Historically, Libya includes three large territorial formations: Tripolitania, Cyrenaica and Fezzan, among which there was a constant struggle for supremacy among the tribes and clans inhabiting them. Fragmentation and mutual claims to each other were the cause of widespread poverty and general decline.
In 1969, a group of military led by the then young and full of energy charismatic M. Gaddafi overthrew the Libyan king Idris I. Gaddafi proclaimed the creation of the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya and began to consistently pursue its formation. By uniting the country and concentrating all the power, economy and finance in his hands, Gaddafi provided the Libyans with a fairly high standard of living of the population. But at the same time, the Jamahiriya (the power of the people) did not allow the creation of other political parties and movements, and the activities of Islamist organizations and groups were stopped most resolutely.
A high standard of living of the population of Libya was obliged primarily to the export of energy resources. The supply of oil and gas abroad provided about 25% of the country's gross domestic product and more than 95% of the value of national exports. Annual natural gas production was about 16 billion cubic meters, of which 60% went to Europe, and the rest gas was intended for domestic consumption. Annual oil production was 570 million barrels, 445 million barrels (78%) were going to Europe from them. Thus, Europe was extremely dependent on supplies of Libyan energy resources.
In addition to the main player, the Libyan company National Oil Corp., more than fifty foreign companies engaged in pumping out oil and gas worked in Libya. The largest of them was Italian Eni, whose share in oil was 17% of the total production, and in gas - 12%. All this Eni drove to Italy via the Green Stream pipeline and through the only gas port terminal on Mars-el-Brega to Spain.
In 2010, Libya’s GDP was 79,6 billion, and real GDP growth compared to 2009 was 3,3%. Before 2015, the average annual GDP growth was predicted to be 3,5%. Gold reserves were valued at 92,78 billion dollars.
It would seem that such a state of affairs, bringing a stable income to all the participants of the exhaustion of energy resources, could be maintained until the complete exhaustion of all the natural wealth of Libya, and this would not have come soon. But, alas, the bubble of the artificially overheated rosy financial and economic policy of Western countries burst, and the global financial crisis set in, hurting the gonads to the democratic states of Europe.
And what about Gaddafi? And Gaddafi decided to impose restrictions on the activities of foreign oil and gas corporations in the country, legislatively reducing their income level from 52% to 20% of Libyan oil exports. This would further aggravate the position of the European Union.
Gaddafi initiated and found solid support in Africa for his ideas about the financial and economic union of African states with the introduction of a single currency (“gold dinar”). It was real. And the printing houses of the USA and Europe, stamping low-income penny papers of dollars and Euros together with the financial and credit system, shuddered.
Gaddafi began to form a single economic policy with Russia and China, providing for coordinated pricing and the volume of energy supplies, which would lead to a dependent position of the West.
The colonel announced the refusal to privatize state-owned oil corporations with the participation of Western capital, which the European bosses, who longed to get control over the oil and gas flow, were very keen on.
The intransigence and independence of Gaddafi put Euro-American partners from themselves. The crisis, it is necessary to scramble out and keep afloat, and then some colonel is not going to sag under the West. And this Gaddafi unreasonably placed the financial assets of Libya (totaling more than 200 billion dollars) in the accounts of American and European banks. But how much your own financial problems can be solved at the expense of these funds! And then Gaddafi took and rudely sent Monsieur N. Sarkozy on a three-letter erotic journey, which came up with a proposal to privatize the state-owned enterprises of Libya by the French.
The advance Nobel Peace Prize laureate Barack Obama (it is noteworthy that Obama devoted his Nobel speech to the theme of “just wars”) could not, as easily as Bush in Iraq, begin to hammer a sovereign country on the basis of falsified data. It was necessary to enlist international support and act legitimately to prevent the republican opposition from accusing the smiling Negro of ineffectiveness of politics and self-will. And literate guys from the relevant structures have developed a multi-pass combination, in which the main role was assigned to a theatrical production at the UN. And the UN did not let down, consistently sanctioning first political and economic measures, and then the use of force.
