Military Review

The most expensive helmets. Part two. Helmet Hallathon

53
Helmet Hallathon is another expensive and even very expensive decorated iron parade helmet, which belonged to a Roman cavalryman, originally covered with silver leaf and in some places also decorated with gold. He was found in 2000, near the town of Hallathon, in Leicestershire, shortly after Ken Wallace, a member of a local search group, found Roman coins here. Archaeologists from the Archaeological Survey of the University of Leicester were interested in this place. They began to search and found! However, what they found on the helmet seemed very small. Therefore, it took as much as nine years of hard work to restore it. The work was carried out by experts from the British Museum with the support of a grant of the Lottery Fund in the amount of 650 000 pounds sterling. Today, the helmet is on permanent display at the Harbow Museum in Market Harboud, along with other artifacts from the finds in Hallathon.


The most expensive helmets. Part two. Helmet Hallathon

Helmet from Hallaton. Front view.

The helmet was found broken into thousands of pieces and besides, it was heavily damaged by rust. But despite this, the helmet is an excellent example of Roman blacksmith skill. It is covered with silver and decorated with chased images of goddesses and horses. It is believed that he was worn by the Roman cavalry of auxiliary units both at parades and, possibly, in battle. The fact that he was found next to thousands of coins of Roman time suggests that he could belong to a local who fought with the Romans during the Roman conquest of Britain.

Roman cavalrymen of auxiliary units also used such helmets in gymnastics hippie competitions. To participate in them, riders put on luxurious clothes, armor and helmets, decorated with plumes of ostrich feathers, and recreated on the field historical and legendary battles. It is known, for example, that masks on helmets could have female features - and then it was a team of Amazons, and male ones - copying the image of Alexander the Great.


Helmet-mask with the face of Alexander of Macedon, bronze. Smederevo, II century AD (Folk Museum, Belgrade)

The helmet consists of three parts and is made of sheet iron. Today it is the only Roman helmet ever found in Britain that has retained most of its silver coating. Initially, the helmet had two patches attached to it through the holes near the ears.


The Emperor lapel (No. 1), depicting the Roman emperor, crowned with the figure of the goddess of Victory, and trampling on the barbarian with the hooves of his horse.

As is the case with other Roman cavalry helmets, the “Hallathon helmet” is very richly decorated. It looks like a helmet, found in Hunten-Ward in Germany, which, like the Hallanton one, is made of silver-gilded iron with a crown in the shape of a wreath, a central figure above the eyebrows and a garland of flowers on our warrior. The bowl of the English helmet is also decorated with laurel wreaths, and in the center of the crown is the (now badly damaged) bust of a woman surrounded by lions. Perhaps she was an empress or goddess. The iconography resembles the image of Cybele, the Great Mother, whose image was used in the era of Emperor Augustus.

Interestingly, in the helmet's helmet, six patches of the head and still splintered remains of the seventh were found, although only two were needed. Hinges were also found, as were the pins of one of the cheek pads. It is not clear why so much was done for one helmet. Is it really "spare parts" in case of damage? Or they were changed depending on ... what? It should be noted that the preserved cheek pads are structurally very complex. Five of them show equestrian scenes; one depicts the triumph of the Roman emperor. The treacherous barbarian is depicted below and trampled down by the hooves of his horse. Another less well-preserved faceplate depicts a figure with a large cornucopia, a Roman helmet and a shield.


Helmet type Montefortino (350 - 300 years. BC). (Museum of National Archeology in Perugia. Italy)

The helmet was found along with 5296 coins of the Roman era, mainly related to 30-50. AD, and this is the largest collection of coins of this time ever found in the UK. They were buried on the spot ... "the slaughter of animals"; in the same place where about 7000 fragments of their bones were found, 97 percent of which were pork, on top of a hill surrounded by a ditch and palisade. That is, it was clearly some kind of altar, where pigs were brought from all around and where they were killed. Either they were killed first, the meat was eaten, and the bones were brought here. More precisely today you will not tell. In any case, archaeologists believe that finding a helmet in such a place is quite unusual. Taking into account its possible dating, it can be argued that today it is one of the earliest Roman helmets ever found on the territory of England. Other helmets, like the same “Gisborough helmet” or the “Crosby Garrett helmet” already known to us, like the “Newsted helmet”, belong to a later time. Various proposals have been made as to why the helmet was in Hallanton; perhaps it belonged to a British who served in the Roman cavalry, perhaps it was a diplomatic gift from the Romans to some local leader, or he, on the contrary, was captured as a trophy in the war and then sacrificed to local deities. According to Dr. Jeremy Hill of the British Museum, the first explanation is most likely: "Most likely there was a situation when local warriors fought on the side of the Romans."


