Military Review

Judgment Day. Start. Part of 1

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Judgment Day. Start. Part of 1



The Suez Canal has a length of 195 km and a depth of 15 m. At its confluence with the Mediterranean Sea is the city of Port Said, and where the canal waters merge with the waters of the Red Sea, there is the city of Suez, in Arabic Es Suis. From Port Said to Cairo 220 km. Halfway between Port Said and Suez, Ismailia is located on the banks of the canal. In this town, the northern part of the canal ends, and the waterway continues along the lake Timsah and Salt Lake, stretched towards Suez, from which the southern part of the canal begins, which ends at Suez. From Ismailia to Cairo 140 km.



Back in 1968 — 1969 in response to the Egyptian bombing during the War of Attrition (which I already wrote about in HE in articles "Nasser starts, but does not win" и "" Caucasus "at Sinai") Israel created a chain of fortifications along the east coast of the Suez Canal. This system of fortifications was built in order to counteract the attempt of any major attack of the Egyptians through the channel. At that time, Israel believed that the Egyptians, even in the event of a full-scale offensive, could not overcome the line in less than a day or two.

In total, the Bar-Leva line consisted of 30 forward bunkers at the canal and 11 rear fortifications, carried 8-12 km deep into the peninsula, where Egyptian artillery shells did not reach and where were provided tank parks. Each of the advanced bunkers controlled its front section, and patrols moved between the bunkers and temporary observation posts were located. The construction of fortifications cost Israel a lot of money. As subsequent events showed, this money was thrown to the wind.



The line stretched in length approximately 160 km (more precisely: length - 157,5 km, width - 180 m). The height of the mound of sand, which had a slope of 45 — 65 °, sometimes reached 25 meters. For the possible support line was built a complex system of roads. October 6 1973 was an Israeli reservist who served 451 there (some historians have 436), many of whom, unaware, had all their feelings in the Doomsday prayers. These reservists from the 116 Brigade were, in the mass, middle-aged businessmen, store owners, university workers and government officials. Only a few of them managed to make war in 1967, most did not have combat experience. They were sent to the front line to give urgent soldiers a rest. Soldiers were located in fortifications and bunkers, which stretched from a line of points from north to south.

The fortification “Budapest” (63 man) and a small post “Traklin” (6 soldiers) were located right in the north, next to him, in the Port Said sector there were fortifications “Orkals” (three bunkers, total 47 soldiers) and “Lakhtsanit” ( 17). Further along the channel line to Ismailia were “Dror” (19), “Toba” (21), “Milan” (28), “Mifreket” (16), “Hitsayon” (20) and Purcan (33). Almost opposite Ismailia, Matsmed (33) and Lakekan (10) were built, and further, Bozer (26), Lituf (29), Maftseah (28), Nissan (20) ), Masrek (30) and the most southerly Egrofit bunker (5 soldier). From these fortifications, direct channel observation was conducted. At a greater distance from the water, tank positions “Ktuba”, “Television”, “Mitsva” and others were equipped, in which the enemy was waited for by 290 tanks. At the same time, the 91 tank was located directly on the front line, and the 199 were in reserve deep in the peninsula. Finally, 14 artillery batteries were located between the bunkers and tank positions. All these few bunkers and tanks were divided into three sectors: the northern - “Budapest” - “Mifreket”, the central - “Hitsayon” - “Lakekan” and the southern - “Bozer” - “Egrofit”. Further to the east, the sands and rocks of the Sinai Peninsula, slit by military roads, stretched smoothly into the Negev desert burned by the sun.

The Bar-Lev Line on the channel had one engineering secret. Each of the above bunkers had a small underground storage tank with a pipe leading to the surface of the water. When the enemy attempted to force the channel, the soldiers had to simultaneously open the valves, or rather press the buttons, the oil had to rush to the surface of the water, it had to be set on fire, and a flaming wall rose before the enemy. Instead of water - the river of fire. Egyptian intelligence knew about this. Therefore, on the night of the Doomsday, the Egyptian commandos secretly crossed over to the Israeli coast and sealed the holes in the pipes with cement mortar. This sabotage was not detected until two o'clock the next day, no one raised the alarm. Later it turned out that in part of the oil reservoirs there was no oil at all, it was possible not to risk it.

By dawn 6 in October, 1973 from the entire length of Suez to Port Said gathered 600 thousand Egyptian soldiers, 2000-2200 tanks, 2000-2300 artillery shells and up to 160 rocket batteries. From the air, this force was ready to cover about 500 aircraft ...

The Golan Heights cover an area of ​​1500 square. km This plateau stretches from north to south for 62 km, the width between the ceasefire line (1967) with Syria and the upper Jordan, which flows into Lake Kinneret (Lake Tiberias), varies between 15 and 29 km. In other words, in a tank war, there is practically no way to retreat. In the very north of Golan is the highest point of Israel - Mount Hermon (2828 m), on which, after the 1967 war of the year, the Israelis built a quick warning station, viewing and listening to the whole part of Syria from Golan to Damascus.

The northern part of the Golan stretches from Hermon down to the town of Quneitra on the old route from Acre to Damascus. Hills as high as 1200 meters in ledges descend to the headwaters of the Jordan. The southern part of the heights is lower than the northern one, on average, not higher than 800 meters, and gently descends to Lake Kinneret, which is located on 200 meters below sea level. It turned out that if the Syrians managed to break through to the first line of the Israeli defense, then they would continue to attack comfortably, from the top down.

Since there was no canal on the Syrian border, the Israelis dug a long anti-tank ditch that stretched from Mount Hermon to the Jordanian border and located minefields. (The Syrians also knew about the long and deep antitank ditch on the northern front. They thought that it would take up to an hour and a half for their engineering troops to get across the obstacle.)

The border was defended by a line of fortifications. The most northerly of them was the system of bunkers and positions on Mount Hermon around the tracking station. Next bunkers went along the line of ceasefire. Unlike bunkers on the Suez Canal, they did not have beautiful names, only numbers from 104 to 116 (on this map АХNUMX-А1).



The northern road to Dan was defended by the fortifications 104 and 105, directly to the road to Kuneitra and the Banot Yaakov bridge covered the 107 bunker. At the junction of the northern and southern parts of the Golan, where Israeli positions were somewhat advanced into Syrian territory, the fortifications of 111-115 huddled tightly together. The fortification of 116 covered the road that went from the heights to the village of El Al and then crossed the Jordan already below Kinneret.

According to the geography of the Golan, the Syrian border was divided into the northern and southern military sectors. The northern sector was defended by the 36-I Tank-Motorized Infantry Division, commanded by Brigadier General Rafael Eitan.


Rafael Eitan


Paratrooper Eitan, the legendary Rafuel, was already 44 of the year. In the army, everyone knew that he was brave to recklessness and very clever during special operations, but it was believed that he had no special strategic talent and military thinking. It is one thing to command a detachment of paratroopers and quite another to division. During the 1967 war of the year, he was seriously wounded in the head, and the doctors thought that Eitan would remain disabled. Surprisingly, he fully recovered. Then the officers had a joke: we had previously guessed that Raful was without brains, but now we were convinced for sure. Meanwhile, Raful completed courses for Marine commanders in Virginia, USA. He received a division in the north about a year before the war.