As a small digression, consider some key dates.
The first anti-government demonstrations in Libya began on 15 in February 2011 of the year simultaneously in Benghazi, El Beida, Derna, Ajdabiya, Shahat, and then quickly spread to Tripoli, Jado, Misrata, Ben Hashir, Garyan, Al-Aziziya and Yafrin. The rebels managed to crush police stations and army arsenals and capture a large number of weapons. The weapon shoots, and it is natural that the victims appeared.
Already on February 25, the miserable victim of Hillary Clinton’s blowjob scandal personally brought a draft resolution on Libya to Geneva at the UN Human Rights Council. Here we must take into account that the project was prepared not only by the States, but also by Great Britain, Germany and France, and this is not a matter of a single day. 26 February, the project was adopted as a UN Security Council resolution No. 1970, providing for the freezing of Libya’s financial assets abroad, a ban on arms exports, and a ban on foreign trips to Gaddafi and his circle. So, just in 10 days after the start of anti-government speeches, Gaddafi was outlawed. Enviable efficiency!
Then it was necessary to push the force resolution under the pretext of creating no-fly zones over Libya. But then there were difficulties. As always, the cold in the American ass let the restless Hugo Chavez, who took, and even offered to create an international "peace commission" for Libya, which would include international authorities and heads of state.
- Yeah, right now! - Said the United States and Europe, and rejected the proposal Chavez.
Then a little podgadil - who do you think? - US Secretary of Defense Gates, whom take and vyakni that, in fact, according to all the rules of military art, to create no-fly zones, you must first destroy the air defense and command centers of Libya. - Are you a fool? - Said to Gates in the State Department - We’re gaining legitimacy here, and you immediately bomb! Get out of here! - Gates left, and the sediment remained, it was necessary to somehow resolve the issue.
The third hedgehog in NATO's fly was the position of some member states of the Arab League (LAS), who did not want the no-fly zone to be created solely by NATO forces, putting forward the idea of creating joint West African Arab forces. But this categorically did not suit the United States and Great Britain, because the participation of the Arabs in the planned distribution of the Libyan pie was somehow not envisaged. They already have OPEC, which should have been a little under the control of Libya’s oil and gas.
But the Arabs have always been a great love for the benefits of material and managed to buy them. The price agreed in Brussels on March 10, and the sale of Libya took place in Cairo on March 11. As a result of the transaction, LAS came out with the unanimous support of Western efforts.
In short, on March 17, UN Security Council resolution No. 1973 was adopted. It established a no-fly zone for Libya over Libya. aviation, an arms embargo and (attention!) the use of all possible tools to protect the civilian population of Libya.
Strictly speaking, everything was already decided before the UN Security Council adopted its wonderful resolutions. Libya was doomed even before the start of the insurgency. And the rebellions themselves that began on February 15 were initiated solely for the purpose of logical development of a plan to conquer Libya.
The QNUMX military personnel of Qatar and several hundred personnel officers of the special services of Great Britain, the United States and Saudi Arabia formed the backbone of the militant opposition of Libya, around which radical Islamists, representatives of some tribal clans, extremist-minded part of young people and criminals released by them from prison were grouped.
The headquarters of the United States Joint Command in the African zone (Stuttgart) 27 in February 2011 of the year began the development of a military operation.
Special forces (around 500 special forces) and two MS-130 aircraft were prepared and deployed at Konya (Turkey) and Luka (Malta) air bases.
UDC "Kircage" In addition to the 6th group in the Mediterranean fleet On March 3, the United States began to transfer part of the 5th fleet from the Indian Ocean through the Suez Canal, namely, two nuclear-powered submarines, the Barry missile destroyer and two Kirseyge and Ponce landing ships with more than 800 marines and an amphibious assault group.
The US Air Force was on Sigonella and Aviano airfields (Italy), Souda (Greece), Akrotiri (Cyprus), Inzhirlik (Turkey) was supplemented with military and special aviation of the Air Force and Navy.