"Capture Decibal." The scene on the column of Trajan in Rome. Roman helmets with a carrying ring, loric segmented plate armor and chain mail with a notched hem - Lorica gamata are clearly visible.

This view is based on the fact that the Romans used to recruit cavalry from the aborigines, rightly believing that local horses and people are most suitable for local conditions. They played the role of intelligence and lookout, but in the battles the Roman cavalry played a minor role. The fact is that the height of the Roman horses were small. In addition, the Romans rode them bareback and stirrups. The Nimidian cavalry did not even have a reins. Like the Indians, the Numidians ruled the horse with the shenkels and only had a belt around the horse’s neck, which they could grasp in principle. And that's it! On the column of Trajan, where the Numidian horsemen are depicted, their horses do not have any other harness. Weapon Numidians served two darts, which they threw at full gallop, which increased their flight range and impact force, and the falcata sword.


Bronze snaffle from a treasure in Polden Hill, Somerset.

As for the equipment of the auxiliary cavalry of the Roman troops in the lands of Britain, its soldiers had a helmet, a coat of mail, an oval shield, a Spatu sword and a spear of gastu with a tip in the form of a bay leaf. Again, when attacking, spears threw and ... returned to the camp for new ones. That is why, by the way, hippie gymnasium games were so popular at that time: it required the ability to accurately throw spears and darts at a gallop, and ... in general, nothing more! Luxurious scenes from the movie "Dacs", where the Roman cavalry galloping chops his opponents with swords, is nothing more than a colorful picture that has nothing in common with reality.

The tactical unit in the cavalry served as ala (in Latin - “wing”), a unit numbering 512 warriors and divided into smaller units - Turma, consisting of 32 cavalrymen each. Compare this with the number of the legion, which in the era of the Empire consisted of 6000 soldiers, and we get ... the importance of cavalry in the Roman army. And the reason was simple: the Roman riders did not know the stirrups, although they knew the spurs. However, for some reason, the spur was worn on one leg only, spurs were not paired.


The rider of the Roman cavalry in equipment for hippies gymnasium. The tips of the darts were wooden. But when they got into the open parts of the body, injuries were inevitable, so helmets must have masks. Fig. A. Shepsa.

The restored helmet was presented to the public in January 2012. The Leicester County Council was able to raise £ 1million to 1 in order to buy all the treasure and pay to save the helmet with donations from the Lottery Fund of charities. The helmet was rated at 300 000 pounds. In accordance with the provisions of the Treasure Act, Ken Wallace and the landowner, on whose land the helmet was found, were paid in 150 000 pounds sterling to each. After that, he went on display at Market Harbour, nine miles from where the treasure was found, along with other artifacts found in Hallathon.


Helmet in the museum.

It is believed that the helmet looks lush, but decorated extremely tasteless, which reflects the decadence of the Roman culture of the era of the empire. However, if it was made for Aboriginal people, then this is not surprising. Tasteless, but beautiful. Glitters, many figures, silver, gold, what else does a person who aspires to adopt the high standards of the level of life of such successful conquerors ?!

