.

Moreover, having agreed, Danzas, in fact, signed his own honor in loyalty to Pushkin. It will be Konstantin who, for long hours, will coordinate with Dantes' seconds the rules for the upcoming duel, which was supposed to follow the principle of "before death" (often before being seriously wounded). As a result, the conditions will be officially written on paper and guaranteed, I quote: "The seconds, the undersigned and invested with all powers, ensure, each for his own side, his honor the strict observance of the conditions set forth here."

Constantine was also blamed for the fact that they didn’t call a doctor to a duel and didn’t take any medicines with them. This, of course, can be considered the tragic mistake of Danzas, if one does not take into account the strict and brutal rules of the fight "to the death" and the immense haste of Alexander Sergeevich. A criticism about the absence of a doctor seems to be generally taken from the ceiling. The fact is that the same laws, which could throw a rope around Konstantin Karlovich’s neck, did not see much difference between the second and the doctor attending the duel. Besides, I have to repeat, they tried to keep the duel with all their might in secret, and even then Pushkin regretted that he had to shoulder such a heavy burden on the shoulders of an old friend. With any outcome of the court was not to be avoided. True, Alexander Sergeevich hoped that he had repeatedly wounded the hero of many battles who had been awarded gold weapons, a heavy sentence will not be made.

After the deadly shot, Konstantin brought a weakened Pushkin to the Moika Embankment, the house of 12, at the insistence of the poet himself. Immediately after that, he reported the tragedy to his wife Natalya Nikolaevna (as cautiously as possible, since Alexander did not want his wife to see him in this form). Then Constantine rushed to look for a doctor what to do in evening Petersburg was very difficult. In a dark frosty evening, Danzas literally broke into the house to every famous doctor, but to no avail. As a result, he managed to literally drag Professor Vasily Scholz to the wounded man. Heavy minutes of waiting for a medical sentence flowed.


Painting by Dmitry Belyukin "The Death of Pushkin". Danzas is on the right, near the bookshelves.

All this time, shrouded in gloomy feelings, helplessness and pain for comrade Danzas was near Pushkin. It was Danzas who soon called Pushkin himself and talked with him for a long time, dictating to a friend all of his unaccounted debts that were required to be returned, and Alexander Sergeyevich had neither bills nor receipts on them. Moreover, the poet asked Konstantin Karlovich to burn some of his papers, and which ones, never to be disclosed. Danzas kept his oath. It is still unknown what exactly the burned materials contained.

Already at the end of this long and painful tragedy of January 29, on his deathbed, Pushkin asked to call on Constantine, who had been in the house all this time, allowing himself to just take a furtive nap. Apparently, seeing Danzas in some unnaturally embittered and overwhelmed with pain, like no one had ever seen him, Alexander Sergeevich begged his old friend not to avenge Dantes. And the poet addressed his entourage (Peter Vyazemsky, Vasily Zhukovsky and wife Natalya Nikolaevna Goncharova) to stand up for a friend before the court: “Ask for Danzas. He is my brother. ” Dying, Alexander Sergeevich took off his ring with turquoise and presented it to Konstantin as a souvenir. Danzas did not part with this gift until the last minute of his life.

Konstantin Danzas. The tragedy of the Caucasian officer and second Pushkin. Part of 2

Natalia Pushkina (Goncharova)

Permeating her husband’s request, rightly, the only thing she was able to do for him now was Natalia Nikolaevna wrote a petition to Nicholas I. She begged the sovereign not to punish Danzas too strictly and allow his friend's body to be sent to Svyatogorsk Uspensky monastery for the last rest. But Nicholas I decided that Danzas had enough of the fact that he was not arrested immediately after the duel and allowed to brighten up the last moments of a friend. Therefore, just as Pushkin closed his eyes for the last time, Konstantin Karlovich was taken under arrest.

Later Sofya Nikolaevna Karamzin, who was friends with both Pushkin and Lermontov, as the mistress of the popular Petersburg literary salon, would call Danzas one of the “three guardian angels” of Alexander Sergeyevich. But in those days after the death of Pushkin Konstantin Karlovich was sitting behind bars, isolated from the whole world and alone. He knew perfectly well that already at those moments his throat was either tightened by a rope, or this fate was passing him by.