As a result, the American group was 68 combat aircraft, 32 auxiliary aircraft (not counting the UAV) and 8 ships with cruise missiles.
Canada in Malta deployed one regiment and 5 special forces. For them, there were also 4 military transport aircraft. From the ships attended the frigate "Charlottetown".
UK 26 February 2011 of the year threw XAS SUM special forces from the 350 regiment into Libya around 22, of which more than half had aircraft gunners trained. At the same time, Albion was building up muscles in the zone of a future war and by the time of the attack on Libya, the British forces were: X-NUMX of the E-3D long-range radar detection aircraft (they are often incorrectly called Avaksa), 3 of the Tornado and Typhoon fighters at Gioia del Air Base -Collie, Italy), 12 tanker aircraft VC-9, electronic reconnaissance aircraft and EW Nimrod (Akrotiri airfield, Cyprus), two rocket frigates Cumberland and Westminster, the Triumph missile submarine and the hospital ship Argus ".
France sent the Charles de Gaulle aircraft carrier with escort rocket ships to Libya and formed an air attack group of Mirage-2000 fighter-bomber of various modifications and 6 of Rafale fighters, all 25 aircraft. Attack aircraft and military transport aircraft were relocated close to Libya at the Solentzara air base, Corsica.
The rest of the countries, in particular, Germany and Turkey, as well as Arab states, mainly Saudi and Qatar, have provided their infrastructure and transportation capabilities, as well as part of military personnel and instructors to the ranks of the armed forces of the Transitional National Council, which numbered more than 11 thousand, summarized in battalions and brigades.
We here now call only those forces that were directly close to and in Libya itself, however, a significant number of strikes were delivered from the territories of the anti-Libyan coalition countries by strategic bombers. In addition, already in the course of the attacks on Libya, coalition forces continued to build up attack aircraft, ships and rocket weapons.
This military power opposed 2 Libyan group "East" and "West" in the composition of about 20 thousand Libyan soldiers, not counting the Libyan militias armed with were 621 tanks, armored personnel carriers - 1155, artillery - 180, MLRS - 72, aircraft (serviceable ) - 90, military boats - 26 and only one air defense division in Tripoli, armed with Kvadrat, Osa-AK and Shilka ZSU, covering the capital, Yarmuk military base and Maytiga airfield in Tripoli. Thus, the ground forces of Libya were virtually defenseless against air strikes.
19 March was hit first on Libya. In 18: 50 6 fighter-bomber struck a convoy of government forces Gaddafi, moving to Benghazi, where the sought-after rebels were hiding, the position of which was critical during clashes with regular Libyan troops. An hour later, Libya was dealt a massive blow by cruise missiles from 2 ships and 3 NATO submarines (around 100 Tomahawks). The objectives were objects of the air defense system, government and military facilities.
In addition to cruise missiles, 3 B-2A strategic bomber “stealth vehicles” appeared on Libya at that time. They made a non-stop flight from Whiteman (Missouri) air base and back. They dropped over XDUMX JDAM guided bombs, and destroyed control centers and air defense systems, aviation fuel storage and Libyan forces air base. Bombers on the approach covered the 40 of American fighters from Aviano's air base (Italy).
Until 23 in March, the Libyan air defense system was destroyed by systematic strikes and raids, and more NATO aircraft in the sky did not threaten. Therefore, the intensity of the missile and air strikes continued to increase until March 26. The main objectives were units and units of the Libyan troops, important military and government facilities and transport communications.
On March 27, NATO aircraft began to directly support the insurgent groups, clearing the offensive path. Thus, serenely shouting and screaming gangs of gopniki in rags, waving their arms and firing into the white light, like a pretty penny, began to move almost unhindered to the capital and key cities. The Libyan troops, who met the insurgents with fire, ruthlessly erased from the tape of time by patrolling NATO aircraft continuously by patrolling over the heads of the insurgents. If there were no airplanes, the “rebels” stopped and even retreated, again causing air support, and, after its arrival, continued the triumphant march.