To be continued ...
Author:
Articles from this series:
The most expensive helmets. Helmet Crosby Garrett. Part one
53 comments
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  1. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 27 March 2018 06: 34
    +5
    Vyacheslav Olegovich, I don’t understand ... You indicate that the Roman horses were small, and in the picture of Sheps in full-length individual. There is a dissonance. ???? request
    1. kalibr
      27 March 2018 07: 39
      +5
      Well ... the artist sees it this way ... There was a reconstruction of the horse and its equipment in the British edition. There was a horseman's drawing by Michael Simpkins ... Then the drawing was redone into this figure. And just put it on a horse. Then they looked, and it’s true. But changing is very troublesome and expensive! It is easier to assume that the rider got an Arabian horse or Persian, after the Roman advance to Mesopotamia. Now I looked again - it was necessary to reduce the size so that the rider with the same position of the hand would touch the horse’s lips with his hand.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 27 March 2018 20: 43
        +2
        Damn, it’s from this “artist sees it” that distrust of these same artists-reenactors is born! In your article about Mordovian warriors you had a picture of McBride, there is depicted a "horse" with a drop-shaped shield in a half-height. That's how he turned in a battle through the bow of a saddle ?!
        1. Weyland
          Weyland 27 March 2018 23: 35
          0
          Quote: 3x3zsave
          That's how he turned in a battle through the bow of a saddle ?!

          on the tapestry from Bayeux the Norman knights have the same shields, and the wine is good, as they turned
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 28 March 2018 05: 32
            +2
            The Bayeux tapestry is another source in terms of the anatomical and overall accuracy claimed by reconstruction artists. However, his images show different ways of holding such a shield with riders and foot soldiers.
      2. ruskih
        ruskih 27 March 2018 20: 59
        +3
        ... so that the rider, in the same position, would touch the horse’s lips with his hand.

        Like that? wink Comments are welcome)))) yes
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 27 March 2018 21: 19
          +3
          Bravo, Elena !!! There are no words! Just bravo! good love love love
          1. ruskih
            ruskih 27 March 2018 21: 26
            +4
            repeat Come on, Anton. thank love
            We will be creative wink and correct errors so that distrust does not arise)) love
            :
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 27 March 2018 23: 03
              +2
              Sorry, Elena, I can creatively approach a career excavator (well, there, sell the Mask, like a prototype of a rover). And I'm just afraid to approach the horse. Those a couple of times - so I broke myself: "You can, it's simple. You are the grandson of a cavalryman. It's easier than crossing the street at the red light. You will like it. Life does not end there." laughing
              1. ruskih
                ruskih 27 March 2018 23: 58
                +2
                “A horse is much more generous than a man, gifted with instincts and feelings. The horse hears better than a cat, the sense of smell is thinner than that of a dog, it is sensitive to the passage of time, to changes in weather ... There is no animal equal to it on Earth. ”A. I. Kuprin
                and more
                "Great things, all as one:
                Women, Horses, Power and War. " love Rudyard Kipling
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 28 March 2018 05: 34
                  +1
                  Kuprin had reason to regard horses better than people.
            2. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 28 March 2018 07: 10
              +2
              Funny, the horse got smaller - the grass got bigger. Theory of biomass conservation in action. laughing
              1. ruskih
                ruskih 28 March 2018 11: 04
                +1
                Funny, the horse got smaller - the grass got bigger. Theory of biomass conservation in action.