Sofya Nikolaevna Karamzina

Petersburg was flooded with the most awkward rumors, to the extent that Danzas himself received a bullet, saying that he had bad hands with his arm (occasionally tied up due to a battle wound). And, of course, some appointed Constantine as the culprit in Pushkin’s death.

Overwhelmed with memories of the last terrible days of a friend, Lieutenant Colonel Danzas behind bars, right, fortunately, did not yet know that his former students-lyceum students turned away from him. Ivan Pushin, a former classmate of Pushkin and a Decembrist, would even write in their hearts: “If I were in the place of Danzas, the fatal bullet would have met my chest.” Then it never even occurred to anyone that it was physically impossible, since Constantine was both from Pushkin and from Dantes at a decent distance in order to stand before the shot. In addition, duelists shot not by command, but by readiness.

The military court of first instance handed down the most severe sentence. For the fact that Lieutenant Colonel Danzas did not inform about the planned “evil intent” and thereby “allowed a duel and murder to take place,” he was sentenced to be hanged. However, apparently, the sovereign nevertheless condescended to Natalia Goncharova's tearful petition, and the second instance court decided to deprive Konstantin Karlovich of the golden half sable (he was awarded her “For Bravery”) and demoted into the ranks. The next instance even more softened the sentence.

As a result, in prison in the Peter and Paul Fortress Danzas spent two months. 19 May 1837, a lieutenant colonel was released and continued to serve in St. Petersburg in engineering units. But for a long time to stay in the capital Constantine could not. Either the eternal hardship with the authorities of the authorities prevented him from becoming accustomed to Petersburg, or the evil tongues pursued the lieutenant colonel, who honorably fulfilled all the requests of his friend and thus risked his own life. One way or another, but soon Danzas personally demanded a transfer to the Caucasus in the Tengin regiment. At this very time, the “Tengins” were among the most hardened fighters, their fame spread throughout the Caucasus. It was they who built the Black Sea coastline, paving the road to where the foot of the empire soldier had not yet set foot.

Konstantin Karlovich again wanted to be where the “real deal” was, where he did not need to understand the subtleties of the beau monde feelings and justify himself to people who are sometimes very far from the concept of honor.

To be continued ...
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Konstantin Danzas. The tragedy of the Caucasian officer and second Pushkin. Part of 1
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  1. Alexander Trebuntsev
    Alexander Trebuntsev 6 December 2018 06: 56
    +1
    That's about the nobility of the nobility is not too much. And from the duel, they otmazyvatsya, and denounced, and stole, and not only official money, but from each other. And noble deeds were not very different at all. They had a rule like that of the Zionists - against the ignoble estate everything is possible.
    And duels for the most part were held for drawing in front of the ladies. There, for the most part, it all ended with reconciliation and a slight fright, and if they fired, they put a small charge and the bullets only slightly damaged the skin. But in the case of this duel, Pushkin was all for real.
    Regarding Pushkin’s wound, according to the evidence of current forensic experts, his wound would be fatal today. Rather, if in the first half hour he was put on the operating table and the surgeons were good, then the chance would be to survive. A chance today. But this is from the area of ​​a very optimistic assumption.
    1. Victor N
      Victor N 6 December 2018 10: 01
      +1
      On a black sheep, the herd is not measured.
    2. Tutejszy
      Tutejszy 6 December 2018 10: 21
      +7
      Quote: Alexander Trebuntsev
      That's about the nobility of the nobility is not too much. And from the duel, they otmazyvatsya, and denounced, and stole, and not only official money, but from each other. And noble deeds were not very different at all.

      It began after 1762 with the "Decree on the Liberty of the Nobility". Before that, as it was:
      And you guys go to Azov. The walls of the Turkish fortress so high 25-30 meters high were perfectly preserved there. There are bombers ... with a diameter of up to 80 centimeters.
      Further - it is clear. We take a staircase ... 30 meters long, it will weigh 150 pounds ... This and take it together for three. A sword in the teeth and forward. To the walls! Bombs fall from there, pour resin and boiling water, shoot, they push away the stairs with special hornets - and to the side, and your traveling companion is already writhing below with a broken spine. And you climb! And do not just climb - pistols on the belt. A sword in the teeth! Climbing up, encouraging male soldiers, organizing subordinates, pulling out the wounded along the way. Dolez? He pulled out pistols, smoke, cinder, bloodsuckers, lead - point blank, a sword naked - forward! The Turk is still full on the walls, and they are not going to give up. Penicillin and pain medication, by the way, have not yet been invented, so every second wound is gangrene and amputation, and every third, even by modern standards, is small - death in wild torment, like that of the prince, oligarch and nobleman in the ... tribe of Andrei Bolkonsky. Fearfully? I do not want? There is nothing to be bothered. Did you get it? Congratulations, you nobles. (with)