At the same time, the forces of the anti-Libyan coalition were replenished with attack aircraft and attack helicopters of the US Marine Corps. They were consolidated into assault groups, the actions of which consisted in the sequential application of the detected targets. The attackers inflicted a missile-bombing attack on the Libyan division, scattering it into smithereens, and then came to the rescue helicopters cleaned up the rest, exterminating the surviving military personnel. These groups were aimed at the targets directly by aircraft gunners who were in the rebel detachments.
The A-10 attack aircraft, along with the Orion P-3 patrol aircraft, were actively used to attack the Libyan combat boats. Thus, they struck a patrol ship and two boats of the Libyan Navy in the port of Misurata, as a result of which the ships were put out of action.
March 28 again held a raid of American strategic bombers on Libya. Two B-1Bs flew from Ellsworth airbase (South Dakota) and bombs, including JDAM, destroyed a large ammunition depot of government forces that was in underground stores. Bombers were covered with British fighter "Tornado".
In general, it should be noted that not only the United States, Canada, France and the United Kingdom participated in the strikes against Libya. Pilots of Belgium, Denmark, Italy, Jordan, Spain, Norway, Canada, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar frolicked well. In total, over 1600 flights were made at the beginning of the operation, and more than 2000 were dropped by only the expensive controlled bombs. And simple bombs and nurs - who counted them?
An interesting feature in the use of strategic bombers was that they flew only from the United States, and the famous B-52H veterans were not used at all. In addition, the use of the “ship-arsenal” turned out to be entertaining, that is, a former Ohio ballistic missile submarine performed in its capacity, which was converted into a rocket platform for hundreds of Tomahawks and simply called “Converted Ohio”.
Continuation of the beginning
Have you forgotten that the UN Security Council Resolution No. 1973 provided for the creation of a no-fly zone over Libya? And what happened? And it turned out the total destruction of the Libyan army, the destruction of economic (except oil and gas) facilities and transport infrastructure, the physical destruction of the country's leadership and a change in the political structure of Libya.
Returning to the essence of the note, we note that from 31 March 2011, the entire leadership of the “no-fly zone” operation was decided by NATO (!) To the alliance. And the alliance did not miss its chance. If at the beginning of the operation, the main efforts were aimed at saving the rebels from defeat, then later NATO simply stupidly dug all the Libyan things that swayed and what did not sway - it swung and dug. To this end, the military group swelled more than one and a half times. It had more 320 airplanes, of which only shock - 195, and 45 warships and submarines, not counting the seven auxiliary ships. 14 of NATO countries and 4 of non-Alliance countries - USA, Turkey, Romania, United Kingdom, Poland, Greece, Denmark, Belgium, United Arab Emirates, France, Qatar, Jordan, Sweden, Norway, Italy, Netherlands, Canada, Spain .
A special role was played by attack helicopters acting as part of assault air groups, as well as independently. The fact is that when the targets for hitting the aircraft were banal, the alliance command faced a dilemma - what to do? Spending an expensive rocket on a single or focal target is too expensive, and the departure of the aircraft itself does not guarantee its destruction. In addition, the Libyans, even in the conditions of their Tatooine, where everything, clearly, on a flat steppe, adapted to making false goals from inflatable equipment and improvised material, which further increased the level of unjustified expenses of NATO, which spent on their destruction from 30 to 45 % of ammunition.
And helicopters are a subject. At ultra-low heights in the mode of free hunting and even at night - an indispensable thing. So further, from the beginning of June 2011, simultaneously with a decrease in the intensity of strike aircraft, the build-up of the Apache, Tigr and Gazel helicopters, which operated from the Tonner (France) and Ocean helicopter carriers, began Great Britain). This has significantly reduced financial costs while increasing the effectiveness of the destruction of single and small group targets. But the aircraft continued to be used mainly for the destruction of the “hot spots” of troops loyal to Gaddafi.