                And really funny. Although this warrior became taller and closer, accordingly the horse visually decreased, although its size was the same, but the weed had to be added underfoot.
                Fads of visual perception)
          2. Curious
            Curious 27 March 2018 22: 25
            +3
            I rummaged a bit in literature here to somehow decide which horse is "small", which is "large".
            First about the "small ones." According to the book “HORSE AND RIDER, ways and fate” of Kovalevskaya Vera Borisovna, in Rome, where the best horses of the West and the East were delivered (I listed the breeds in the previous comment), the average height of the cavalry horse was only 136-140 cm and only for circus competitions the largest horses were used, reaching up to 150 cm.
            On the other hand, according to Clark, John (Ed). The Medieval Horse and its Equipment: c.1150-c.1450, (and there is no reason to believe it), a large knightly war knight horse, destrie, had a height at the withers of no more than 15 English spans. English span - 4 inches. 25,4x4x15 = 1524 mm or .... 150 cm.
            If we take the famous Don or Cossack steppe breed, bred in the 1813th-15th centuries in the territory of the present Rostov Region by Platov, Ilovaisky and others upon returning from campaigns of 2-1, then until the middle of the 146th century it had a height at the withers of 2 arshins 3 ridge ( 155 cm) and no more than 165 arshins of 170 vertices (XNUMX cm.). And only when they began to cross with other breeds, mainly English, the horse "grew" to modern XNUMX-XNUMX cm.
        2. kalibr
          27 March 2018 22: 38
          +3
          Yes very good! Thanks you! Exactly what you need.
          1. Mikado
            Mikado 27 March 2018 23: 38
            +3
            if you need photo processing, Vyacheslav Olegovich, contact Elena safely! good she miraculously succeeds. (Elena - bow! love )
    2. Curious
      Curious 27 March 2018 14: 50
      +5
      "You indicate that the Roman horses were small, and in the picture of Sheps there is a full-length individual in the field. There is a dissonance. ????"
      Roman horses of which period in the history of Rome were too small?
      Apsyrt and Hierocles, authors of veterinary works who held posts in the imperial service - the first under Constantine the Great, the last, perhaps a century later, say that the treatment of a sick horse does not depend on its breed, whether it is Arcadian, Cyrene, Iberian, Cappadocian or for that matter, Thessalian or Moorish, or the breed that the Persian king is so proud of, the Nisean. The spirit is more specific: Parthian horses are large, beautiful and hot, with surprisingly good legs (which diverges from the observation of Grattius); mussel (i.e. nisei) larger; Persian blood flows in Armenian or Cappadocian, but they are quite heavy and slow; the Spanish are large, symmetrically folded, carry their beautiful heads high, but they have poor cereals. These are hardy road horses, although they are poor runners and are not able to bear the urge, meek at birth, but naughty after they go around. Speaking about the horses of Greece, the author notes their size, beautiful heads, high posture and liveliness, however, he says that they have bad cereals. The best are Thessaly horses; Epirusic often with a burrow. Thracian consist of all possible flaws (invasions constantly fell on Thrace, and a good breed was undoubtedly destroyed). Cyrene's horses are especially appreciated for endurance. Istrian and Sarmatian special merits; Argivskys have good legs, bad cereals, beautiful heads and ridges well hidden under the skin.
      Those. in the XNUMXrd century AD the Romans operated on many breeds. After all, this knowledge did not appear out of the blue. So to speak about the "Roman horse" is somehow incorrect.

      This is a frieze. Friezes were known to the Romans.
      1. DimanC
        DimanC 27 March 2018 16: 15
        +1
        From the above information, their relative size is not visible at all. On the famous Pompeii mosaic with Alexander the Great, the horse is too small. The cuirassier horses of the Napoleonic era have not yet been bred
  2. XII Legion
    XII Legion 27 March 2018 07: 10
    +19
    Very funny helmet
    They served as scouts and sentinels.

    The classic is, in my opinion, the use of the Numidian cavalry in the Roman service.
    By the way, the role and significance of the Roman cavalry varies in accordance with the era. But in general, even during the period of principle, she played a very important role in some battles, for example, in the victory of Germanicus at Idistaviso in the year 16.
    1. Luga
      Luga 27 March 2018 13: 02
      +4
      Quote: XII Legion
      By the way, the role and significance of the Roman cavalry fluctuate in accordance with the era.

      Actually, initially the functions of the Roman cavalry included only intelligence, patrol service and communications. Later, the pursuit of the defeated enemy was added. Then the function of the outbreak of combat. And last but not least - shock functions, this is already in the 2nd century AD. The late empire was already rife with heavy cavalry.
      In general, over time, the role of cavalry steadily increased.
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 27 March 2018 08: 02
    +4
    The invention of the stapes, later on, turned out to be a revolution in military affairs ... although it would seem ... what the hell ...
  4. Cheburator
    Cheburator 27 March 2018 08: 37
    +17
    The Roman helmet has always been very interested
    Like the history of cavalry
    Thank you for the article
  5. Curious
    Curious 27 March 2018 14: 26
    +4

    Soil block, which includes fragments of a helmet. In this form, all this went to the restorers.
    1. Curious
      Curious 27 March 2018 14: 27
      +6

