Military Review

Vladivostok - the main Russian fortress in the Far East

56
Vladivostok is an important Russian city and port in the Far East. It was founded in 1860 year, as a military post "Vladivostok", in 1880 year received city status. Throughout its existence, Vladivostok was called a “fortress”. At the same time, neither the battlements, nor the high defense towers, nor the numerous bastions have ever surrounded this Russian city. Throughout its existence - it was the fortress of the new time - the crown of fortification art of the last century, a combination of iron, concrete and powerful coastal artillery.


The defenses that were built around Vladivostok for decades to protect the city from attacks from land and from the sea never became involved in serious military clashes with the enemy. However, their role in strengthening Russian influence in this region cannot be overestimated. It was the power of the Vladivostok fortifications that by its presence alone restrained a potential aggressor who simply did not dare attack the “fortress” of Vladivostok.

Officially, Vladivostok was declared a fortress on August 30, 1889, which was announced exactly at noon on the same day by the shot of a cannon installed on Tigrovaya Hill. At the same time, the Vladivostok fortress is the largest fortification in the world; of all the sea fortresses of the country, only it was included in the list of unique historical monuments of UNESCO. The "fortress" occupied more than 400 square kilometers of land and underground. The fortress at different times included up to 16 forts, about 50 coastal artillery batteries, dozens of different caponiers, 8 underground barracks, 130 different fortifications, up to 1,4 thousand guns.

Vladivostok itself was distinguished by a favorable geographical location. Located on the peninsula of Muravyov-Amursky, the city is washed by the waters of the Amur and Ussuri bays, which are part of the waters of Peter the Great Bay, the Sea of ​​Japan. In addition, the city today includes about 50 islands, the largest of which is Russky Island with a total area of ​​9764 ha. The area of ​​the remaining islands in total is 2915 ha. Also a feature of the area in the city and its surroundings is the presence of a large number of hills. The highest point in the historic part of the city is the Eagle's Nest (199 meters). The highest point on the territory of the urban district in the modern borders is the nameless mountain 474 meters in height (popularly called Blue Hill).

Vladivostok, view of the eastern part of the city, 1894 year

At the first stage of its development, the Vladivostok fortress faced two main problems: remoteness from the rest of the empire and, as a result, difficulties with the delivery of building materials and skilled labor. The second problem that hung over the fortress during almost its entire existence was underfunding of the works. And if with the first problem it became easier after the opening of the Trans-Siberian Railway and attracting local labor (Chinese, Koreans), then the lack of funding, in fact, could not be overcome, which did not prevent the construction of a fortified outpost in the Far East. The city, already proceeding from its geographical location, was destined for the fate of the outpost of Russia on the coast of the Pacific Ocean, the coastal fortress. The name of the city itself is consonant with the expression Vladya Vostok, which most fully reflects the role and importance of the city and the fortress for our country.

In the first period of its history, Vladivostok did not have reliable protection and fortifications. Even 20 years after the founding of a serious defense of the city from the sea and land simply did not exist. At that time, the very young city was covered only by 4 fortifications and about 10 coastal batteries, all of which were made of wood and earth. Among the technical innovations that appeared here rather quickly, it was possible to distinguish several powerful electric spotlights, which were placed on the shores of the Golden Horn Bay in 1885 for firing at night. These floodlights became the first example of the use of electricity in Vladivostok.

The weakness of the fortifications of the city and the port was not the result of underestimating its role or negligence. Just for the XIX century, this city was too far from Russia, which was separated from the central provinces of the country by the vast territory of Siberia and the impassable Amur taiga. In order to get to Vladivostok in those years, it was necessary for the month of month 2-3 to sail by boat from the ports of the Black Sea or the Baltic literally half the globe. In such conditions, any construction in the city, especially such labor-intensive and material-intensive, as the construction of powerful fortifications, became very expensive and difficult. The construction of modern fortifications in the city estimated 1883 of the year cost 22 million rubles at a time and up to 4 million rubles annually, for comparison, all expenditures on education in the Russian Empire were in that period a little more than 18 million rubles. It is not surprising that Vladivostok was officially declared a fortress only on August 30 1889 of the year, then he received his own flag of the fortress.

The following year, construction of concrete fortifications began here. At the same time, foreign hired workers from among the Chinese and Koreans were involved in the construction work. It is curious to note that the first potential enemy of the new Russian fortress was considered to be the fog that was not infrequent for these places (in such conditions, the batteries on the hills simply did not see where to shoot). In addition to the fog, the powerful British fleet, as well as the numerous army of China, were enrolled as potential enemies. Japan was simply not considered by the military as a serious opponent of Russia at that time.

Coastal Battery No. 319 "Nameless" on 9-inch coastal guns of the model 1867 of the year

In the spring of 1893, the first "mine company" arrived in Vladivostok on the steamboat "Moscow" - a military unit designed to set up underwater sea mines. By that time, the garrison of the fortress consisted of only three infantry battalions - two in the city itself and one on the Russian island. The main task of the fortress was then to protect the Russian fleethiding in the Golden Horn Bay from attacks from the sea and land. The defense system of the fortress consisted of three main elements. Firstly, coastal batteries located on the islands and in Vladivostok, which were supposed to prevent shelling of the bay from the sea. Secondly, underwater batteries covered by these batteries. Thirdly, a whole chain of land fortifications that crossed the Muravyov-Amursky peninsula and protected the fleet from attack and shelling from land.