Alliance ships, in addition to striking and blocking from the sea, also solved important tasks. They constantly distracted part of Gaddafi’s troops with the threat of a naval landing, inspected all merchant ships, and also prevented attempts to mine ports by Libyans. In addition, the April 26 NATO ships with depth charges broke cable telecommunication lines laid under water and disrupted the management of Gaddafi troops in the cities of Sirtes and Ras el Anuf.
By the end of August, the rebels captured most of Tripoli and the Libyan political system was replaced. For what? We see it now, into chaos and muddy slush, from which skilled fishermen drag a golden oil and gas fish. But this is not all that we will mention below.
The supply of "rebels" deserves special mention. It is no secret that left to themselves, the rebels would have been wiped out like cockroaches, but their existence was necessary because of the absence of Western allies in the plans for the occupation of Libya. Thus, maintaining their combat effectiveness has become a priority. The delivery of weapons to them was carried out by all means, by land, by sea and by air.
Automobiles and armored vehicles for the rebels were delivered by cargo ships to the port of Benghazi, as well as by transport aircraft to the airfield in the suburbs. The Misurata-Benghazi ferry service was used, and the runway for cargo aircraft in Tobruk was specially restored for this purpose. In the western part of the country, weapons were first delivered by helicopters and parachute dropping containers to a special site in 100 km south of Nalut. When the rebels captured Nalut, Yafran and Zintan, 2 WFP were prepared there and things went merrier. Trucks of private companies were carrying weapons across the border with Sudan and Chad. Thus, in July, the French sent a batch of trucks with weapons from their military base in Chad and unloaded it, handing over to the “rebels”, in the Libyan settlements of Maatan-es-Sarra and El-Katrun. By the way, it can be noted that in the documents the recipients indicated the armed forces of Qatar and Jordan, and small arms, grenade launchers, mortars and MANPADS (ATGW) were listed as “police funds” to maintain law and order.
In general, it is very interesting to read and watch about the hostilities in Libya, you could still tell a lot, for example, how the entire Libya was covered with a solid radar field, and the airspace was 12 with DRLO aircraft; how the special forces and NATO saboteurs worked with the assistance of the Egyptian special services; how the CIA organized the intelligence service and the training of "opposition leaders"; about how Osprey, camels, crawling and helicopters from the submarine Scranton bombarded reconnaissance and sabotage groups in Bardiyah, Gassr-Gambut, Umm Mahalif and other settlements; how Bulgarian saboteurs prepared the coast for the landing; about the rebel training schools created; about how disguised French soldiers of Arab origin and employees of private agencies, the French "Sekopeks" and the Canadian "Zariba" bloody kamolesili under the guise of Libyan troops; about the wild atrocities of the so-called "rebels"; about how the British Special Forces Group of the 22 SAS regiment, detached to capture Gaddafi, was ambushed and destroyed; how promising military equipment and weapons were tested in near-field conditions; how the Swedish fighter "Gripen" did not fit NATO fuel, and the French and Norwegians ran out of ammunition; how stupidly he broke down and stranded the Charles de Gaulle aircraft carrier in Toulon, and the Italians did not have the funds for their aircraft carrier Garibaldi (330 thousand euros per day) and many other things, but this is a separate thick novel, that anyone ever writes.
We'd better stop with an unprecedented attack on human minds to date.
Battle for brains
Modern war is largely happening for the minds of people. To sow panic in the enemy's camp, to make him doubt the justice of his struggle, is one of the main tasks of the military leader, formulated by the works of the mossy but competent Chinese Sun Tzu.
NATO pays great attention to this issue, especially the Americans. And, in peacetime, such a war is conducted gradually, for which the possibilities of the fifth column in unwanted countries are used, like our “human rights activists” in Russia, gradually divining by order from abroad, then in war everything happens more cheekily, massively and energetically .