      And so the helmet looked originally.
  6. Mikhail3
    Mikhail3 27 March 2018 17: 59
    0
    Author! I beg you !! Tell us ignoramuses what action can be used to break a sheet steel helmet into a thousand pieces! Not the first helmet already, moreover, the "found" recently, again broken into pieces! How? How?!
    I have the only explanation. Imperial magicians previously froze dashing warriors to absolute zero with Sabziro's spell. And then they broke it. Nothing else just comes to mind. Do not let me die a fool, author!
    1. kalibr
      27 March 2018 19: 23
      +5
      You can’t die a fool, but you’re sure to die a male analog! But seriously, the iron in the earth rusts quickly. The helmet rusted already at that time, and since it was on the field, whoever didn’t crush this place and how. But still it did not decompose completely ... what was left was collected.
      1. Curious
        Curious 27 March 2018 23: 17
        +3
        "You can’t die a fool ... "
        That you got excited. Achievements of modern medicine allow a fool to die. Every whim for your money. Something will be cut off, something will be sewn, they will be fed with tablets - and woo a la. A fool in all its glory.
        1. Mikado
          Mikado 27 March 2018 23: 39
          +3
          Something will be cut off, something will be sewn, they will be fed with tablets - and woo a la.

          and the Good Doctor would say: “You would cut everything! Wait, it will fall off itself” laughing drinks
      2. Mikhail3
        Mikhail3 28 March 2018 09: 01
        0
        You sure!
        Right? And do you know this complicated word ?! I am amazed. What is happening in your article? The helmet appears to be corroded. But the author wanted to spit on it, he writes "broken." Wonderful.
        Is it that you don’t respect us all so much, or are you unable to find the right word or expression? And in either case, your behavior and intellectual power) looks ... Well, substitute the word yourself. If you are able to pick them up, and not accidentally sculpt anything.
        1. Curious
          Curious 28 March 2018 13: 09
          +3
          "... or not able to find the right word ..."
          The fact is that correctly selected words in response to your comments on the site are considered a violation and banned for them.
          Excuse me, but your aggression. implicated in a certain ignorance, it hurts you a lot. Firstly. You, nevertheless, are unlikely to perfectly understand the metallurgical processes in their historical development, but you are immediately trying to cover up your mouth with poop.
          Secondly, a normal commentator. who would like to leave a constructive comment, he would write that the author did not pay attention to the translation of the English-language original source, and the word “shattered” is first translated as “broken”, although in this contest it should be translated as “destroyed”. Then, taking into account the safety features of the archaeological metal, everything falls into place, including corrosion. In this case, both the author and the audience would be grateful to you for clarification.
          Instead, you rush at everyone like a Tuzik on a heating pad and, in addition to the "right" words addressed to you, you get nothing.
          This is the “History” section, where sane people who value communication and knowledge, rather than aggressive hamsters from the “News” or “Opinions” sections with the intelligence of the tundra plants, gather.
          For all the shortcomings, the author did not cite the manure on the fan, as the "authors" like Samsonov & Company have been doing on the site recently, but a normal historical fact with the use of English-language primary sources, which for most are not available. Correct, supplement, criticize constructively. They will understand and support you. Well ... just don’t rush.
          1. Mikhail3
            Mikhail3 28 March 2018 15: 08
            0
            You see ... The author claims that his articles are not works by a schoolboy. And if so, then he must abide by certain standards adopted among those who write serious articles for adults. That is, somehow respecting the audience for example.
            Because of his modesty, the author did not consider it necessary to indicate that the article was not his, but simply distorted from English. And by chance, he wrote: the author is Shpakovsky. Well, since Shpakovsky, and not some Anglo-Saxons, so let Shpakovsky be so kind that he will write to us what exactly happened with the helmet.
            But I wanted to lay out the article, but reading it and delving into it wasn’t very good. And this approach causes me rejection. It is extremely unpleasant for me when a person claims on a scientific approach on the one hand, and on the other hand demonstrates childish helplessness. Write the author to Murzilka, I would not have arisen with my sorrows.
            If sources were used, then under the article they are indicated, even if they are English-speaking. But in this case, even if the English-speaking authors are also ordinary ignoramuses, and sculpt their own “destroyed”, instead of “destroyed by corrosion”, this does not mean that one should write like that. Well, if you are smart and educated ...
            Although, maybe this is not the case. If they had written about corrosion, people would naturally have asked - how did you determine where the rust is, from which the helmet once consisted, and where is the ground? Anyone who has seen a piece of iron made of 20 steel that has lain in the ground for at least 10 years will be extremely amazed that something is left. But the steel of the times of Rome is many times worse than the steel 20. And so - "collected from a thousand pieces." There were pieces, there was plenty to collect from. Do you understand?
            Mr. Shpakovsky has already touted English co-workers here, making sloppy copper sheet artifacts and passing these artifacts out of horror at what authentic "copies of armor" are for reenactors. And now I look at the obvious progress - "we have assembled a helmet from a thousand pieces! Give us a million ..."
            1. Curious
              Curious 28 March 2018 20: 56
              +1
              You have the position of Thomas from the poem Mikhalkov. But you are not Stanislavsky in front of the actors. Tell me, with what knowledge and in what area is this position reinforced? Nevertheless, the denial of everything should be based on something other than obstinacy. What do you know about the safety features of archaeological metals in various conditions and about the physical and chemical processes that occur in them?
              And according to the level of articles. Yes, I also criticized and sometimes criticize him for this very level. But here, you know, the complaint is more to the site that set this level.
              Do you want at the level of The English Historical Review? Do you know a lot of historians of this level who will be published on the VO site? And then also write comments?
      3. NN52
        NN52 29 March 2018 19: 45
        +1
        kalibr
        Of course, I'm sorry ... But about the rusting iron in the earth very quickly .. It's like that ...
        And about whoever did not crush this place on the field, this is a masterpiece from you ...
        Have you ever entered the code field? You threw tons of land with a shovel ???
        And the concept - the earth squeezes out every year, you also do not know ...
    2. Weyland
      Weyland 27 March 2018 23: 39
      +3
      Quote: Mikhail3
      Tell us ignoramuses what action can be used to break a sheet steel helmet into a thousand pieces!