Lack of funding for a long time prevented the construction of the most powerful fortifications. Instead of the planned 4 million rubles a year, 2 million rubles were allocated for construction at best. At that moment, the tsarist government was fascinated by the project to develop the leased Port Arthur, which was considered a more promising base for the Russian fleet in the Pacific than Vladivostok. Therefore, the latter was funded on a residual basis. The shortage of Russian builders also had an effect, which made them endeavor to attract Chinese to the work. In turn, this is very bad for secrecy. The intelligence services of China and Japan were well aware of the location of the Vladivostok fortifications.

At the dawn of the 20th century, the Vladivostok fortress included Fort 3, 9 field fortifications (redoubts, lunettes, etc.), 20 land batteries and 23 coastal batteries. At the same time, by the beginning of the Russo-Japanese War, far from all the objects of the fortress were fully prepared, there were not enough guns. The garrison of the fortress, not counting the gunners, consisted of two infantry regiments - in the city and on the Russian island.

During the years of the Russo-Japanese War, the military debut of the fortress took place. A month after the start of the war - 22 February 1904 of the year in 13: 30 squad of five armored cruisers of the Japanese squadron began shelling the city. The Japanese knew the location of the Russian coastal batteries well, so they fired from the most safe position for themselves from the Ussuri Bay. Since the ships were afraid to come closer to the fortress, they fired from afar, causing minimal damage. In the city, one person died from their fire, and the building of the 30 East Siberian Regiment caught fire. The shelling continued for 50 minutes and caused no harm to the fleet and fortress, although the Japanese ships themselves did not meet with resistance.

Fort "Russian"

With all its shortcomings, the unfinished fortress played its role, the Japanese did not even think about landing in the south of Primorye. At the same time, during the war years, the fortress garrison was immediately increased 5 times, and a large number of field fortifications were also built around Vladivostok. After the end of the war in which Russia lost Port Arthur, Vladivostok became not only the only fortress and naval base of the country in the Pacific, but also the only equipped port in Russia located in the Far East, which immediately increased the importance of the city.

After the war, the first commander in chief of the fortress was General Vladimir Irman, who, during the defense of Port Arthur, distinguished himself for his personal heroism and skillful command of troops. It was he who appointed officers who had extensive experience in the defense of Port Arthur to command positions in the Vladivostok fortress. It was under their leadership that work began on creating the most powerful and modern fortifications at that time, which were built based on the experience gained during the defense of Port Arthur.

In the period from 1910 to 1916, the fortress was radically strengthened by the project, which was developed by a team of military engineers under the leadership of engineer A. P. Wernander. At the same time, the plan to modernize the Vladivostok fortress cost a lot of money - more than 230 million rubles or more 10 percent of the annual amount of all incomes of the Russian Empire. At the same time, immediately after the war, only 10 million rubles were allocated, and over the subsequent 10 years 98 million more rubles in gold.

During the work, several new forts and strongholds were built. More than 30 coastal batteries were built or reconstructed, 23 coastal anti-amphibious caponiers were erected, 13 tunnel powder powder cellars were built, an airfield on the Second River, a casemate meat cooler on the First River, more than 200 kilometers of high-rise roads. New fortifications built in the fortress had a large number of casemates and underground shelters, the thickness of concrete floors laid on steel channels on the asphalt-concrete layer reached 2,4-3,6 meters, which provided reliable protection even when shelling fortifications with 420 caliber mm guns. At the same time, the configuration of the forts created corresponded exactly to the terrain, the shape of which did not change, and the fire installations were specially dispersed over a large area, which seriously hampered the shooting of enemy artillery.

Battery No. 355 for ten 11-inch mortars of model 1877 of the year

The rebuilt fortress was supposed to be the strongest in the world. It was planned that only with land it would cover 1290 guns, and from the sea - 316, including 212 guns of large caliber. In addition, it was planned to widely use well-proven machine guns for the defense of the fortress - all 628 machine guns in specially prepared protected bunkers.

By the beginning of the First World War, up to 12, thousands of hired workers from the central regions of the Russian Empire and thousands of Chinese and Koreans worked on the construction of the Vladivostok fortress. For reasons of secrecy, the military tried to refuse to engage in the construction of foreign labor, but in Primorye there was still a shortage of the Russian population and, as a result, of workers. The complexity of the construction work required the military engineers to use the most modern equipment that was not previously used in our country: pneumatic jackhammers, electric concrete mixers and lifting winches, the world's first Benz trucks and much more. In the most difficult places, cableways (on such a scale were used for the first time in the world) and temporary narrow-gauge rail tracks were organized. At the same time, especially for the delivery of thousands of tons of cement, crushed stone and sand to the forts from the railway station Second River, a railway line was specially built, which still exists today.

All new fortifications of the Vladivostok fortress were very complex engineering structures. In order to better understand the scope of construction, imagine that the fort "Peter the Great", located on Vargin Mountain, contained several kilometers of underground communications with concrete vaults up to 3,5 meters hidden in the rocky stratum, more than 4,5. Only the construction of this fort cost the Russian treasury more than 3 million rubles. By the time World War I began, a large fortress barracks foundation could freely accommodate a garrison of up to 80 thousands of people.

The outbreak of the First World War seriously slowed down the process of building forts in Vladivostok, and the 1917 revolution of the year led to a halt in all works. The subsequent years of civil war and foreign intervention, as well as the chaotic change of power in the region, turned the most powerful Russian fortress into a set of abandoned fortifications and looted warehouses. When the Japanese invaders finally left Primorye in 1922, they signed an agreement with the Far Eastern Republic on the "demilitarization" of the Vladivostok fortress. With its batteries and forts all artillery weapons were dismantled, it seemed that the fortress had disappeared forever.