It was necessary to legitimize a military operation. And for this, it is not enough to become legitimate in the eyes of the UN, it is necessary to discredit Gaddafi, and so to recognize his authority as illegitimate. But, since there were no real grounds for this, a banal lie went into action, but a massive lie, bad and screaming, screaming those small streams of true information that scrambled through the information blockade.
What are only one staged scenes shot in Qatar and issued for Libya, the so-called “live reports”, for which the whole film-making town was built in Qatar. In general, television and the Internet are extremely actively used. The theses on the inhumanity of the troops of Gaddafi and himself, on the extermination of their own people under the chilling footage of the atrocities that actually created the so-called "rebels" engaged in looting and pogroms, were being advanced. Leading American politicians in broadcasts thoughtfully discussed the crime of the Gaddafi regime under carefully prepared comments, the meaning of which boiled down to the fact that "if you do not intervene, then there will be even more victims."
How this is done has been repeatedly shown. We are now interested in the direct impact on the minds of the Libyans themselves, because in the future the role of the Libyans could well be applied to us, and before that - to Syria (however, there is already nowhere to put attempts).
To foul Libyan brains in Tampa, Fla., A task force was created to command operations information support. Specialists of the group planned the order and methods of influencing the minds, and also prepared samples of information and psychological products designed to influence the minds of Libyans.
22 March 2011 two special operations aircraft - EU-130J Commando Solo-2 and EU-130H Compass Call, operating from the Court’s airbase in Greece, began flying along Libyan borders and broadcasting campaign broadcasts (click “Save As” for save the record) to Libya. On each of these aircraft, except for the crew, there were 13 operators operating on 10-12 hours per day.
The personal cell phone of commanders and soldiers of the Libyan army began to receive calls and SMS messages that NATO knows where they are, and is about to destroy them. The TV channel Ahrar TV was specially created, broadcasting from Qatar to Libya and advocating the need to stop armed resistance. At the same time, state information channels and communications of the troops were suppressed by means of electronic warfare. On the Internet already and can not speak, they themselves know everything. Gaddafi - evil, NATO - good. Speak on the side of good and you will be happy, otherwise we will kill. Pass on.
Leaflets were sprayed from NATO aircraft over populated areas and government units, which, along with intimidation, threatened with inevitable death, proclaimed the struggle of the PNS and NATO, demonizing the Libyan leadership and accusing the soldiers of crimes. It can be noted that just before May 2011, more than 14 of millions of different leaflets were distributed. For example, 17 in May, the Italian Silvio Angelucci transporter C-130J 46 of the air transport unit, dropped from 6 km more than 400 thousands of leaflets over Tripoli calling for surrender and joining PNS.
ATTENTION! You will not be able to withstand modern weapons and the superiority of NATO in the air. Continuing attacks on civilians can cause you to die
Leave your positions and weapons. Return home to your family. Stop the attacks on the peaceful Libyans or you will be destroyed.
Front side. "Gaddafi’s orders to attack civilians are illegal. Therefore, now he is accused of crimes against humanity." The reverse side: "Professional military men do not fight with civilians. Execution of such orders is a violation of international laws. Do not cover yourself and your families with shame."
The e-mail address of Libyan leaders and officials was bombarded by spam containing, for example, the phrase “The coordinates of your location are memorized by the Storm Shadow rocket.” What are you going to do? ”Or false reports about the seizure or destruction of a Libyan leader (“ Do you want to be next? ”). All the victims among the peaceful population from NATO strikes were issued for the consequences of the shelling of cities by Libyan artillery. Come see, from what the house was destroyed, from a shell or bomb hit? Gaddafi himself did not avoid such a fate, to whom the ex-prime minister of Great Britain T. Blair personally called and ominously predicted his demise in the phone, and British Foreign Secretary William Hague called the head of the Libyan Interior Ministry promising the same thing.