The commander of the 240 armored division, Major General Dana Laner, and the commander of the 146 armored division, Brigadier General Moshe Peled, got to defend the southern sector of the Golan.


Dan Lener



Moshe Peled


Moshe Dayan in the last days before the war slightly strengthened the Syrian direction, so the soldiers and tanks in the north were, though not in sufficient quantity for the Syrian armada. However, in addition to the three divisions mentioned above, the 7-I armored brigade of Colonel Avigdor Ben-Gal and the battalion of cadets of the tank school of Lieutenant-Colonel Memshal Carmel were in the north.


Avigdor Ben-Gal


Military analysts agree that the troops on the Syrian border were staffed with manpower and technology on 80.

October 6 in 13: 55 an artillery officer on an Israeli battery on the side of Hermon viewed the Syrian positions through binoculars. He was numb when he saw the Syrians cleverly pull off the camouflage nets from their tanks and remove the covers from the gun barrels. At the same second the whistle of the first shell rang out. Further, simultaneously on the Syrian and Egyptian fronts, shelling began. All the achievements of modern Soviet military equipment made themselves known.

The shelling on the channel lasted 53 minutes. Shells plowed up all the sand on the Israeli coast. Bunkers suffered, but not badly. At the same time, on 14: 00, Egyptian airplanes flew to bomb air bases and radar stations in the rear of the Israeli forces. The first Egyptian aircraft were accidentally shot down in 14: 05. Two Israeli pilots made an ordinary patrol flight over Sharm e-Sheikh, when suddenly 9 MiGs fell on them. A desperate air battle ensued, and seven Egyptians were shot down. In the early hours of the war, Anvar Sadat’s brother, Captain Abdel Sadat, an 22-year-old military pilot, was killed over Sinai.

On 14: 07 Cairo Radio announced:
"Our forces successfully crossed the Suez Canal in several places, surrounded the enemy fortifications, and the Egyptian flag is now flying on the east bank."


There are usually no radio programs on Judgment Day in Israel. The radios came to life in 14: 30 for a brief message: “The alarm was not educational. When the siren sounds again, everyone should go down to the bomb shelter and Beethoven’s Moonlight Sonata. In 15: 30 was followed by another drop of information: “Egypt and Syria attacked. Partial mobilization announced. ” Siren. In 16: 00: “There should be no trips for private reasons along main highways. Petrol stations immediately open. " Beethoven again. Further, in 16: 20: “Passenger transport should start working. All hospitals are prepared to receive the wounded. Only patients requiring emergency care remain in the hospitals, all planned patients go home. ” Only now the citizens of Israel began to realize that something very unpleasant had happened. Finally, a brief explanation followed in 16: 40: “The Egyptians crossed the Suez Canal and are on the east bank.” Only the next day regular military personnel began to be transferred. news. A retired general, Haim Herzog, the future president of Israel, was appointed Levitan of Israeli reports. His calm and balanced radio news and comments made a name for him.


Chaim Herzog


After a terrible bombardment, the first wave of Egyptian soldiers in 8000 launched boats into the water. Egyptians bravely rowed towards the Israeli coast, glory and death. Nobody interfered with the crossing. The landing took place in places between the bunkers to avoid barrage fire. Egyptian bridgeheads between Milan and Mifreket and near Hitsayon ​​quickly formed. The Egyptian infantry was not going to attack the fortifications, but simply had to go around them and move deep into the peninsula. Egyptian military analysts on the eve of the war planned that on the first day of the fighting the Israelis would suffer losses in 10 thousand killed. 208 turned out to be really dead. It did not occur to the Egyptians that they had struck almost the empty space with all their might.



Calls for help rushed from the surrounded bunkers. One hundred Israeli tanks — a tank brigade under the command of Dan Shomron — stood on the passes of Ghidi and Mitla. By order of command, Shomron led his brigade to help out border fortifications.


Dan Shomron


This was the impact of Soviet innovations like hand-held anti-tank missiles. Egyptian infantrymen fought Israeli tanks before the arrival of their own tanks. Of the hundred tanks, Shomron lost 77 and failed to break through to the bunkers. In addition to the missiles, the Egyptians beat Israeli tanks with Soviet RPG-7. With the help of portable missiles and RPGs, the infantry was supposed to hold back attacks by IDF armored forces for 24 hours, which were needed to build pontoon bridges across the canal and ferry tanks and artillery to the east bank. Being left on their own for a day, the infantrymen dragged with them 20-30 kg of ammunition and ammunition each. The Egyptian unit stuck a banner in the sand, and soon a forest of Egyptian flags grew on the shore.



Tanks also faced two obstacles - canal water and sand dunes right on the shore. Both obstacles were in principle surmountable, but the time factor was important. The Israelis are about to come to their senses and fly the bomb. According to the old method of pointing pontoon ferries, all the pontoons were pushed into the water, and then tugged into one line. Soviet genius invented the bridge PMP. When dropped on the water, the pontoon link automatically opens and is ready for docking with other links. The pontoons are interconnected by hinges. Instead of several hours of work, the bridges were built in half an hour. Now it was a matter of hills of sand in which any tank could get bogged down. Usually such obstacles were leveled with explosives and bulldozers, but this would again take hours of time, and the soldiers on the front lines were waiting for reinforcements. Therefore, another flash of genius invented a simple method of eroding a wall of sand with a stream of water taken directly from the canal. Powerful pumps and hoses quickly made passages for vehicles in the sand.



The speed of the Egyptian crossing was impressive. For 7 hours, engineering troops completed 60 passes in the sand, built 10 bridges and 50 ferries. General Ismail Ali did not need 10 bridges, but the Egyptians feared that the Israeli aviation will bomb the bridges, and put in additional ones. While the engineers showed their art, the infantrymen held bridgeheads. Here, Dayan's first mistake became clear. He believed that infantry without the support of equipment could not successfully defend themselves from attacking tank formations.

While the Egyptian soldiers were waiting for their tanks, an armored fist immediately hit the Israeli positions on the Syrian front.



Artillery still rattled, and 650-800 tanks and twice as many armored personnel carriers with infantry rushed through the neutral zone to the Israeli side, past UN observers. The technology was so crowded that it could not turn into battle formations and was almost parade columns. The offensive impulse was so strong that the first several tanks fell into the anti-tank ditch, and only then the columns stopped and waited for the engineering units.

The commander of the IDF forces in the Golan, Yitzhak Hofi, was at a meeting in Tel Aviv with David Elazar at the time of the start of the war. He jumped into a light aircraft and rushed to the front to his headquarters, which was located in Rosh Pina and where Rafael Eitan was already waiting for him.