«
Voroshilov battery "

But in reality, it began to be actively restored at the beginning of the 1930s, when Japan seized Chinese Manchuria, and the USSR acquired a very aggressive and strong neighbor near its Far Eastern borders. The Soviet leadership understood this perfectly, and the process of reviving the fortress began. Already in 1932, the old fortress positions on the islands and near the Golden Horn Bay received the first 7 heavy batteries. One of the people who was engaged in the revival of the fortress was Commissioner Semyon Rudnev, who would become famous in the future during the Great Patriotic War as a hero of the partisan movement.

At the same time in the south of Primorye a large number of concreted machine gun points were created in case of a possible war with Japan. For example, in order to protect Vladivostok directly, it was planned to build 150 concrete pillboxes with machine-gun or cannon armament. Bunkers were erected on the islands to cover the coastal batteries from a possible landing.

Since the Soviet fleet practically had no warships in the Pacific and was unable to resist the Japanese fleet, which by that time was already one of the strongest in the world, the armament of the Vladivostok fortress began to be reinforced with powerful coastal artillery. Already in the 1932 year, they began to build batteries of new 180-mm cannons that can throw 97-kilogram shells on 37 kilometers. This allowed the guns located on the islands of Russkiy and Popova to block the Amur and Ussuri bays by fire, covering all approaches to the city from the sea.

All heavy batteries built 1930-ies were installed in closed positions. They were equipped with a large number of underground and concrete structures and shelters, which provided protection for cellars with ammunition and power stations from heavy artillery shelling, air bombardment, and the use of poisonous gases. The system of emergency irrigation of cellars was also envisaged in the event of a fire or explosion of ammunition. Command posts of new batteries were built at a considerable distance from the firing positions. As a rule, they were connected with batteries by special underground galleries (battered). Unlike the pre-revolutionary period, this time all military installations were built exclusively by soldiers. Only the construction of outbuildings and barracks attracted hired workers, Koreans and Chinese, who in those years still lived a lot in Primorye.


In 1934, the Vladivostok fortress received its most powerful battery in history. In the southeastern part of Russky Island, a real “underground battleship” appeared - two rotating three-gun turrets with 305-caliber guns. Details of this battery were produced in the factories of Leningrad using cannons and towers from the still royal battleship Poltava. The most powerful battery of the fortress received the number 981 and its own name "Voroshilov battery", in honor of the People's Commissar of Defense of the USSR. The unsinkable battleship on Russky Island was too tough for even the most powerful fleet, and its projectiles, which weighed 470 kg, could travel 30 kilometers. It is no coincidence that this artillery battery remained in service for more than 60 years, until the end of the 20th century.

By the beginning of World War II, the Vladivostok fortress in official documents was called the BV GVMB TOF. Behind this long abbreviation was the Coastal Defense of the main naval base of the Pacific Fleet. Moreover, pre-revolutionary fortifications and forts were used as positions for anti-aircraft artillery, depots and command posts. Even the most powerful fortifications of Sevastopol and Kronstadt could not then be compared with Vladivostok. In 1941, the revived fortress consisted of more than 150 heavy cannons and fifty coastal batteries, as well as a large number of anti-landing batteries and machine gun points. Together with minefields and aviation all this formed an insurmountable barrier for the Japanese fleet on the sea approaches to the city. The power of the "Vladivostok Fortress" is called one of the factors that did not allow Japan, despite the alliance with Hitler Germany, to attack the Soviet Union.

In the spring of 1945, the first artillery radar stations were installed in the Vladivostok fortress, which allowed the cannons to fire accurately in the fog and at night. Although Vladivostok was never attacked by the enemy’s forces and fleets, several cannons that were part of the defense system of the city still took part in World War II. In August, 1945, the battery number 250, located on the island of Furugelm, fired at the limit of its range on the positions of the Japanese troops in Korea, supporting the advance of the Soviet troops.

Completion of the Second World War, and then a new era of missile and nuclear weaponsit seemed to leave forever an artillery fortress in the past. In the 1950-60 years, almost all artillery, with the exception of the most powerful batteries, was simply written off as scrap metal. However, the fortifications had to be remembered already in the 1969 year, after relations between the USSR and China had deteriorated sharply, and real fighting took place on Damanski Island. Vladivostok began on an emergency basis to prepare for defense in the event of the onset of the multimillion Chinese army. So in 1970, VLOR was formed - Vladivostok defensive area, the real successor of the Vladivostok fortress.


The most modern guns began to be installed on old batteries, for example, 85-mm semi-automatic guns, which were supposed to destroy the attacking masses of Chinese infantry with quick fire. In total, in the 1970s, more than 20 stationary “fortress” artillery batteries were restored or built in the vicinity of the city. Even the old heavy ones were used as fortifications of the Vladivostok Fortress Tanks IS-2 period of the Great Patriotic War, they were dug into the ground and protected by concrete. Such impromptu pillboxes covered, for example, the Vladivostok-Khabarovsk highway near the city of Artyom.

Separate machine gun points around the city continued to build, even in summer, 1991 of the year. However, the collapse of the Soviet Union predetermined the fate of this fortress. The latest shots of her naval guns sounded in 1992. Then, during the exercise, the famous “Voroshilov battery” launched a 470-kg projectile, which deviated from the set target of just 1,5 meters, which is just an excellent indicator even for modern rocket technology.