      And after 1762, this also happened:

      Stop, citizen!
      Under the sim stone lies a Russian nobleman:
      His great-great-grandfather ended his life near Poltava.
      Grandfather at Kistrin fell with fame,
      And under Bender, the father is killed by the core.
      Well killed him ... Jamaican rum.
    3. Vladimir 5
      Vladimir 5 6 December 2018 17: 56
      0
      And Trebuntsev. You have a lot of words and little truth. Themselves invented or dug up a similar graphomaniac outpouring about the dishonesty of the nobility of the first half of the 19th century .. Of course there were scoundrels, here are your statements and characteristic .... A.S. . Inflammation developed and Pushkin died for three days, and over time, he became worse and worse. A posthumous autopsy revealed this ... Any operation to remove a bullet and skid pieces of clothing would save, but the wounded man was at home, and the operation would immediately lead to a duel publicity, for which it was strictly punishable ... ..That was the fault of Danzas, so A.S. .Pushkin at that time was in great debt, rushing about, not knowing the way out of the difficult situation, before the last duel, there were several more that he had begun, but the environment prevented them. Then A.S. Pushkin himself is the initiator and the primary culprit of the duel. Before that, Pushkin deliberately insulted the old Heckern with a letter, and spoke for him in a duel Dantes. Of course, there was a flirtation between N.N. Pushkina and Dantes, but the main reason for the duel is different. Time left only the memory of the poet and blamed all the blame of death on others, essentially not guilty ...
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 6 December 2018 21: 08
        0
        Interesting version.
      2. Alexander Trebuntsev
        Alexander Trebuntsev 7 December 2018 09: 47
        0
        My dear, from all your words, the truth is only that the bullet with the remains of the clothes was not removed. They thought up the rest themselves, or did they come up with grandmothers at the entrance?
        1. Pushkin lived 46 hours and 15 minutes after being wounded, and not 3 days.
        2. In addition to broken guts, his femoral artery was interrupted. That he lived so long after this wound is a miracle. There was no CHANCE. I suggest that you read at least a little at least from forensic experts who are slightly more than ours versed in this matter. Ht here [media = http: //www.sudmed.ru/index.php? Showtopic = 714]
        3. The ups and downs of Pushkin's throwings and the problems of the Haeckern family of homosexuals somehow I did not touch.
        And about the impeccable honor of the nobles and officers, the question is very extensive. They understood her then in a peculiar way. For example, colleagues under their officer code should always stand behind their own, no matter how scum he is. Otherwise obstruction comrades.
        The moral level of officer society fell so strongly in the 19th century that by the end of the century, duels were legally introduced in Russia. Like, it will raise morale and strengthen the code of honor.
        1. Vladimir 5
          Vladimir 5 7 December 2018 15: 32
          0
          A. Trebuntsev. One phrase about the broken femoral artery and the 46 hours life of A.S. Pushkin speaks of your knowledge and sources. When ANY artery is broken, life is no more than THREE-FOUR hours for the loss of 3 or more liters of blood, after which the agony (in one such sad case was present) .. All the later "discoveries" are the writings of various amateurs-graphomaniacs, some have finished that Dantes made a reservation for a duel in Europe and so on ......., Further, about the officer's honor, so honor is a matter of time and estates, if earlier they shot for one public word, but the bourgeois and peasant class suffered various insults ... And the guarded honor - the main roots came from the tsarist-imperial rule and the hierarchical structure of high society, with honor they supported the government, traditions and veneration and hierarchy in the community. Only duelists of the same class position could shoot. The officers did not shoot, as a rule, with civilians, with senior senior officers, and without nobility, a duel is impossible, etc. ... A challenge to a duel, that is the point, so as not to lie and observe honesty and decency, because the word had to be confirmed and protect. Therefore, it was impossible to be a scoundrel, for retribution is inevitable ...
    4. Detective
      Detective 7 December 2018 13: 02
      +2
      Quote: Alexander Trebuntsev
      That's about the nobility of the nobility is not too much. And from the duel, they otmazyvatsya, and denounced, and stole, and not only official money, but from each other. And noble deeds were not very different at all. They had a rule like that of the Zionists - against the ignoble estate everything is possible.