Itzhak Hofi


On the Syrian front, they fired 153 batteries 122 mm, 130 mm and 152 mm guns. Shells 152 mm guns flew to a distance of 12 km, and the gun itself could shoot four times a minute. 122 mm guns could shoot up to eight times a minute, and their shells flew to a distance of 15 km. Finally, 132 mm guns could send projectiles to 27 km at a speed of six rounds per minute. The Syrians managed to drive even a few batteries of huge 180 mm guns, which sent their shells at a distance of 29 km. These batteries, however, could give only one volley per minute. In other words, the entire area of ​​the Golan Heights was under fire.

The Syrians knew that the headquarters of Rafoul was in the town of Nuffs, halfway from near-front Quneitra to the Banot Yaakov Bridge. 20 jet attack aircraft hit the village. Surprisingly, not a single bomb hit the headquarters and other divisional targets, and no one was hurt. Israeli pilots did not interfere with the Syrian pilots, and the anti-aircraft guns were silent. Despite this, the Syrians bombed very clumsily and not a single tank or cannon of the IDF was attacked by air raids. Israeli pilots first attended to the protection of their own bases. Since the Second World War, it was self-evident that a war begins with a raid on airfields, and only then on troops. In the north of Israel, there were two air bases - Tech under Haifa and Ramat-David between Haifa and Afula. Wriggling over the bases and seeing that no one was encroaching on them, Israeli fighters rushed into the sky over the Golan, and by the evening of the first day of the war Israeli patrols tried to catch eight downed Syrian aircraft in the Jordan Valley.

Still on the plane, Hofi contacted the commander of the northern sector of defense, Rafule, by radio. Hofi asked him to drive up to Mahanaim (a small airfield in the area) to immediately begin to decide everything as soon as the shelling stops and the plane lands. Raful arrived, but the shelling did not stop. The Syrian armored avalanche moved to Israeli positions, the front commander fluttered in the sky, and the sector commander shifted down at the landing strip. Controlling the front at the critical moment of the first enemy attack was in the hands of 39-year-old Colonel Yitzhak Ben Shoham, a native of Turkey and a brave professional. He commanded the 188 th elite tank brigade "Barak", which was part of the division of Eitan.


Itzhak Ben-Shoham


Without thinking twice, Shoham moved the tank battalions forward, closer to the bunkers, to prearranged and well-adjusted positions. Tanks stood up to support the strengthening of their guns with fire.

Here the difference in the range of aimed shooting between the Soviet T-55 and the English Centurions affected. The arrows opened fire on the Syrians, crept near the anti-tank ditch. The Israelis beat the Syrian tanks with minimal casualties. It quickly became clear that the armor-piercing shells of the Israeli army were piercing the armor of Soviet tanks. The commanders also gave the coordinates of the artillery batteries located in the rear, and the guns also joined the destruction of the Syrian technology. The Syrians began to maneuver, trying to avoid a devastating fire, and hit the minefields located in front of the anti-tank moat. In the northern sector of the Golan, the offensive almost stopped.

The Moroccans felt a weak spot in the system of immovable Israeli fortifications of the northern sector. Bypassing the bunkers that defended the Kibbutz Dan road, the 30-tank Moroccan brigade rushed into the breakthrough along this road, cutting off Mount Hermon from the rest of Israel. Since the tanks of the Barak Brigade were distributed among the bunkers in positions, the Israelis threw a battalion of cadets at the Tsenturion tank school to stop the offensive. So, after 40 minutes of war, the Israeli command in the northern Golan did not have a single tank in reserve.

After 17: 00 finally began to receive detailed reports from the fronts. The fortifications "Mifreket" and "Lakhtsanit" were the first to fall in the south. Heavy fights were fought around Milan and Orkala. K 17: The Egyptians moved 30 deep into the Sinai by 10 km towards the Guidi Pass. After the war, when the Egyptian operational plans became known, the world learned that Sadat had no idea of ​​moving deep into the Sinai sands. He believed to take bridgeheads on the eastern bank of the canal and wait for political decisions. But two hours after the start of the war, the Israelis did not know about it. It quickly became clear that there was no mainstream of the Egyptian breakthrough, the channel was forced throughout. There were reports of some incredible number of Syrian tanks. However, in 17: 40, Hofi reported that the situation in the north was stable and the Syrians could not move forward despite strong attacks. The only serious loss in the north by this time was the fall of the early warning station on Hermon.


Mount Hermon


Station on Hermon called "the eyes of Israel." These electronic, antenna and telescopic eyes from 1967, looked half of Syria and part of Lebanon, all the Golan were also in full view. In good weather, Haifa was visible. In 14: 45 from the station reported on the continued heavy shelling. Soldiers hiding from shells did not immediately notice the helicopters approaching them directly. On Yom Kippur, there were 55 soldiers at the station, including guards from the 13 fighters of the Golani brigade. In 14: 55 on Hermon saw the 4 helicopter. One exploded in the sky, three landed and landed Syrian commandos. Almost simultaneously, two columns of Syrians attacked the station, moving from the bottom. Two of the three large-caliber machine guns were damaged by shells, the station’s technical staff hid in the lower bunkers, and a handful of fighters engaged in combat, having one heavy machine gun and personal Uzi machine guns. After the 45 minute battle, it became clear that the situation was almost hopeless. In addition, because of the uncoordinated command, the forces of the defenders were divided. The generator did not work, and the men sat in separate rooms in the dark. In the hours of 9 the officers gathered some soldiers and decided to bring them down. They tiptoed past the Syrian posts and hurried up the hill first to avoid ambushes and then down. The ambush could not be avoided, and by the morning the whole 11 man from 55 got to their forces. Bricked up in bunkers, they surrendered, and on the lower floor the soldiers lasted 5 days. Electronic equipment of the station was not destroyed and fell into the hands of Soviet specialists.

The nightmare of Hermon fortification was repeated on the channel several times. The Arabs ’attack on one of the bunkers of the southern sector ended with the Egyptians who had picked up after the energetic assault to the bunker door and let in a jet of flame-thrower and six defenders burned out.


The two others crawled out through another exit, noticed two Egyptians in a jeep, strangled them with their bare hands, got into a jeep and drove away to the east. Bunker fell. After a day of fighting, there were no officers left in the fortification of “Lituf”. The surrounded bunker defenders contacted the command and asked for permission to surrender. They did not receive permits, but tanks from the Dan Shomron brigade rushed to their rescue. Tanks went astray, were ambushed. As a result, tankers and bunker fighters found themselves in captivity.