The official history of the Vladivostok fortress finally ended on July 30 1997, when the Russian “underground battleship” located on the island’s territory was finally removed from the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation and converted into a museum. Thus ended the history of the Vladivostok fortress, which was the most powerful stronghold in Russian history. Another museum was opened on October 30, 1996, in Vladivostok, on the territory of the Bezymyannaya castle, a museum of the same name “Vladivostok fortress” was opened, dedicated to its history.

Today the fortress is a unique monument, which is recognized as one of the most interesting and visited sites in Vladivostok. Its forts, coastal batteries, caponiers and other structures spread across the vast territory around the city and directly within its borders. If you will be in Vladivostok, be sure to find time to inspect the objects that are currently available for tourists, and if you are interested in military history, you will definitely get acquainted with the grand fortifications of one of the strongest fortresses in the world.

Information sources:
https://dv.land/history/vladivostokskaya-krepost?utm_source=tass&utm_medium=banner&utm_campaign=banner_240_400
http://fortvl.ru/kratkaya-istoriya-vozniknoveniya-i-razvitiya-kompleksa-vladivostokskoy-kreposti.html
http://www.fegi.ru/primorye/geogr/krepos.htm
https://ria.ru/vl/20130830/959580091.html
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  1. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 18 March 2018 07: 17
    +9
    Great story! The author ----- many thanks. I found out new things for myself.
    For me, a short return to Far Eastern childhood. He was with his parents in Sovetskaya Gavan, Khabarovsk, Blagoveshchensk, Vyazemsky, Birobidzhan, Nikolaevsk on the Amur, Okhotsk and to the north.
    1. igordok
      igordok 18 March 2018 07: 45
      +5
      Was in Vladivostok just passing through. fellow He helped his sister with moving to her husband's duty station. I did not have time to consider anything. But even from what he saw, was delighted.
      1. Reptiloid
        Reptiloid 18 March 2018 08: 07
        +4
        Quote: igordok
        Was in Vladivostok just passing through. fellow He helped his sister with moving to her husband's duty station. I did not have time to consider anything. But even from what he saw, was delighted.

        I'm about the same.
    2. Archon
      Archon 18 March 2018 15: 30
      +4
      It is interesting that the Vladivostok fortress could be rented.

      The Vladivostok administration several times put up for sale objects of the Vladivostok fortress. However, tenants are almost not interested in them. Of all the fortifications that were put up for auction in November and December of the 2017 of the year, only the Nazimov Battery on Barkhatnaya Street and two empty cellars on Yumashev were leased. There were no tenants for the Novosiltsevskaya battery and fortifications of the letter Z; temporary consolidation No. 1 and fort facilities No. 3 turned out to be unclaimed. Not interested in tenants and fort them. Pospelova.
      In 2016, the Municipality put up for sale the Larionov Battery on Elena Island, Fort No. 11 on Cape Tobizina, Fort No. 12 in the area of ​​Cape Akhlestyshev, Nazimov Battery, fortifications in the Dnieper region, a complex of fortifications of Fort Linevich in the Tikhaya, Petropavlovskaya battery gun cannon battery on the Tigrovaya hill with a midday signal cannon, powder cellars and a command post.
      In February 2018, the mayor Vitaly Verkeenko canceled the auction for the right to conclude lease agreements for objects of the Vladivostok fortress in order to preserve and develop the cultural heritage object.

      Full article: https://www.newsvl.ru/vlad/2018/03/06/168211/#ixz
      z5A5fQxrY2
      Vladivostok News on VL.RU

      The thing is that in Vladivostok, in terms of theft and costs, it’s just a disaster, and some maintenance of fortresses is just a burden on which you can’t steal. In some rooms related to the fortresses (gunpowder cellars) there are a car shop, warehouses and other organizations, some are still used by the military, for example, part of Fort No. 3, several forts were restored, more precisely, one fort was restored by amateurs with their own money, one did not suffer destruction and one battery was restored during the preparations for the 2012 summit, because it is next to the Russian bridge, otherwise it would be very dumb. all other forts are in a very abandoned state and almost all of the metal in them is already cut.
  2. Amurets
    Amurets 18 March 2018 07: 25
    +15
    Today the fortress is a unique monument, which is recognized as one of the most interesting and visited objects of Vladivostok. Its forts, coastal batteries, caponiers and other structures are spread over the vast territory around the city and directly within its borders. If you are in Vladivostok, be sure to take the time to visit the sites that are accessible to tourists today, and if you are fond of military history you will certainly get acquainted with the grandiose fortifications of one of the most powerful fortresses in the world.

    Author, good, but not enough. More like a historical guide to Vladivostok. We need a series of articles on the history of the city.
    The railway was the only possible way to transport submarines from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean. Thanks to the creation of the Baikal ferry railway crossing, the Trans-Siberian Railway was put into operation in an extremely short time and, most importantly, before the Russo-Japanese War. This helped not only to transfer troops to Manchuria, but also to deliver submarines to the Far East. And the first submarine formation appeared in Vladivostok during the Russo-Japanese War. This also contributed to the fact that the Japanese did not risk approaching Vladivostok at that time.