      Honor people are often haunted by evil rock and spiteful envious tongues. This article is an example of this and this comment is an example of this.
    5. Mikhail Matyugin
      Mikhail Matyugin 7 December 2018 14: 27
      +1
      Quote: Alexander Trebuntsev
      the nobility of the nobility is not too much. And from the duel, they otmazyvatsya, and denounced, and stole, and not only official money, but from each other.

      It seems that you know very little about the customs and habits of the Russian nobility of the 18-19th century. Such words as "defamation" and "civil execution" you apparently do not know?

      Quote: Alexander Trebuntsev
      And duels for the most part were held for drawing in front of the ladies.
      This is how if the ladies were not present at all?!? (with rare exceptions) Women were the cause of many duels, yes, but they didn’t do it for the sake of drawing.

      Well, a duel with pistols was considered much more deadly than a duel with a melee weapon (there it was possible to set the condition "until the first blood" or until the weapon was knocked out of hands, etc.).
  2. Adjutant
    Adjutant 6 December 2018 07: 02
    +7
    It was not in vain that the government punished duelists, because for the sake of categories of honor (some were interpreted quite freely) in peacetime it lost officers, officials, and (even) talented poets.
    Relations between Pushkin and Danzas are a very interesting question. Why did Pushkin substitute not only himself but also a friend? And the Russian German Danzas kept the trust of a friend, knowing about the adverse consequences for him and for himself. Also a question. Should an officer have been involved in an illegal event in terms of officer honor? How, having broken the law, could then ask from subordinates? Another question.
    The emperor was indeed a knight, and not a cracker, since he significantly softened his punishment by entering the circumstances of the case.
    As for the article, I personally liked it. Learned and new, and thought
    1. flavus
      flavus 6 December 2018 08: 59
      +1
      Quote: Adjutant
      It’s not for nothing that the government punished the duelists, because for the sake of categories of honor (some were interpreted quite freely) it lost officers in peacetime,

      It was punished purely formally, for the sake of some fulfillment of the letter of the law. For everyone understood that duels are necessary in a healthy society, where a man is a man, not a woman in trousers. And the "categories of honor" helped to educate real officers, albeit with their losses. But without blood, nothing worthwhile happens.
      As the poet used to say: "... the matter is solid when blood flows under it"
      1. Adjutant
        Adjutant 6 December 2018 10: 08
        +3
        For everyone understood that dueling is necessary in a healthy society

        what an absurdity.
        On the contrary, everyone understood that duels were impossible precisely in a healthy society.
        A healthy society is based on the law, and a duel is a relic of blood feud when personal hunting and arbitrariness are more important than the law.
        That is why the state duel was punished - and deservedly so. Suffice it to recall the edicts of Richelieu in France. And this is no coincidence - France sometimes lost more officers in duels than during military operations. A little later, Russia also left.
        A duel is a licentiousness and an indicator of the weakness of a state that cannot strictly enforce the law. And now in Russia they started talking about duels only because little is left of the state system (in terms of efficiency).
        As the poet used to say: "... the matter is solid when blood flows under it"

        The dictum of a deeply sick person, and most of these among poets. Talent is often impossible without corresponding deviations. But ... such people often move history)
        1. flavus
          flavus 6 December 2018 10: 54
          +2
          Quote: Adjutant
          A healthy society is based on the law, and a duel is a relic of blood feud when personal hunting and arbitrariness are more important than the law.