Egyptian infantrymen conducted an attack for an hour and a half on the “Yurkal” bunkers system. Israeli defense commanded by Lieutenant David Abu Dirham. The Egyptians attacked with chains, as during the First World War. Heavy reinforcement machine guns tore the entire chain at once. Attack infantrymen covered one tank. Abu Dirham had one grenade launcher with 14 grenades from anti-tank weapons. He fired all 14 into the tank, three hit the car, and the latter silenced the tank. After a day and a half of fights surrounded by, on Sunday night, the defenders of Orkal surrendered, without waiting for reinforcements. From the "Milan" soldiers brought a young officer, waving a white talit, so as not to shoot their own. “Purcan” in front of Ismailia kept 68 hours, without losing contact with the command and reporting everything that happens around. The fighters of this bunker surrendered by Sharon’s personal permission. The only bunker that lasted throughout the war was Budapest, commanded by Captain Moti Ashkenazi. Neither the attack of 16 tanks, nor the aerial bombardment, the shelling from the long-range guns of Port Said, nor the attack of the Egyptian commandos could force the encircled defenses to surrender. On the fifth day of the war, on Thursday, fresh units could break through to the bunker and replace defenders who were tired and deafened by the constant cannonade.

On the second day of the war, October 7, Israeli newspapers cheerfully informed the people that "the Israeli army blocked the advance of the enemy and launched a counterattack." Golda Meir spoke on television and reassured people, saying that "the army is ready to repel any attack." “The enemies expected to take the Israelis by surprise on the Day of Judgment. They didn't surprise us much. ” So she said. She also contacted Aba Eban, the foreign minister who was all sitting in New York, at the UN. Meir gave him instructions that it would be possible to talk about a cease-fire only when the IDF did not knock all Arabs back to their original lines. At the UN, everyone ran to Eban asking what will happen to Israel now, and Eban reassured everyone cheerfully.

Moshe Dayan also spoke on television and also said something like "our cause is just, the enemy will be defeated, victory will be ours" (c). This bravado was not true, but it was necessary for a bewildered society, which found itself in a martial law at the most inopportune moment - on the Day of Judgment, during the economic crisis and the election campaign. Meir and Dayan themselves received reports from the front, terrible as descended from the pages of the Book of Job. The first day of the fighting killed 500 people, 1000 injured, many prisoners. During the entire war of the Suez crisis of 1956, the losses were less. In 24 hours, Israel has turned from a state whose army "is the most efficient in the world, covered itself with glory and is a model for all armies," into a country that, having clenched teeth, fought desperately for life, for the very right of its existence. Dayan on the second day wanted to resign. The Prime Minister did not accept the resignation, and the Minister of Defense plunged into military affairs.

This he managed with difficulty. In contrast to the post of chief of staff, the post of defense minister is more political and economic than operatively military. The task of the Minister of War is to determine the political moment, when the intervention of the army may be necessary, the size of this intervention, arm, train, prepare the army completely by this moment and at the right time transfer this mechanism into the hands of the chief of staff. The Minister of Defense can be a completely civilian person, a politician who simply does not have to give military orders. After the retired military, Moshe Dayan, the Minister of Defense, for example, was civilian Shimon Peres. On the other hand, it was the Minister of Defense who could advise the government, on the basis of the situation on the fronts, whether it was necessary to look for ways to cease fire, or the country could afford to fight to the bitter end. At the very beginning of the war, a vacuum was formed in the activities of Dayan. Practically, he did not know what to do.

As a result, if Elazar was sitting in the bunker of the General Staff all over the maps and reports from the front, Dayan began to drive on the fronts and observe everything with his right eye. So he got to the command post of the Southern Front to General Gonen. Shmuel Gonen had no time for bravado. He said that the bunkers are surrounded and some of them have fallen, tanks cannot get through to them, there are huge losses among tanks, there are no reserves either, and there is no single front line, respectively, almost every squad is fighting for itself. In general, Pearl Harbor, Dunkirk and 22 on June 1941 of the year.


Shmuel gonen


Dayan, thinking, diplomatically gave the “ministerial council”, in general, quite sound: do not cling to the fortifications, they will fall anyway. It is better to evacuate anyone else who can break out of the encirclement, and move to a new line of defense at a height of kilometers in 20 from the channel. Unfortunately, a direct order to leave the fortifications was never given by anyone.

After that, Dayan went to the Golan. It was much worse there. Reserves have not yet come. Israeli tank crews outnumbered the Syrians with a large reserve and fought from trained positions. However, the tank can not stand on the same position as sewn, day after day. Ammunition ends, minor damage accumulates, fighters get tired. If the tank moves, it also ends with fuel. Therefore, the tanks were from time to time to retreat to the rear for refueling, visiting the repair shop and replenishing ammunition. Many did not manage to go back, because the Syrians did not stop the pressure at night, and the positions they left occupied the enemy. Night vision devices gave the Syrians the possibility of a continuous offensive the whole day. With all the colossal losses suffered by inept Syrian tankers, they, like ants, blindly moved forward, and 800 tanks, even if they are clumsy, are still 800 tanks.

In the northern sector, the Syrians failed to break through the defense of Eitan’s division. In the southern sector, they were able to overcome the resistance of the Israelis in two places and flooded the Golan. I recall that the southern part of Golan after the border of individual mountains - Alonei Bashan, Paras, Tel Dzhukhadr, Tel Saki - is an almost flat area up to the slopes near the shore of Lake Kinneret. The commanders insistently called for reinforcements, the headquarters replied that reinforcements were going and begged to hold out for another half an hour, but there was no reserve. Lieutenant Boaz Tamir, wounded in the head during the first Syrian attack, commanded six tanks! On his tank in a new attack went 20 Syrian machines. In the survey sector, he could see only three tanks at a time. Blood flooded his eyes, and charging from time to time poured his face with water from a flask. He quickly chose a target, and his tank fired without ceasing. To stop for a minute would mean death.

It was this moment that Dayan found with his own eyes on the Syrian front. He understood, again correctly, that before the reserves arrived, the only thing that could help the bleeding Israeli border guards was aviation. Without losing time, Dayan contacted Air Force Commander Beni Peled and ordered him to send the main part of the country's aviation to the Northern Front.


Binyamin Peled


Elazar resented. Dayan as the Minister of Defense, he said, should not give orders directly to the commander of the Air Force, bypassing him, the chief of the general staff, and the commander of the front, Hofi. (The Egyptians had it easier, Defense Minister Ismail was at the same time the supreme commander.) What Hofi, a former paratrooper and parachutist, can understand in tank battles, Dayan snapped.


David Elazar


While the generals figured out the sequence of instances when the order was being passed, on the Golan land, after breaking through the Syrians, four people decided the fate of the north of Israel: Lieutenant Zvi Gringold (Zwika); Major Baruch Lenshner, Captain Moshe Vaks and Captain Meir Zamir. Zamir had 9 tanks left from the battalion, Lenshner and Vaks commanded 7 tanks, and Zviki had another Centurion 8 under him. And that's all.

Tankist Zvika, red-haired and freckled, basked at his kibbutz house when the war began. He pulled his uniform and hitchhiked to Eitan’s command post in Nafah.