    In any case, the benefits of the presence of boats in Vladivostok are indisputable also because the Japanese, as some informed people say, only because they did not close Vladivostok closely because they were afraid of submarines. There is no reason not to believe these statements, all the more so since the Japanese at the same time had six submarines of the same type of Holland, and they, of course, knew that the submarines had weapons so strong that they entered into a blockade of the fortress, especially close, least unreasonable.
    Thus, submarines, even belated and with a semi-trained composition, since, I repeat, only on these two floating, and maybe two or three more trained personnel, played a role in the defense of the fortress.
    1. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 18 March 2018 08: 10
      +1
      Waiting for your comment, Nikolay! Hoping to share your knowledge with us. Thank.
  3. andrewkor
    andrewkor 18 March 2018 07: 33
    +6
    On the maps, the uniqueness of Vladivostok as a city and as a fortress is clearly visible. Fortification sites to help us.
    Port Arthur, mentioned in the article, also suffered from underfunding, a shortage of labor and time for full-fledged defense equipment, which was already weak in the project for such an object, and a gross underestimation of Japan as an adversary on all fronts: on land, at sea, and in diplomacy .Japan won that war to the limit of its forces which were no longer there for an attack on Vladivostok.
    1. lesnik1978
      lesnik1978 18 March 2018 08: 56
      +1
      There was enough workforce there. And there were no problems with finances. There was a quiet sabotage.
      1. andrewkor
        andrewkor 18 March 2018 18: 38
        +1
        About sabotage in the construction of the fortifications of Port Arthur, if possible, in more detail. Unless in the government there.
        The final design of the fortress was approved in 1900. The cost of fortifications was 7,5 million rubles + the same amount for artillery. Until 1904, only 4,25 million rubles were released. those. less than a third of what is necessary. The author of the article cited the figure of 2 million rubles. a year on the fortifications of Vladivostok at the same time, draw your own conclusions. It was the land front from where the main attack was especially poorly prepared for defense. Having captured Mount Vysokaya, the Japanese simply shot the Russian squadron from there. And in the end, the fortress fell. That’s what the notorious “saving” led to. My conclusion: you should not save on the security of the state!
  4. Brylevsky
    Brylevsky 18 March 2018 07: 51
    +5
    Thanks to the author for a wonderful article! Fortifications of the fortress amaze with their thoughtfulness and quality factor. As a teenager I heard "urban legends" about the existence of a system of secret underground passages; that having descended into one underground structure on the outskirts of the city, one could go to the other end of the city, or in the city itself; about cunning "traps" that met underground; the existence of underground galleries for armored vehicles; finally, ostensibly, that there was a tunnel from the city to Russky Island, in which a single-track railway was laid ... Already becoming an adult, many of the forts (of those that were in the public domain) were surrounded by a group of enthusiasts, and that’s what struck : the room is deep underground, and the air is fresh and dry underfoot ... they knew how to build before.
    1. Monarchist
      Monarchist 18 March 2018 13: 07
      +2
      And this is really interesting. You reminded me of my youth: I had to climb into the house several times through the basement .... A window was made in the basement to ventilate the basement and it was still stuffy there.
      1. Brylevsky
        Brylevsky 18 March 2018 13: 44
        +2
        One window in the basement is not enough - there will be no air draft. At least two, of a certain size and in certain places of the wall. Those who built the underground fortress of Vladivostok knew everything about ventilation. And about the drainage of groundwater, too ...
  5. bionik
    bionik 18 March 2018 07: 53
    +9
    Even the old IS-2 heavy tanks of the Great Patriotic War were used as fortifications of the Vladivostok Fortress, they were dug into the ground and protected by concrete. Such improvised bunkers covered, for example, the Vladivostok-Khabarovsk highway in the vicinity of the city of Artyom.
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 18 March 2018 08: 03
      +7
      Quote: bionik
      Even the old IS-2 heavy tanks of the Great Patriotic War were used as fortifications of the Vladivostok Fortress, they were dug into the ground and protected by concrete. Such improvised bunkers covered, for example, the Vladivostok-Khabarovsk highway in the vicinity of the city of Artyom.

      Such or similar structures were along the entire line of the Sino-Soviet border. In the Amur Region, tanks, without transmissions, clogged with shells stood as firing points
      1. bionik
        bionik 18 March 2018 08: 55
        +4
        Quote: Amurets

        Such or similar structures were along the entire line of the Sino-Soviet border.

        Still were on the islands of the Kuril ridge.
        1. Amurets
          Amurets 18 March 2018 10: 20
          +2
          Quote: bionik
          Still were on the islands of the Kuril ridge.

          Alas, I was not in the Kuril Islands, but my brother said that he had seen such a thing in Kunashir. There is no brother for a long time, therefore there is no one to confirm his words
      2. Monarchist
        Monarchist 18 March 2018 14: 00
        +1
        Similar firing points have worked well in WWII.
        1. bionik
          bionik 18 March 2018 14: 45
          +4
          Quote: Monarchist
          firing points

          They were used in UR-x, old T-18 tanks or towers from T-26 were used.
          Quote: Monarchist
          well-proven in WWII