          The developed legislation does not speak about public health, but about the complexity of its structure. The law is difficult, clumsy, unfair, divorced from reality, personable. In any society.
          Real officers are essentially a caste, the meaning of which is violence in its various manifestations. In order to bring up a worthy representative of this layer, a specific relation to it is necessary. If they spit in the face of the manager or the loader, then they will be saddened, wipe themselves out and survive as a result. A similar action in relation to the officer undermines the honor of the uniform and, as a result, the fighting spirit and hence the fighting efficiency of the unit. Such things should not be regulated by ordinary law.
          What is allowed to Jupiter is not allowed to the bull.
          1. Adjutant
            Adjutant 6 December 2018 11: 12
            +3
            The developed legislation does not speak about public health, but about the complexity of its structure.

            This is one of the signs of a healthy society.
            The law is difficult, clumsy, unfair, divorced from reality, personable. In any society.
            quality law - relevant and reflects the development trends of society. I don’t take Russia here.
            Real officers are essentially a caste, the meaning of which is violence in its various manifestations.

            the meaning is service to the Fatherland, not violence. You can confuse with bandit formation. Oh my god, for 18 years the criminal community has been in power in Russia - and what are the brain damage. Super!
            Okay.
            And you propose replacing the law with a duel?
            That is (roughly speaking) - to wet everyone left and right. Those who offended or seem to offend.
            Yeah...
            If they spit in the face of the manager or the loader, then they will be saddened, wipe themselves out and survive as a result.

            That is, these are not people? Or now the manager can not become an officer? Are we living in a caste system or have you been mistaken for a century?
            A similar action in relation to the officer undermines the honor of the uniform and, as a result, the fighting spirit and hence the fighting efficiency of the unit. Such things should not be regulated by ordinary law.

            Such things should be regulated by military law.
            But - by the LEGISLATION. And not a duel - that is, the COURT OF GOD (actually a medieval duel).
            1. flavus
              flavus 6 December 2018 11: 33
              +3
              Quote: Adjutant
              this is one of the signs of a healthy society

              You confuse a healthy society with a developed one. You can be a mentally ill academician, but very developed. And you can be honest, healthy, but not developed peasant.
              So, complicated legislation is a sign of a developed society. however, it can be arbitrarily morally ill.
              Quote: Adjutant
              I don’t take Russia here.

              Yes, you can take at least America, even Germany - it makes no difference. With the availability of funds and a bunch of competent lawyers, almost any law can be circumvented and turned upside down. Moreover, everything is within the framework of the law.
              Quote: Adjutant
              the meaning is service to the Fatherland, not violence

              This is a candy wrapper for minors. But the essence is the willingness to kill and the willingness to be killed.
              Quote: Adjutant
              And you propose replacing the law with a duel?

              I suggest taking for granted that certain categories of people may exist by their unwritten laws.
              .
              Quote: Adjutant
              That is, these are not people? Or now the manager can not become an officer?

              Can be. But the quality will not be right. Or purely for the sake of obtaining a military pension. I believe that a huge number of modern officers have chosen military service for the early receipt of it, darling. And from this the effectiveness of the armed forces does not grow.
              1. Adjutant
                Adjutant 6 December 2018 11: 46
                +3
                You confuse a healthy society with a developed one.

                I do not confuse anything, because I am not familiar with the theory of state and law by hearsay. Have you heard the concepts of "rule of law" and "civil society"? What do they talk about, what do they characterize?
                But the essence is the willingness to kill and the willingness to be killed.

                you are not talking about assassins or samurai now? Or can you bring a regulatory act of Russia where this is attributed? Or again at the level of fabrication?
                I suggest taking for granted that certain categories of people may exist by their unwritten laws.

                So let them exist according to their unwritten laws. Although there is a given, you are late with your offer. There is a whole category of people who exist by their unwritten laws.
                In the zone, in the jail. Well, let there, according to their unwritten laws, remain there.
                Can be. But the quality will not be right. Or purely for the sake of obtaining a military pension. I believe that a huge number of modern officers have chosen military service for the early receipt of it, darling. And from this the effectiveness of the armed forces does not grow.

                what are you saying?)) But what, a guy who worked as a manager, or worked as a loader to feed a sick mother, can not then go to a military school? And why will its quality be worse than that of the rich boobies of his years, given by father and mother to the Military University, for example, right after school ??
                1. flavus
                  flavus 6 December 2018 12: 21
                  +2
                  Quote: Adjutant
                  I do not confuse anything for I am not familiar with the theory of state and law by hearsay.