Zvi Gringold (Zwika)


There were two suitable tanks and several undecided tankers, and these tanks were put under the command of Zwick. The order in front of the group was put to straddle the “oil road” (Petroleum Road) and watch. Zvika gathered himself a crew of tankers, whom he saw for the first time, and went to fight. As we remember from stories The six-day war, seizing the Golan Heights, the Israelis cut the pipeline, which drove Iraqi oil to Syrian and Lebanese ports on the Mediterranean. Business, however, is business, and after the war, the pipeline earned again. Israel was paid money for this “transit” and for maintaining order along the highway. Oil road just went along the pipeline from the south-east to north-west. When Lieutenant Gringold left for the road, the night came down, the first night of the war. His slave tank was lost in the dark, and the crew of the Centurion of four was alone on the road. First, they caught three Syrian tanks that were traveling with headlights on. Zwikin tank stood without lights and just shot the Syrians point-blank. Having pulled over to the side of the road, Zvika set up an ambush. Half an hour later he became cold. On the road moving 30 tanks. This was the Syrian 452 Tank Battalion of Major Ismail. For trucks lorries and armored personnel carriers. Four tankers let the first Syrian tank on the 20 m down, knocked it out and stopped the entire convoy. Zvika ordered the driver to move slowly along the column. It was dark, only burning tanks illuminated the battlefield. Single shots hit the tank behind the tank, and the Israeli tank was not visible. Major Ismail did not know that only one Israeli tank crew was fighting with him. To find out with whom he, in fact, leads the battle, the Syrian major ordered the tanks to turn on the headlights. This made it easier for Zwick. When the tenth tank broke out, Ismail ordered to retreat, never knowing that four people blocked the way to his host.

At two o'clock in the morning 8 tanks of Lieutenant Colonel Uzi Mora joined Zvika. It was decided to drive the Syrians along the oil road. Dividing forces into two columns, at Zviki - 4 tank and at More - 5, the Israelis moved along the pipeline, and then it began. Three of the four tanks were hit by missiles, including the tank itself. Contused, he jumped out of a burning tank and was wounded in his left hand. Running rushed to the last active tank of his column, and the Syrians retreated. But the night was not over yet, seven more tanks pulled up to Zvika, and they all came under his command. Lieutenant Gringold was confused. He did not have to command a compound of eight cars. Of course, they talk a lot about on-site training, but not on the first day of the war. Zvika asked to send him a commander of a higher rank, but they approved him as a commander. Now the young lieutenant decided not to tempt fate and to lead a duel with enemy tanks at a great distance. Indeed, the next attack of the Syrians soon began, and their tanks met with fire from a mile and a half. Meanwhile, the commanders of Gringold, Lieutenant-Colonel of Israel and Colonel Ben Shoham, no longer sat on the command post, and each in his tank fought an unequal battle with the Syrians. Israel fought a battle not far from Zviki, shot all the shells, rushed into a frontal attack on the Syrian tank and died.

The southernmost fortification of 116, which was closest to the junction of the Jordanian, Syrian, and Israeli borders, was attacked by the 132-th mechanized tank brigade. With colossal labor, Lieutenant Yosef Gur repulsed the attack. The last shot down Syrian tank got into 20 m from the main bunker. As soon as the attack stopped, the lieutenant sent soldiers to scatter mines at the approaches to the fortification and did the right thing. A new attack followed by the Syrians, who, unaware of the mines on the field they had already passed, lost several tanks. In this battle, Lieutenant Gura did not support divisional artillery, and his soldiers managed to incite tanks from an 81-mm mortar. Gur then ordered to scatter mines around the perimeter around the fortifications and again did not lose. The Syrians went around and hit mines again. The 116 bunker survived.

Heavy fighting went around the 111 bunker. All officers died or were injured. The defense of the whole position was commanded by the energetic private Ezra Zion. Tanks around the bunker commanded by Sergeant Daniel Berkovich. All the wounded tankers and infantrymen were demolished in a bunker. Berkovich contacted the command, asking to urgently evacuate the wounded. One armored personnel carrier managed to break through the Syrians' fire to the fortification, but the way back was cut off. Then Berkovich received permission to withdraw all forces to the rear and leave the bunker.

Behind this fortification was a very important T-shaped road fork. From it, the road to Quneitra went north, the road went to the bleeding 113, 114 and 115 bunkers, and to the west, right inland, led the highway to Arika Bridge. Having broken through the Israeli defense, Syrian Colonel Hassan Turkmani slipped this fork in a roll to the west, reached the next northern road and turned his 9-th infantry division to the Rafula command post in Nafah. Major Abdulla Kablan commanded a tank battalion on the point of attack of the division of Turkmani. He hit a minefield, and his tanks with mine rollers were already hit. After consulting with Turkmani, Kablan led his tanks into a minefield. Almost all of his tanks exploded, he himself miraculously managed to jump out of his dying car. Turkmani watched the death of the Kablan battalion. The path was clear, and his division rushed forward.

Now on the way of the whole Syrian division stood seven tanks Lenshnera and Vaksa. They could not hold off the attack of the troops of Turkmen, and the Syrians attacked Nafah. Wax died. At the end of the battle, Lenshner had two tanks left. In addition to the command post of Rafulya, there was a hospital, kitchens, repair shops, ammunition depots and other logistical units of the Eitan division in the Nafah military camp. There were no combat troops in Nafah.

Realizing that the Syrians were about to break into the rear of his division, Eitan ordered Colonel Ben Shoham, the commander of the Barak tank brigade, to move with his tanks, including Zvik, to Nafah. Ben Shoham did not have time to execute this order. His tank was in 300 m from the barbed wire perimeter of Nafah. The smoke from the destroyed tanks covered the review, and the colonel leaned out into the upper hatch to direct the battle. He was killed by a Syrian machine gunner. Zvika lost his commanders, his radio was silent. Neighboring tanks were hit. After some thought, he drove off-road to Nafah.

To command the defense of Nafah fell, on the orders of Eitan, Pinchas Kuperman. He was in the rank of lieutenant colonel, but was the assistant manager of the frontier brigade. Eitan led the entire front of the cracking seams. He had no time to transfer headquarters to another place. He ordered to collect all the infantrymen who fell, and to organize defense around the perimeter of Nafah. Kuperman assembled, as they later joked, a “squad of cooks and bakers,” handing out recoilless anti-tank guns to them and distributed them to positions. The bakers fought the 91 th Syrian tank brigade, equipped with brand new T-62. Like all other fights, this fight was unequal, but behind the bakers of Kuperman, there was no one up to Jordan itself, Nafah was in the rear. When the Syrian tanks broke into the camp, Eitan commanded the staff officers: “Guys, we are leaving,” and jumped out. At that moment, the T-62 was already moving to headquarters. Eitan grabbed a bazooka and knocked out a tank. He watched the evacuation of the headquarters when he pulled another T-20 from him in 62. In full speed, Rapoulus rushed to the last jeep, which had already been deployed by another officer, jumped into it on the move. Another three broken machines remnants of the garrison removed from Nafah.
Meanwhile, Zvika was brought up to her camp on his tank and several other crews. Twenty hours had passed, as Lieutenant Gringold set off from the rear of Nafah for the battle, and now the camp presented itself to him as the whirlpool of death. Everything was burning all around. The driver of the Zvikin tank was so frightened that he jumped out, jumped into an abandoned armored personnel carrier and sped off from the camp. Zvika remained to fight in the immobilized tank and miraculously survived. The camp was saved from the defeat of the 72 Infantry Battalion of the Golani Brigade (Lieutenant Ephraim Fein), a fresh reserve that was finally in the right place at the right time.