          .In the initial period of the war, due to the incompleteness of the construction of fortified areas on the new border, as well as for a number of other reasons, they did not fulfill their mission of covering the state border: the enemy in most directions managed to overcome the cover strip on the fly. Only a few fortified areas were able to partially delay its advance. “There is no doubt,” wrote Marshal of the Soviet Union I.Kh. Baghramyan, “that if we were able to maintain the combat readiness of the old fortified areas before the complete commissioning of the new fortified areas, this would immeasurably increase the defensive capabilities of the troops.”
          Persistent battles in the Osovets, Vladimir-Volynsky, Minsk and Kiev URs can serve as a vivid confirmation. Here, along with the gun bunkers, firing points with towers and tanks T-18 and T-26 were used. The Kiev UR, in which the TOT of 135 tanks removed from service were installed, played a special role in repelling the enemy offensive. The most famous fact is the battle of the crew consisting of Sergeant Gvozdev and Private Lupov on June 2, 1941, which destroyed three German tanks, one armored personnel carrier, and several vehicles from a firing point with a 45-mm gun installed to guard the bridge on the Drut River (near the village of Belynichi). and scattered to the company of infantry. The enemy offensive in this area was delayed by almost a day. The crew was presented to the orders of the Battle of the Red Banner.
  6. Olgovich
    Olgovich 18 March 2018 08: 08
    +5
    Details of this battery were produced at Leningrad plants using guns and towers from yet royal battleship "Poltava". The most powerful battery of the fortress received No. 981 and its own name “Voroshilov Battery”

    Then it was necessary to call the “Romanov Battery”, since it was necessary to use the achievements of “bast” Russia .. yes
    The city of Vladivostok is the most unique over 40 years from scratch, as in a fairy tale, a beautiful fortified city of the world grew up - with a fleet, factories, theaters and even a museum.
    The greatest achievement of Russia, which managed in no time to stand up indestructibly in the Pacific Ocean. good
  7. Streletskos
    Streletskos 18 March 2018 08: 21
    +19
    I recommend to everyone interested in the topic

    Infa up to the battery and a separate gun
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 18 March 2018 08: 57
      +1
      Quote: Streletskos
      Infa up to the battery and a separate gun

      the same collection of four and all interesting
      1. Streletskos
        Streletskos 18 March 2018 10: 46
        +17
        That's right.
        But this is to the topic
        1. Amurets
          Amurets 18 March 2018 12: 33
          +1
          Quote: Streletskos
          But this is to the topic

          Yes, right. All four collections tell about coastal batteries and fortifications of Primorye, mainly Vladivostok.
          1. Streletskos
            Streletskos 18 March 2018 14: 11
            +16
            But not only Primorye.
            In this, which he sent, there is also a Ukrainian theme
            1. Amurets
              Amurets 18 March 2018 14: 35
              +2
              Quote: Streletskos
              But not only Primorye.

              Yes I know. It’s just that in these collections, as an addition, there are materials about SDs in the western regions of the USSR.
  8. kvs207
    kvs207 18 March 2018 08: 22
    +1
    Quote: Olgovich
    Then it was necessary to call the "Romanov Battery"

    If you follow the traditions, then - Nikolaev smile
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 18 March 2018 09: 31
      +3
      Quote: kvs207
      If you follow the traditions, then - Nikolaev

      And Nikolaev? Fort Nikolaevsky (Ino).
      "Shortly before the outbreak of World War I
      in Vladivostok have already begun to build two
      305-mm regal four-gun tower
      batteries No. 30 (VII) at the 55th altitude north of b. VII) at the 55th altitude north of b. ) at the 55th altitude north of b.
      Tikhaya and No. 367 (I) on the southeast coast I) on the southeast coast) on the southeast coast
      Russian island north of metro Vyatlin. On battery
      No. 30 completed almost all the concrete work, and
      on battery No. 367 only earthen, rocky and
      tunnel. Made for Vladivostoks
      batteries at the St. Petersburg metal
      305-mm two-gun tower plant
      installations had to be redirected during the war
      first to Batum, and then to the Baltic Sea
      Emperor Peter the Great fortress on batteries
      islands of Nargen and Wulf, therefore complete
      tower batteries in Vladivostok then not
      succeeded [30]. "Fortification collection" Fortress Russia "No. 3
  9. kvs207
    kvs207 18 March 2018 08: 27
    +3
    "Only the construction of utility structures and barracks involved hired workers Koreans and Chinese, who in those years still lived quite a lot on the territory of Primorye"

    And then, the Koreans were accused of aiding the enemy and espionage in favor of Japan and sent to Central Asia, thus, the Koreans were the first people who were massively relocated from places of permanent residence.
    1. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 18 March 2018 16: 10
      +3
      So there were reasons for that. He talked a lot with our Koreans, none of them ached like the Chechens with the Crimean Tatars that they were innocently repressed.
  10. bubalik
    bubalik 18 March 2018 08: 29
    +5
    When the Japanese invaders finally left Primorye in the 1922, they signed an agreement with the Far Eastern Republic on the "demilitarization" of the Vladivostok fortress. All artillery weapons were dismantled from its batteries and forts; the fortress seemed to disappear forever.
    ,,, and not only the Japanese were there ,,, 2 and 3 on August the governments of Japan, the USA, Great Britain of France and Italy published declarations of the decision to land troops in Vladivostok. They formulated the goals in different ways, but the main ones were "help to Czechoslovakians" and "saving Russia from German bondage." The Americans also indicated support for democratic forces and economic assistance in order to "make Russia strong and free." On the 3 of August, the British landed, on the 4 of the Chinese, the 9 of the French, the XNUM of the Japanese, the 11 of 15 and the Americans of August. The largest group was the Americans - 16 people, then the Japanese - 21 people, the Chinese - 3011, the English - 2000, the French - 1600. The general parade of the Allied forces took place on 829 on August 813 of the year.
    peacekeepers.
    1. bubalik
      bubalik 18 March 2018 08: 33
      +6
      US military on Svetlanskaya
      1. bubalik
        bubalik 18 March 2018 08: 36
        +6
        Italians how it brought into such a distance
    2. Amurets
      Amurets 18 March 2018 10: 33
      +4
      Quote: bubalik
      "the salvation of Russia from German bondage."