      I am not an author, but I am a metallurgical pro with 30 years of experience. It would be necessary to explain to the ignoramuses the peculiarities of the steel production technology on a dozen pages, so believe the word of the nobleman: steel of that time can be broken if you know how!
      1. Mikhail3
        Mikhail3 28 March 2018 09: 05
        0
        You want to say that the then steel was fragile close to cast iron, because it was not so good to remove carbon from it? This, of course, is difficult to explain to people. But still ... No matter how you hit the battle helmet, but the maximum, with the worst possible dressing, will be able to split it into a couple of pieces. And not a thousand, as the author of the article sculpts without any hesitation, without looking at anything.
        Not very difficult? Thirty Years of Ninada? Less professional swagger, closer to people, and everything will be able to explain ...
        1. Monarchist
          Monarchist 28 March 2018 18: 15
          +1
          Michael, and it’s important for you that the author counts the number of pieces into which helmet is split? It seems to me that the point here is the desire to show off eloquence
        2. Weyland
          Weyland 28 March 2018 22: 34
          0
          Quote: Mikhail3
          then steel was fragility close to cast iron, because to remove carbon from it was not enough?

          then steel was fragility close to cast iron, because to remove from it slag it turned out badly - precisely because the carbon in it was usually not enough, and it was not possible to melt it - the slag was pressed forging! Because of the slag and its color, it resembled cast iron - and the “shiny white iron” (ferrum candidum) was valued an order of magnitude higher than that cleared of slag by repeated forging in the presence of a special secret flux (called “pyuromachos”). It was from him that Master Theophilus made a helmet for Alexander, "sparkling like silver"
          Quote: Mikhail3
          No matter how you hit the battle helmet, the maximum, with the worst possible dressing, will be able to split it into a couple of pieces. And not a thousand, as the author of the article sculpts without any hesitation, without looking at anything.