The connections of Col. Orr were also tightened. Zvika got himself a new tank and continued the battle, already completely exhausted, not sleeping for more than a day and with untreated wounds. By five o'clock in the evening of the second day of the war, Eitan was informed that Nafah was able to defend. The further advance of the Syrians from the south to the north of the Golan, to the rear of the Raful division, was halted.

When the battle around Zviki died away, he suddenly found himself standing in the turret of the fifth tank of his own; being completely unable to concentrate. An intelligence commander of the Barak brigade rushed to him, who, after the death of the commander, carried out his duties. Almost in lethargy, Zvika, burned and wounded, slipped from the tank into the officer's hands. Zviku was sent to the medical evacuation center. The contribution of this man with an iron will to the disruption of the Syrian offensive is colossal. Never before has a tank driver managed to destroy so many enemy tanks in one battle. Military historians agree that Zvi Gringold destroyed T-60, T-54 and T-55 tanks to 62 a day. Zvika himself recalls that during the night from 6 to October 7, the three tanks he successively commanded, spent a total of three ammunition, while the Centurion tank had the ammunition equal to 72 shells. For his feat, Zvi Gringold was awarded the highest Israeli military award - Itur ha-gvura (Medal “For Heroism.” In total, 1970 people were awarded such an award from the date of its establishment in 40 in Israel. 16 of them posthumously.)


Military award to Lieutenant Zvi Gringold


While there were battles for every meter on the Golan, on the channel the Egyptians calmly transferred the division after division to their Israeli coast from their 800-thousandth army.



The Northern part of the front, above the Salt Lakes, was held by the Second Egyptian Army, and the southern part, below the lakes, by the Third Army. In the first two days of reinforcement battles, the front commander, General Gonen, was received very poorly, every new 10 tanks were registered. Finally, on the third day, a relatively significant number of armored troops gathered in the south on Monday, and Gonen made a fatal mistake that extended the war by two weeks - on October 9 he threw fresh tanks into an ill-conceived counterattack. Affected by "the syndrome of the seventh day of the Six Day War." Yesterday we simply did not have mobilized troops, but today we have reserves of profit, and now we will show them. However, there were not enough reserves for a massive tank attack. It turned out that instead of a tank fist tanks were used to plug gaps in small inefficient groups. As a result, the IDF lost 200 tanks in local skirmishes just in the first days of the war.

Israeli doctrine implied frontal tank battles. The Soviet doctrine, which was followed by the Egyptians, suggested that the tanks could be met by well-established infantry, and their own tanks engage in battles after the enemy’s tank forces were drained by infantry and artillery. In general, remember the Kursk Arc. Egyptian infantrymen, well equipped with anti-tank weapons, stopped the Israeli tank attack with their guided missiles. After all, it has been known since the Second World War that it is impossible to attack the entrenched infantry with tanks without the support of their own infantry. This time there were heavy losses on the Southern Front. Israeli tank crews later recounted how they were struck by the sight of hundreds and thousands of Egyptians running in the sand in columns: "We had the impression that we were fighting with the Chinese." The whole IDF tank brigade was almost destroyed.

Meanwhile, 500 Egyptian tanks crossed the Israeli coast. Israeli aircraft tried to bomb the pontoon ferry across the canal to prevent the Egyptian armored divisions from reaching the peninsula. Egyptian rocket engineers, however, shot down too many planes, and the pontoons were restored quickly, and the transfer of troops could not be stopped. On the northern front, the pilots also suffered heavy losses from missiles, which covered ground troops. Seeing that direct air attacks on tank columns turned into suicidal measures, the Israeli pilots changed tactics. They began to fly over the territory of Jordan, make a U-turn and attack rocket launchers from the rear. It took more time, but losses among flight crews fell sharply.

On the Egyptian front only at noon Sunday Ariel Sharon managed to assemble his reserve division. He was already "pleased" that there was no one else between his troops and Tel Aviv. At one o'clock on the second day of the war, he was given command of the central sector of the Egyptian front. Personal weapons Arik had a Kalashnikov assault rifle, AK-47.

Ariel Sharon


Almost all the authors who wrote about the military side of the case during the 1973 war of the year note tensions between Sharon and Gonen. Sharon himself wrote about it in his memoirs. The essence of these troubles boiled down to the following. In the Israeli army, officers and generals at that time were retiring early, in 40 years. Sharon was retired for a short time in 1973. He still remembered how he commanded Gonen a year ago. Now the younger Gonen became the front commander, and Sharon, who was drafted from the reserve, became the division commander on that front, nominally subordinate to Gonen. Psychologically, both were uncomfortable. After an unsuccessful counterattack started by Gonin, Sharon did not hesitate to make critical comments and his own proposals. Dayan and Elazar preoccupied with this personal conflict and sent another retired general to the Southern Front, and now Minister of Trade and Industry Haim Bar-Lev as, as they would say in the USSR, a representative of the Stavka. Bar-Lev was supposed to smooth out sharp corners.


Chaim Bar-Lev


After the 8 - 9 troubles of October on the Southern Front, the Israelis stopped counterattacking and waited for what would happen next. The Egyptians, settling on the east bank, did not rush further into the depths of Sinai. The days of October 10-12 passed practically without fights. This made it possible for the Egyptians to assemble up to 1000 tanks on the Sinai.

When the IDF reserve units were moving along the roads of the Golan to the front line, they were met by retreating, retreating to the bridges, retreating, burned soldiers in tattered form, often without weapons, completely dusty and lost. No one has ever seen the IDF fighters in this form. At the bridges across the Jordan they were collected, brought to life, re-equipped and armed, fed and sent back into battle.
On the second and third days of fighting, the affairs of the Golan were still very bad. From the tank battalion commanded by Major Shmuel Askarov, three tanks remained, which divided the 69 of the last shells among themselves. Askarov ordered the driver to drive his tank on off-road speed. He hoped that the enemies of clouds of dust will be taken for the approaching reinforcement. The first Israeli reservists, who came to the aid of the southern sector, found themselves in the Shermans of the Second World War. They were attacked by T-62, still smelling factory lubricant. Surprisingly, the Israeli reservists won the fight. When they then inspected the padded T-62, on some of them the mileage was only 50 km, they were taken to the battlefield on tractors without running in.