The French did not lag behind. Figaro and Le Monde have published a series of articles on repression and the massacre of demonstrators in Tripoli, on torture and abductions. It was noted that allegedly over 10000 civilians killed by the troops of Gaddafi. At the same time, France was hailed as the noble defender of the crisis. In March, the headquarters of the French armed forces issued a directive on the procedure for waging information war against Libya. Interestingly, the practical "frogs" in it paid special attention to the need for all kinds of advertising in the media the unique and universal capabilities of their weapons in order to increase their export appeal.
In general, the massive use of weapons and lies by the Libyans yielded results. We must pay tribute to the Libyan military: almost in the palm of their hands, continuously destroyed from the air, they managed to fight and win. I especially want to note the cover of the retreating government troops from Tripoli to Sirt units 32 tank brigades under the command of Captain H. Gaddafi, who restrained the crowd of "rebels" near Beni Ulid, who were driving the barrage of NATO strikes behind the fire wall until October 11. And the defenders of Sirte, despite the triple attacks of the city by superior rebel forces with the support of the Alliance aviation, which destroyed everything that was even remotely like resistance, managed to repel the attacks, inflicting terrible losses on the attackers in the battles of September 8-16 and 19-29. And only after receiving additional assistance from NATO and replenishing their inconsistent ranks with mercenaries from Cyrenaica, the rebels managed to enter Sirte in early October, when there were few who remained there, capable of resisting. The result of this offensive was captivity and, after torture and bullying, the vile murder of M. Gaddafi, whose mockery of the body continued after his death.
What happened after the victory of the democratic forces in Libya?
Everything is known. The country is destroyed, the population is in poverty. Again, as before Gaddafi, there is a fierce struggle of clans and groups for leadership. Shoot, kidnap, torture and kill everywhere. Libya dropped at least half a century ago.
Despite the desire to preserve intact oil and gas facilities and contracts concluded by the West for the supply of hydrocarbons with the PNS leadership even during the period of active hostilities, oil production fell by more than 500 times. As estimated, the cost of restoring the oil and gas industry will be about 2,3 billion. And they are not, since the financial assets of Libya, which are now about 170 billion dollars, are frozen.
Export volumes fell from 46,3 billion to 8,9 billion, that is, 5 times. Imports fell by almost 2 times, from 24,7 to 14,1 billion dollars. Libya’s already low handicraft industrial capacity fell by more than a third. There is practically no foreign economic activity. Inflation increased 4 times (up to 12%).
In total, according to IMF estimates, the economic damage inflicted on Libya amounts to 45% of GDP or over 35 billion dollars.
But the most fun in this tragedy is that the countries participating in the international anti-Libyan coalition intend to reimburse their costs of liberating the Libyan people from Gadhafi’s tyranny at the expense of the frozen Libyan assets. From there, it is also planned to take expendables for military aid to the PNS and the implementation of various “humanitarian programs”. By the way, the cost of these services is determined by the Western countries themselves.
It is also amusing for the Allies to squabble over the assets and the oil and gas complex of Libya. They all strive to increase their costs in order to grab a bigger share, but they forget that with this overestimate, all total expenses increase, and the effectiveness of joint actions is reduced. The Americans said they spent about everything about everything about 2 billion dollars, and the British - 2.63 billion (1.75 pounds sterling). The French claim to reimbursement in the amount of 460mln dollars, Italian - 400 million dollars, and Turkey said that it needs 300 million dollars for complete happiness, having agreed that this figure is far from final and will be refined. For the rest of the participating countries, the costs range from $ 50-100 million. But everyone is haunted by frozen 170 billion dollars in Western and American banks. Like Dobermanns, impatiently rushing from their leashes, they are waiting for them to bite into this tidbit.
Claims were made to each other. The French rolled out their indignation to the Americans after repeated breakdowns of the refueling mechanisms on Mirage fighter-bombers after refueling by American air tankers. Particularly dissatisfied with the participating countries were American intelligence, which by default supplied everyone with its information. Due to the blurring of the lines of combat contact, American intelligence was unable to identify maneuverable targets, which led to the actions of the alliance's aircraft, mainly in the free hunting mode. This was especially vivid since the end of May, when up to 75% of NATO tactical aircraft returned to base without finding an enemy and never using their weapons. And each flight of the plane is also a living grandmother, tens of thousands of dollars.