      But the German means of “enslavement” is the Kunst and Albers store in Blagoveshchensk. Until now, "enslaves", which only in this building was not. Now the regional museum named after Novikov-Daursky.
      1. Amurets
        Amurets 18 March 2018 10: 39
        +4
        Quote: Amurets
        But the German means of “enslavement” is the Kunst and Albers store in Blagoveshchensk.
        And this is in Vladivostok. Kunst and Albers - a partnership opened by the Germans from Hamburg, Gustav Kunst (1836-1905) and Gustav Albers (1838-1911) in the Far East of the Russian Empire and lasted until the 1930s. [1]
        1. Reptiloid
          Reptiloid 18 March 2018 11: 49
          +4
          And I suddenly remembered a book, about 7 years ago I read. There is an article unknown to me by V. Koroleva about Vladivostok at the beginning of the last century. It turns out there was a large Chinese diaspora !! These streets were ---- Chinese, Beijing, Korean, Aleutian, then they were renamed. There were many criminal Chinese establishments ---- gambling, magic, opium, funny "palaces", money-changers, of course cafes, restaurants, theaters. .... They were eliminated due to crime in 1937. I read that theaters and magic were not harmless, were monarchical or religious. In general, there were Chinese enterprises ---- printing houses, workshops ...., even the unification of their workers. Also the Korean diaspora and their institutions. It is known ------ V.K. lived in Vladivostok Arseniev, A. Fadeev, S. Lazo, even M.M. Isaev.
          1. Amurets
            Amurets 18 March 2018 12: 46
            +2
            Quote: Reptiloid
            There is an article unknown to me by V. Koroleva about Vladivostok at the beginning of the last century. It turns out there was a large Chinese diaspora !! These streets were ---- Chinese, Beijing, Korean, Aleutian, then they were renamed.

            Dima it was all. Not only in Vladivostok. There is a book about the morals prevailing in Blagoveshchensk, although the very rare Amur Wolves collective work of Amur journalists of the early twentieth century.
            Quote: Reptiloid
            And I suddenly remembered a book, about 7 years ago I read. There is an article unknown to me by V. Koroleva about Vladivostok at the beginning of the last century. It turns out there was a large Chinese diaspora !! These streets were ---- Chinese, Beijing, Korean, Aleutian, then they were renamed. It is known ------ V.K. lived in Vladivostok Arseniev, A. Fadeev, S. Lazo, even M.M. Isaev.
            And it is true.

            And the locomotive, in the furnace of which they burned S. Lazo, stands in Ussuriysk.
            1. Monarchist
              Monarchist 18 March 2018 14: 15
              +1
              Regarding the paravoz, I read about it to someone in the magazine, but there they put the subconsciousness of the authenticity of the paravoz: the witness could not consider the number in the dark or confuse the number
              1. Amurets
                Amurets 18 March 2018 14: 48
                +3
                Quote: Monarchist
                Regarding the paravoz, I read about it to someone in the magazine, but there they put the subconsciousness of the authenticity of the paravoz: the witness could not consider the number in the dark or confuse the number