Overcoming the difficulties of the first hours, the Israeli pilots began to more successfully attack the Syrian tanks. They poured them with napalm, burning at once the whole group. By mid-Monday, through the 48 hours of fighting, Israel lost an 250 man in the Golan. An unusually large number of casualties were among the pilots, all due to Soviet-made anti-aircraft missiles that had been tested in Vietnam. Israeli pilots had never met with Soviet Strela missiles and did not know how to get away from them. The experience did not come immediately. In just the first week of fighting, Israel lost up to 80 aircraft, and on the Syrian front, twice as much as on the Egyptian one. Almost all the planes were shot down by rockets. In air battles, Israeli pilots almost always emerged victorious. On the Egyptian front, casualties among the pilots occurred every time the Israelis flew to bomb pontoon ferries across the canal. Broken pontoons were quickly restored, and the flow of Egyptian troops to Sinai was not interrupted.

Beginning with 9 October, due to the incessant Syrian pressure on the entire Northern Front and the desperate position of its defenders, Israel decided to strike at Syria altogether. The planes flew to bomb Damascus and industrial facilities throughout the country. In addition to the situation on the front, there was one more reason for this. One of the Soviet-made missiles launched from Syria hit the houses of the Gibat kibbutz, near Nazareth, and destroyed 12 buildings, including a kindergarten. No one was hurt, as everyone was in a bomb shelter, but the fact itself made the people flinch.

At noon on Tuesday, October 9, six Israeli "phantoms" appeared over Damascus. They attacked in three waves, aiming rockets at the Air Force headquarters building and the Ministry of Defense building. Both buildings were destroyed. Since the Syrian Ministry of Defense was located in the diplomatic quarter of the capital, Norwegian and Indian diplomats were killed. In total, about 200 people died in Damascus. After that, the planes began to bomb oil refineries and oil depots in Homs, Adra and Lattakia and destroyed them. Then it was possible to destroy the power station near Damascus and Homs. Finally, the worst blow followed - the Iraqi oil terminal on the Syrian coast of the Mediterranean at Baniyas. The operation of this terminal alone brought the impoverished country up to 40 million dollars a year, big money in 1973 year. It also got airfields and bridges. Just in case, they bombed the Lebanese radar station on Mount Jabal el Baruch.

In the meantime, the whole country once again switched to war rails. In the cities, blackout was introduced. The remaining buses stopped going to 6 evenings. Donors lined up at the hospitals. Schools were closed on October 7 and 8, but then reopened. International airlines suspended flights to Israel, but El Al stood the schedule of all flights. Airplanes were crowded. All Israelis rushed home to fight. When boarding a plane, preference was given primarily to reservists, then doctors followed, followed by journalists and television correspondents. A mobilization center was deployed at Lod International Airport. Men could immediately leave their suitcases, get a uniform and a mobilization order and go to the front, without going home.

And it came to Golda Meir that Abba-Eban was, by the will of fate, just in the most strategically important place for the foreign minister - at the UN. She called him on October 8, on Sunday, and told him to go home from New York not to hurry, but rather to stay in America in case of quick action in the Security Council. Eban stayed. And here he is sitting in a crowd of diplomats at the TV in the UN, everyone is watching a military chronicle from Damascus, and to his dismay, Eban sees footage of dozens of prisoners, skinned and wounded Israeli soldiers sitting on the ground, hands behind his head.



He was ashamed. Yet around him it was thought that Israel would repeat the 1967 miracle of the year ...

To be continued.

For those interested in the topic of a ten-minute film from the documentary series "Battle of Empires."


Sources:
M. Shterenshis. Israel. The history of the state. Xnumx
ARABO-ISRAELI WAR OF 1973 OF THE YEAR. Chronicle of events on historical documents.
Duke H. Arab-Israeli Wars: From the War of Independence to the Lebanese Campaign. T.2., 1986.
Arab-Israeli wars. Arab look. 2008 et al.
Color illustrations - fragments of the October War Memorial diorama from Cairo.
Author:
Articles from this series:
Judgment Day. The eve of. Part of 1
Judgment Day. The eve of. Part of 2
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  1. Des10
    Des10 26 December 2017 07: 00 New
    +7
    I read it, thanks. )
    1. Evdokim
      Evdokim 26 December 2017 10: 07 New
      +6
      Quote: Des10
      I read it, thanks. )

      Well, not an article, but a novel. It is informative and interestingly written. hi
    2. xetai9977
      xetai9977 26 December 2017 11: 00 New
      +8
      Thank! written in beautiful literary language. And very informative!
  2. svp67
    svp67 26 December 2017 07: 24 New
    +5
    The war of the Day of Judgment is the clearest example of the fact that to relax and rest on our laurels is unhealthy.
    Therefore, another flash of genius invented a simple method of eroding a wall of sand with a stream of water taken directly from the canal. Powerful pumps and hoses quickly made passages for vehicles in the sand.
    Well, it’s not for nothing that our civilian specialists worked in Egypt, who had a rich military experience of the Great Patriotic War ... They knew exactly how to use civilian equipment in the war with great benefit.
    1. A. Privalov
      26 December 2017 10: 35 New
      +9
      Quote: svp67
      The war of the Day of Judgment is the clearest example of the fact that to relax and rest on our laurels is unhealthy.
      Therefore, another flash of genius invented a simple method of eroding a wall of sand with a stream of water taken directly from the canal. Powerful pumps and hoses quickly made passages for vehicles in the sand.
      Well, it’s not for nothing that our civilian specialists worked in Egypt, who had a rich military experience of the Great Patriotic War ... They knew exactly how to use civilian equipment in the war with great benefit.

      I don’t dare detract from the dignity and capabilities that “your civilian specialists” possessed, but the Germans were also involved in the breakthrough method and equipment supplies. Have you heard anything about the fugitive Nazis hiding in Arab countries?
      Thousands of Nazis and officers of the German army who fled to the Arab East after the defeat of Hitler Germany, found in Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Saudi Arabia not only political asylum, but also work in their government, military and propaganda apparatus. It was to these countries that the largest number of Nazi war criminals, Gestapo bureaucrats and Wehrmacht officers who had played a significant role in leading Arab circles escaped after the war. At one time, for their transfer to Arab countries even a special “Arab-German Center for Emigration” was created, in particular recruiting former Wehrmacht officers for military service in the armies of Arab states. The center was headed by former Field Marshal Rommel’s staff officer, Lieutenant Colonel Hans Muller: he converted to Islam and acted under the guise of Syrian citizen Hasan Bey. This is a separate large and quite interesting topic. And if we take into account that it was with these circles that the KGB established and developed fairly close cooperation with these circles at the end of the 50s of the USSR, then there is something to talk about.
      1. vlad007
        vlad007 26 December 2017 11: 26 New
        0
        Quote: A. Privalov
        The center was headed by former Field Marshal Rommel’s staff officer, Lieutenant Colonel Hans Muller: he converted to Islam and acted under the guise of Syrian citizen Hasan Bey. This is a separate large and quite interesting topic. And if we take into account that it was with these circles that the KGB established and developed fairly close cooperation with these circles at the end of the 50s of the USSR, then there is something to talk about.