                  You may be familiar with anything, but I'm talking about a "morally healthy society", not about a society with constitutions, criminal codes and prosecutors with lawyers. These are somewhat different planes.
                  Quote: Adjutant
                  But what, the guy who worked as a manager, or moonlighting as a loader to feed a sick mother, then can not enter a military school?

                  I mean that the officers should be a caste where they have been preparing for military service since childhood. This layer should have its own norms and laws. Then the highest quality of the officers will be achieved.
                  From opportunists who serve for benefits and pensions and who scoop up to the Volga when it is necessary to fight, it is of little use.
                  1. Adjutant
                    Adjutant 6 December 2018 12: 41
                    +3
                    and not about a society with constitutions, criminal codes and prosecutors with lawyers. These are slightly different planes.

                    but also naturally you should have some knowledge in this area. The fact of the matter is that the theoretical foundations are the same 0 both in Germany and in Russia. And we, the constitution, are striving for a rule of law.
                    So your insinuations about the duels of our time are not relevant and illegal.
                    therefore phrases
                    You confuse a healthy society with a developed one.

                    beyond reality. What does "developed" society or "morally healthy" society mean? Explain pliz.
                    I mean that the officers should be a caste where they have been preparing for military service since childhood. This layer should have its own norms and laws. Then the highest quality of the officers will be achieved.
                    From opportunists who serve for benefits and pensions and who scoop up to the Volga when it is necessary to fight, it is of little use.

                    I can also dream of anything. NOBODY NOW PREPARES officers since childhood. Laws should be - common to all, but unconditionally implemented.
                    From opportunists who serve for benefits and pensions and who scoop up to the Volga, when you have to fight, it’s of little use

                    Are you talking about the first stage of the Battle of Stalingrad ??
                    1. Adjutant
                      Adjutant 6 December 2018 13: 06
                      +3
                      And another question to Alexander (Flavius) to his dictum:
                      officers should be a caste where they have been preparing for military service since childhood.

                      and when those officers who are (let's say) trained since childhood are killed in the first battle - where are the new ones to take ?? To reopen warrant officers' schools with an accelerated program and take managers, movers and farmers there? Naturally, we do not live in ancient India and not even in samurai Japan
                      1. flavus
                        flavus 6 December 2018 13: 27
                        +3
                        Quote: Adjutant
                        To reopen warrant officers' schools with an accelerated program and take managers, movers and farmers there?

                        So I didn’t call anywhere to return to caste society. I understand perfectly well that this is impossible in the modern world.
                        I just stated the fact that the society was somewhat more honest and more correctly organized. And for the morale of officers, dueling is useful, since a military man without honor is an empty place, and only petty bourgeois defend honor in the courts. I poorly imagine the officer to whom the drunkard in the street moved in his ear, and he ran to the military court to complain laughing
                        More precisely, I am very well aware of this picture and this is sad, because there will be little sense from such officers.
                    2. flavus
                      flavus 6 December 2018 13: 07
                      +1
                      Quote: Adjutant
                      What does "developed" society or "morally healthy" society mean? Explain, pliz

                      A morally healthy society is a society where the elders are respected, do not have abortions, do not close the door to the lock, since theft is minimized, they understand what honor is, in general, and the honor of the military, in particular. And so on.
                      Quote: Adjutant
                      Are you talking about the first stage of the Battle of Stalingrad ??

                      This is me about the red commanders who were recruited according to your principles - from the groom and the general laborer. And who bathed with the Finns, ditching a bunch of their own people, and then successfully retreated to Elbrus in the Patriotic War. Ditching the people even more.
                      People whose parents grazed cows in overwhelming numbers should be engaged in similar work.
                      Of course, with exceptions.
                      1. Adjutant
                        Adjutant 6 December 2018 13: 10
                        +3
                        As I thought - I hear reasoning that speaks only about the ideological insides of man.
                        But not about knowledge.
                        I have identified specific categories
                        and you in response
                        a society where the elders are respected, do not have abortions, do not close the door to the lock, since theft is minimized, they understand what honor is, in general, and the honor of a military man, in particular. And so on.

                        Housewives reason like this
                        As for the red commanders. They learned to fight - although they did not prepare from childhood as samurai and did not enter the kshatriyas in Varna.
                        Okay, clear.
                        All the best
                  2. Mikhail Matyugin
                    Mikhail Matyugin 7 December 2018 14: 30
                    +1
                    Quote: Flavus
                    I mean that the officers should be a caste where they have been preparing for military service since childhood. This layer should have its own norms and laws. Then the highest quality of the officers will be achieved.