It can be said, analyzing the course of the military campaign, that now, due to the inconsistency of the actions of the NATO countries, each of which worked according to its own plan, and a significant difference in armaments and logistics, without US participation, NATO is not capable of conducting a military operation. For example, 8 weeks were initially assigned to the entire Libyan operation, but due to strife in NATO and the unexpected resilience of the Libyans, the deadlines stretched to 7 months.
After the trampling of Libya by freedom-loving democratic states, the problems affecting Middle Eastern geopolitics became much more pronounced.
The United States and Europe hoped that after the “Arab spring”, liberal-democratic regimes would come to power in the so-called “Turkish model” in the countries of the Middle East and North Africa, but against the background of the general weakening of Arab-military military-policing methods of governing states, began to use the most powerful and most organized Islamist groups. Elections held in Egypt and Tunisia, clearly showed it. In Libya, the chaos that reigned after the NATO operation, which violated the historically established way of life and the balance of interests of clans and groups, is being replaced by the process of building new relationships between the most powerful groups.
Now Libya is dismantled in pieces. Independent territorial-tribal entities control and are not going to cede each other cities and the most profitable parts of the former Libya. For example, the largest of them are the “Military Soviets” of the cities of Tripoli and Misurata, the “Military Council” of the Jabel Garbi plateau, the emirate of the city of Derna, the emirate of El Beida and others who wanted to spit on the PNS. In particular, the “Military Council of Misrata” established a closed zone, where even the leadership of the PNS needs special permits from the “Council”. And the entire Bark region (up to 50% of Libyan oil reserves) was crushed by another “Council” headed by Colonel S. El-Obeidi, who, although not against the PNS, but actively and independently steers it. All this is in the hands of the United States and European countries, which, in the absence of centralized power, can and do conclude contracts with local kings for the extraction of hydrocarbons under simplified schemes, as in Iraq.
And the strongest and de facto legalized is the Al-Qaida Islamic Maghreb, which seizes power in the country, strengthens control over security forces, legalizes smuggling business in the region and expands it through trade in petroleum products. The most joke here is that the Americans in Libya, like in Afghanistan, are forced to cooperate with international extremists and terrorists and help those against whom they themselves declared war after 11 September 2001 of the year.
A tremendous amount of weapons was withdrawn from Libyan army stores by "rebels". And not only small, but also MANPADS, anti-tank systems, anti-aircraft systems, explosives and mines. All this has already begun to bite the United States and NATO in the “hot spots” of the Middle East. For example, the Americans themselves admit that there is a huge amount of former Libyan weapons in the Al-Qaida Islamic Maghreb training camps in Mali, which is not only used to train and support terrorist attacks and warfare against Euro-Americans, but is also actively sold around the world.
After the assassination of Gaddafi in the past there were attempts of political and economic cooperation of African countries, the creation of a single currency independent of the dollar and a single development bank. Unification processes in Africa, as in the Middle East, were thus halted.
Saudi Arabia and Qatar, striving for regional leadership, took a pro-American position and began using the Arab League as opposed to Shiite Iran. They also began to actively engage the masses of Arabs impoverished as a result of “revolutions”, who are actively treated by spiritual Saudis mentors and trained by instructors, to join the ranks of the “jihad warriors”.
Completing this far from complete review, we note that fragmentation and lack of cooperation in North Africa and the Middle East, for all their danger, is extremely beneficial for the European and American economies. In view of this, the threat of a radical Islamization of the region, even if it is implemented, does not pose a great danger and is incomparable with the economic benefits obtained. Local warfare away from home also moves the economy of the United States and European countries, allowing the development of high-tech military projects and stimulating the development of large military-technical corporations, as well as creating a stable market for weapons and military equipment.