          if it’s cold. And if the helmet was sacrificed to the gods and fell into a fire ... google "red breaking" - then they did not know how to deal with it. You can even break it into 1000 pieces, but literally into a million - into coarse metal sand!
          1. Golovan Jack
            Golovan Jack 28 March 2018 22: 47
            +4
            Quote: Weyland
            steel was brittle close to cast iron, because it was not enough to remove slag from it - precisely because carbon was usually not enough in it, and it was not possible to melt it - the slag was pressed forging

            Sweat, blood, sand and girlish tears ... half an hour under the table already, just crawled out now ...
            Young man, I graduated from MISiS 30+ years ago. This is Steel and Alloys, if ...
            What, to mom, is the “slag” in steel? And by the way, in cast iron - too?
            This is a masterpiece in general:
            Quote: Weyland
            carbon in it was usually not enough, and it was not possible to melt it

            Carbon in steel is always "not enough." Anything above 0.6% is considered high-carbon steel, if wink
            As for the "melt" ... um ... see the picture, the top line (called liquidus) is the melting point ...

            The minimum melting point is somewhere at 4.3% carbon, and then it rises again.
            Would you even read Vick, or something ...
            1. Curious
              Curious 28 March 2018 23: 24
              0
              The fact that MISiS is encouraging. Although, as I said, if I’m not mistaken, Bagration, not every bouncer is a hussar. True, the iron-carbon diagram for the vast majority of those present here is a perfect dark forest and they are unlikely to be able to extract information about why this helmet was destroyed. You would better bring the chemical composition and metallography of Roman helmets as a specialist.
              1. Golovan Jack
                Golovan Jack 29 March 2018 06: 25
                +4
                Quote: Curious
                You’d better bring the chemical composition and metallography of Roman helmets as a specialist

                Alas - not to me. In 88, I moved away from metallurgy ... completely.
                I was simply amused by the "slag", which was "squeezed forging."
                As for the Roman - this is to the archaeologists, rather.
                Quote: Curious
                ... iron-carbon diagram ...

                ... driven into the brain tightly. Well this is the simplest, “Triple” diagrams, as an example - it’s much funnier, and then you begin to understand, what for “metallurgist” - the inscription laughing
                1. Curious
                  Curious 29 March 2018 07: 57
                  0
                  "I was simply amused by the" slag ", which was" squeezed by blacksmithing. "
                  Just a man in his own words outlined the completion of the cheese-production process of iron production, which the Romans used. Like a student in an exam.
            2. Weyland
              Weyland 29 March 2018 21: 15
              0
              Quote: Golovan Jack
              Young man, I graduated from MISiS 30+ years ago.

              So what? You history were interested in metallurgy? Young man, I graduated from KazPTI the same 30 years ago - I was too lazy to transfer to MISiS, although I could. But I can argue on an equal footing with any Mississary, so please remember that Europe learned to melt steel in 1740 (Benjamin Huntsman), and large-tonnage production began more than 100 years later - after the Bessemer converter (1854) and the Siemens-Open-hearth furnace (1867). In modern steel and cast iron, there really is nowhere to take the slag from - and you google at least in the words of “kritz” and “direct reduction of iron”! I'm not talking about the "Brescia technology" that you almost certainly have not heard about in your MISIS! Again, as you can see from the diagram above, at a temperature of 1500C (and before the invention of the Siemens regenerator it was no longer possible) steel with a carbon content of 0,4% or higher melts - therefore, Huntsman could not melt low-carbon steel (and even aimed at medium-carbon efficiency zero - usually melted steel with carbon not lower than 0,7%)
              1. Golovan Jack
                Golovan Jack 29 March 2018 21: 42
                +4
                Quote: Weyland
                at a temperature of 1500C, steel with a carbon content of 0,4% and higher melts - therefore, Huntsman could not melt low-carbon steel (and tended to zero at medium-carbon efficiency - usually melted steel with carbon at least 0,7%)

                It's hard to argue with that. laughing
                Quote: Weyland
                In modern steel and cast iron, slag really comes from nowhere

                Um ... I was taught that steel slag ... should not be. Or is it not steel at all wink
                Quote: Weyland
                history of metallurgy ...