                    In modern society, in the era of mass military service and draft armies, the high quality of officers as a whole is not required. This is a given, unfortunately. This has been confirmed throughout the 20 century.
    2. Tutejszy
      Tutejszy 6 December 2018 10: 24
      +4
      Quote: Adjutant
      Should an officer have been involved in an illegal event in terms of officer honor?

      From the point of view of the officer's honor of those times, the duel was in the first place a matter of honor, and at best in the 1th it was an illegal event. Like Lermontov's in "Masquerade":
      ... he was kicked out of a regiment for a duel
      Or for not being in a duel.
      1. ccsr
        ccsr 6 December 2018 13: 13
        +3
        Quote: Tutejszy
        In terms of officer honor of those times

        The whole trouble of the current "denunciators" of the actions of the officers of those times is that they judge from the position of modern morality and have absolutely no idea what an honor was for an officer at that time. Danzas could not do otherwise - that's the whole conclusion that can be drawn from this case. The author, in my opinion, described the life of those times quite accurately, so we look forward to continuing. Well, and to all "advocates of morality" at someone else's expense, I will say only one thing - you did not live at that time, it is not for you to judge.
    3. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 6 December 2018 21: 16
      +1
      I don't think Pushkin supplied Danzas. Probably, the poet had no one else to turn to in such a situation. He probably knew that Danzas would surely "fit in." It is not for nothing that all the former lyceum students turned away from the latter after the duel.
  3. Tutejszy
    Tutejszy 6 December 2018 10: 13
    +1
    He knew very well that already at that moment his throat was either pulled together by a rope, or this fate passed him by. (...) The military court of first instance issued the most severe sentence. Because Lieutenant Colonel Danzas did not report on the planned “evil intent” and thereby “allowed duel and murder to take place”, he was sentenced to be hanged. However, apparently, the sovereign nevertheless condescended to a tearful petition of Natalia Goncharova, and the second court decided to deprive Konstantin Karlovich of the golden half-saber (he was awarded her “For Courage”) and demoted him to the rank and file. The next court even softened the sentence.

    Well, the gallows really didn’t threaten him, but a serious term was possible. In accordance with the Charter of Peter the Great, the military court of first instance always sentenced the duelists to the gallows - and all without exception kings (and starting from the same Peter) sentence alwaysbut softened. The question is how much, it all depended on the personal relationship of the king to the guilty: some got off with trifles, and some got seriously. In real life, Danzas received only two additional months of arrest in the Peter and Paul Fortress, which was conventional practice of the time in cases of dueling. The main trouble was precisely that
    former lyceum friends turned their backs on him (...) evil tongues pursued the lieutenant colonel, who honorably fulfilled all the requests of his friend and thereby risked his own life.
  4. Moore
    Moore 12 December 2018 15: 54
    0
    Konstantin was also charged with the fact that they did not call a doctor for a duel and did not take any medications with them. This, of course, can be considered a tragic mistake of Danzas, if you do not take into account the strict and cruel rules of the duel “to death” and the immense haste of Alexander Sergeyevich.

    The “dueling code" of that time read:
    377. Before starting a duel, opponents must allow the seconds of the opposing side to inspect them, in order to make sure that the above conditions are met.
    Seconds are required to always follow this formality.
    Doctors stand a few steps behind the seconds.

    Those. the doctor was supposed for any outcome.
    Well, everyone was in a hurry. But Danzas, an experienced military man, did not even think of taking (to buy a pair of sheets along the way) dressings?
    According to a study by the Ural surgeon Mikhail Davidov (“The duel and the death of AS Pushkin through the eyes of a modern surgeon”), Danzas’s mistake was also that Pushkin was not taken to the hospital from the place of the duel, but could be given home some help . From the Black River to the apartment on the Moika - about seven miles. Pushkin was transported for an hour and a half. According to modern doctors, on the way home he lost almost half the volume of blood.
    The noble idea of ​​the author is clear to protect Danzas, a man unconditionally honest and noble. But he did the jambs, of course, immeasurably ...