                I will not argue or refute, this is a steam locomotive or not that one. It’s just that these American E-series steam locomotives of different letter indices were widely used on our railways. These locomotives were ordered by both the tsarist and Soviet governments. "E (nicknames - Russian Decapod [1], Yefim, Elena) - a series of freight trains of type 1-5-0, delivered to the railways of the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union during the First and Second World Wars to quickly replenish the locomotive fleet. Built on North American factories according to the drawings developed by Russian engineers. Since 1917, steam locomotives were supplied as military assistance, and from 1943 on Lend-Lease [2] [3]. In addition, for various reasons, including political ones, these locomotives were operated in the USA (“Russian Decapod”), Finland (Tr2 “Truman”) and The Republic of China (ST-1), the most famous variety is EA, which accounted for about a third of all steam locomotives in the series, and the E locomotives are also known for the fact that in 1920 in the furnace of one of them (El − 629) three revolutionaries were burned Bolshevik: Lazo, Lutsky and Sibirtsev [4] "
                1. bubalik
                  bubalik 18 March 2018 16: 56
                  +2
                  ,,, steam train 2-3-0 series G, or, as the railway men called it, "iron manchurian". The steam locomotive was built in Kharkov in the 1902-1903 years, and it was built only for two roads - the Vladikavkaz and Sino-East. He had a drawback - he was too heavy axle load, and therefore could only go along the main lines with a powerful ballast base and heavy rails. But it developed tremendous speed for that time: the modification for the Chinese Eastern Railway was up to 115 km / h. And therefore, it drove mainly high-speed trains, in particular the courier “number one” (Irkutsk - Harbin - Vladivostok).
        2. Vladivostok1969
          Vladivostok1969 21 March 2018 09: 30
          0
          Now this is GUM
    3. Monarchist
      Monarchist 18 March 2018 14: 04
      +2
      Devils called them here
  11. Yarik
    Yarik 18 March 2018 09: 48
    +2
    The fortress ... yes, great. But it would be better if the fleet. And to turn over, because our naval commanders ....
  12. sib.ataman
    sib.ataman 18 March 2018 10: 39
    +9
    The article, although modest, was for me as if I were on vacation at home. Born and lived in Vladik, all the same, 18 years old. I have not been there for a long time, for more than 10 years, but my relatives live there now, we call up regularly. But calling is one thing, and visiting is another! Without exaggeration, the city is a pearl! Ode to the Russian people! Creator nation! The fact that he was born and raised as soon as possible can be said about many cities in Siberia and D.Vostok. But Vladik is special, both in geography, in landscape, and in climate. It was built and rebuilt several times in its history. And now it continues to be built in a modern style. From whatever point he looks at the city, he causes delight and admiration! Sunrises and sunsets can bring a special charm when the play of light, shadow and colors is simply indescribable, and it happens quite quickly and effectively. But it’s better to see. Of course, there are several viewing platforms that are now known to the whole world — magnificent panoramic photos were taken from them, which are included in many publications about D. Vostok. From these sites, when you look at the city, you get the feeling that you are soaring in the sky like a bird, and the views that are opening are simply enchanting! I had to see with what eyes foreign tourists look at the city — they cannot hide the shadow of envy and admiration!
    Unfortunately, the fortress in the city is presented very very modestly! Although from all hills white concrete walls look at the city. It was expensive to build it, even more expensive to adapt for tourism. Although there has been talk about this for decades. In addition to the land battleship on about. Russian (pay attention to what symbolic name!), Right in the very center of the city there are positions of long-range naval, presumably 305 mm naval guns mounted on the railway platforms, carved into the rocks of the Orlinaya hill, where they were delivered through tunnels through the city from the station of Okeanskaya, where they were based. Positions and underground galleries are still closed to public access, presumably in the interests of civil defense. But the building itself is simply unique! This is an underground city with a developed infrastructure: there are a lot of communication facilities, warehouses, a substation, a place for sludge of rolling stock, etc. . If only this project had been launched, then the city would have been able to live comfortably more than a dozen years on the income from tourists! Much can be written about Vladik with exclamation marks and enthusiasm, where living history is closely intertwined with modernity and is found at every turn! Here, indeed, we need a series of articles, and not one. A separate line is Primorsky Krai, a place as unique and sacred, not for nothing that the Old Believers have chosen it because of the mound next to tigers, leopards and a whole list of rare animals, birds and flora!
    1. Monarchist
      Monarchist 18 March 2018 13: 52
      +1
      Sib.ataman, you love your small Motherland
      1. ava09
        ava09 22 March 2018 17: 18
        0
        I don’t know those who grew up in Vladivostok and would not love him.) Many, having been there once, dream of returning ...
  13. Head Physician
    Head Physician 18 March 2018 10: 39
    +16
    Not that the main
    In fact, the only
  14. Borik
    Borik 18 March 2018 12: 18
    +5
    Great photo Voroshilov battery. What a view from the top!
    1. Vladivostok1969
      Vladivostok1969 21 March 2018 09: 39
      +1
      It now has a museum
  15. Brylevsky
    Brylevsky 18 March 2018 12: 58
    +2
    Quote: Reptiloid
    There were many Chinese criminal establishments ---- gambling, magic, opium, funny "palaces", money-changers, of course cafes, restaurants, theaters ..... They were liquidated due to crime in 1937.

    These are Millions quarters. The houses that contained this still stand ... a living layer of history.
  16. Monarchist
    Monarchist 18 March 2018 13: 46
    +2
    The author, thank you for the story, for me almost everything is new. Regarding: “the tsarist government was carried away by the project of developing the rented Port Arthur” it is always like this: carried away by something and come true of something else. There are a lot of examples: they were carried away by Tselina, and in the Smolensk cloud farmer they plowed themselves !! This is Brezhnev’s in Tselin Or they got carried away by BAM, and at the local railway the men were forced to restore the locomotive from scrap metal, once there was a Komsomolka. Company always leads to "eccentricities"
  17. Monarchist
    Monarchist 18 March 2018 13: 54
    +3
    Quote: Borik
    Great photo Voroshilov battery. What a view from the top!

    And what was the artillery position!
  18. Vladycat
    Vladycat 18 March 2018 16: 25
    +4
    He served in the Bravo Pacific Fleet. True Voroshilovskaya already closed at that time. But relatively recently visiting this museum, I talked with the director (who directly served on the battery), he said that in fact the battery is working. Here the shells drowned everything from her :(. And the fortress is something. Cement of 500 mark was brought from Novorossiysk. There are structures and it’s not even noticeable that the difficult climate affects them negatively.
  19. bbss
    bbss 18 March 2018 23: 07
    +1
    I was in Vladivostok. The museum is small but interesting. Exposure is limited to a small area of ​​battery rooms. I managed to climb some structures. The fortifications were not so much washed away, but as if drowning in the ground. They say that much is still used by naval services. Underground meat cooler, for example ...
    1. ava09
      ava09 22 March 2018 17: 24
      0
      Quote: bbss
      The fortifications were not so much washed away, but as if drowning in the ground.

      This is not earth - rocky ground. And they "drown" because they are cut down in it. When the fortress acted, the fortifications were not visible not only from the sea, but also being nearby, it was difficult to notice to an outsider.
  20. glk63
    glk63 18 March 2018 23: 57
    +1
    Vladivostok itself was different advantageous geographical location.

    Has something changed now? belay
  21. Alexander Belov_2
    Alexander Belov_2 24 March 2018 07: 31
    0
    We study and honor the history of the fortress