                ... I was never particularly interested, there were many more pressing cases.
                But yours
                Quote: Weyland
                the slag was pressed forging

                - made a lasting impression on me belay
                That's all, actually request
                1. Weyland
                  Weyland 30 March 2018 17: 00
                  0
                  Quote: Golovan Jack
                  history of metallurgy ...
                  ... I was never particularly interested, there were many more pressing cases.
                  But yours
                  "forged slag forged"
                  - made a lasting impression on me

                  Therefore, it happened that they were not interested in the history of metallurgy! laughing
  7. Weyland
    Weyland 27 March 2018 23: 44
    +3
    The weapons of the Numidians were two darts, which they threw at the gallop, which increased the range of their flight and the force of the blow, and the sword of the Falcate.
    Note to the author: this sword was called "mahaira gizpanika", the term "falkata" (sickle-shaped) appeared in the 19th century. Although the term "ensis falcatus" (sickle-shaped sword) was sometimes used, it is not just an adjective without a noun!

    The dart tips were wooden. But when hit in the open parts of the body, injuries were inevitable, therefore helmets without fail had masks.
    And not only in open parts of the body. Burton in the “Book of the Sword” mentions the case when in a similar competition (which survived in Africa until his time) a dart with a wooden tip pierced a shield made of buffalo skin and broke the hand of its holder - despite the fact that a round lead bullet of a smooth-bore did not penetrate such a shield!
  8. bubalik
    bubalik 27 March 2018 23: 56
    +3
    ,,, the restoration work was tremendous, and how much money was spent.

    The find was made by Ken Wallace, a retired teacher, amateur archaeologist. Fragments were impossible to get from the earth separately - the risk was too great.
    The excavation site was filled with gypsum and the blocks obtained were delivered to the laboratory. As already mentioned, restoration work took more than 9 years.
    Excavations, conservation and restoration cost a total of 1 650 000 pounds, which were collected with the help of the County Council and the Latteri Foundation. Ken Wallace received an award in 150 000 pounds.



    http://mreen.org/armour-club/shlem-iz-hallatona-r
    oskosh-i-mosch-imperii-v-serebre-i-stali.html
  9. Monarchist
    Monarchist 28 March 2018 18: 17
    +1
    Quote: Mikado
    Something will be cut off, something will be sewn, they will be fed with tablets - and woo a la.

    and the Good Doctor would say: “You would cut everything! Wait, it will fall off itself” laughing drinks

    Thank you have fun
  10. Monarchist
    Monarchist 28 March 2018 18: 20
    0
    Quote: Weyland
    The weapons of the Numidians were two darts, which they threw at the gallop, which increased the range of their flight and the force of the blow, and the sword of the Falcate.
    Note to the author: this sword was called "mahaira gizpanika", the term "falkata" (sickle-shaped) appeared in the 19th century. Although the term "ensis falcatus" (sickle-shaped sword) was sometimes used, it is not just an adjective without a noun!

    The dart tips were wooden. But when hit in the open parts of the body, injuries were inevitable, therefore helmets without fail had masks.
    And not only in open parts of the body. Burton in the “Book of the Sword” mentions the case when in a similar competition (which survived in Africa until his time) a dart with a wooden tip pierced a shield made of buffalo skin and broke the hand of its holder - despite the fact that a round lead bullet of a smooth-bore did not penetrate such a shield!

    My friend, it will be great if you also act as an author.
  11. NN52
    NN52 29 March 2018 20: 54
    +1
    Sorry, not a historian, but I love history ... And not only from old engravings ..
    Look at the preservation of what is in the photo. This is of course not a Roman theme, but ours, and of course not as "ancient" as a helmet ...
    Especially found in the Nizhny Novgorod region ...
    Specialists will probably determine ...
    I know what is it.
    1. NN52
      NN52 29 March 2018 20: 56
      +1


      One more photo
      1. NN52
        NN52 29 March 2018 20: 57
        +1


        And another photo again
        1. NN52
          NN52 29 March 2018 21: 00
          +1
          History buffs ... by the nonexistent fossils ...
          1. NN52
            NN52 29 March 2018 21: 42
            +1
            I hope to determine the period? plus minus 200 years?