        Interesting topic. IF NOT FAULT (!), The officers of the military units of the Wehrmacht by the decision of the Nuremberg Tribunal were not considered war criminals. NOT SURE that this is the case, that's why I wrote it.
        1. A. Privalov
          26 December 2017 13: 53 New
          +3
          Quote: vlad007
          Quote: A. Privalov
          The center was headed by former Field Marshal Rommel’s staff officer, Lieutenant Colonel Hans Muller: he converted to Islam and acted under the guise of Syrian citizen Hasan Bey. This is a separate large and quite interesting topic. And if we take into account that it was with these circles that the KGB established and developed fairly close cooperation with these circles at the end of the 50s of the USSR, then there is something to talk about.

          Interesting topic. IF NOT FAULT (!), The officers of the military units of the Wehrmacht by the decision of the Nuremberg Tribunal were not considered war criminals. NOT SURE that this is the case, that's why I wrote it.

          You're right. The Nuremberg Tribunal declared criminal only the organizations of the SS, SD, the Gestapo and the leadership of the Nazi party. At the same time, neither the Nazi Cabinet of Ministers, nor the General Staff, nor the High Command of the Wehrmacht were recognized as criminal organizations.
          I mean it was the Nazi war criminals who were looking for trial, but the Arab countries in which they were hiding did not extradite them, but rather, on the contrary, used them.
      2. apro
        apro 26 December 2017 12: 51 New
        +4
        Quote: A. Privalov
        And if you take into account that just with these circles back in the late 50s the USSR established and developed quite close cooperation with the help of the KGB, then there is generally something to talk about.

        Somehow on the forum I asked the interlocutor under the star of David if there was any reason for these rumors, answered no. I was interested in nothing worthy of attention except KTanka with its fighters.
        Therefore, dear, you misinform to put it mildly.
        And I have no doubt at all about relations with Zionists and Nazis, of one field of a berry.
        1. Lex.
          Lex. 29 December 2017 16: 07 New
          0
          And I have no doubt at all about relations with Zionists and Nazis, one field of a berry
          This is what you decided so in your conclusion, do not write nonsense
  3. Aaron Zawi
    Aaron Zawi 26 December 2017 07: 39 New
    +8
    Great article. Thanks.
  4. long in stock.
    long in stock. 26 December 2017 07: 48 New
    +7
    mda Alexander .. enough detail and in places unknown facts. but still why a cheap print picture then draw - Eitan ordered the staff workers: “Guys, we are leaving”, and jumped out. At that moment, the T-62 was already moving to headquarters. Eitan grabbed a bazooka and knocked out a tank ... and with a squadron of storm troopers, he didn’t hit the same moment with his second hand?
    1. A. Privalov
      26 December 2017 10: 09 New
      +9
      Quote: long in stock.
      mda Alexander .. enough detail and in places unknown facts. but still why a cheap print picture then draw - Eitan ordered the staff workers: “Guys, we are leaving”, and jumped out. At that moment, the T-62 was already moving to headquarters. Eitan grabbed a bazooka and knocked out a tank ... and with a squadron of storm troopers, he didn’t hit the same moment with his second hand?

      I brought a short story of one of the direct participants in the events. It happened in front of dozens of witnesses. Many of them are alive and well to this day - they are my peers. (I served 72-74). These people are very grateful to him that he brought them out of this meat grinder, because in just 10 days they were all standing a few kilometers from Damascus. After this war, he was appointed commander of our Northern District. I was fortunate enough to be acquainted with Rafael Eitan. Unfortunately, he tragically died in 2004. Bless his memory ...
      1. Shahno
        Shahno 26 December 2017 10: 16 New
        +8
        I am joining. And the memory of all those who died in that war.
      2. long in stock.
        long in stock. 26 December 2017 16: 31 New
        +2
        and no one belittles his merits. but with bazooka busting ... by the way, the scouts have such a saying, lying like an eyewitness. At such moments, people do not remember reality very adequately .. I know by myself ..
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 26 December 2017 18: 46 New
          0
          Quote: long in stock.
          and no one belittles his merits. but with bazooka busting ... by the way, the scouts have such a saying, lying like an eyewitness. At such moments, people do not remember reality very adequately .. I know by myself ..

          It’s a normal episode for the Israeli army.
          The officers are ordinary conscripts who are generally called up, who then, if they comply with the troubles and their own will, go first to sergeant and then officer courses. Thus, the senior officer of the unit may well be in this or that situation also the most experienced and qualified fighter of the unit.
        2. Glory1974
          Glory1974 26 December 2017 19: 06 New
          +5
          and no one belittles his merits. but with a bazooka bust ..

          And not only with a bazooka. Interesting article, thanks to the author. But, I agree with you, it turned out to be very one-sided.
          On the one hand, the winners write the story. On the other hand, I would like a better analysis with successful and not very, actions of both parties.
  5. BAI
    BAI 26 December 2017 09: 10 New
    +2
    Actually, we have little information about these wars.
    1. Evdokim
      Evdokim 26 December 2017 10: 04 New
      +1
      Quote: BAI
      Actually, we have little information about these wars.

      I agree with you wholeheartedly. I will wait for the continuation. hi
  6. Shahno
    Shahno 26 December 2017 10: 13 New
    +8
    Well, as if in Russian history, some heroes were embellished. This is normal. And the spirit of the battle, and, oddly enough, the key importance of personalities, is far from being in general uniform, is accurately transmitted. Very good.
    1. long in stock.
      long in stock. 26 December 2017 16: 33 New
      +2
      But this is the most important thing. About the generals everywhere and a lot has been written. But there is not much information about ordinary fighters. Alas, I do not speak Hebrew.
  7. Shahno
    Shahno 26 December 2017 10: 19 New
    +7
    Well, the result is known to all. Damascus at 40 km, Cairo at 100 km. And the Syrian and Egyptian armies are absolutely deprived of combat readiness.
  8. corporal
    corporal 26 December 2017 10: 23 New
    +2
    Well written, thanks Alexander. hi It is easy to read and with interest.
    I’ll bookmark the whole series.
  9. vlad007
    vlad007 26 December 2017 10: 32 New
    +2
    Thank you, interesting article.
    1. Question: "did the officers retire in 40 years" and receive a good pension?
    2. I read memoirs of our tanker who fought on the Sherman in World War II, he spoke well about this tank, reached it (if memory serves), to Budapest. Sherman had flaws, but there are no perfect tanks. The T-34 also had flaws, despite the fact that this is the best tank of the Second World War.
    1. A. Privalov
      26 December 2017 11: 00 New
      +4
      Quote: vlad007
      Thank you, interesting article.
      1. Question: "did the officers retire in 40 years" and receive a good pension?

      That was the case back in the 70s. Somewhere in 80, the retirement age was raised to 45 years. In 2010, the Ministry of Defense and the IDF General Headquarters agreed with the Ministry of Finance regarding the increase in the retirement age for officers and warrant officers. Under the new agreement, the retirement age will be increased from 45 years to 50 years, however, this process will extend over 18 years to 2029 years. Each year, the retirement age will increase by three months. For example, in 2013, they retired in 46.6 years, in 2014, in 47 years, and so on. In general, the military leadership has always opposed the attempts of the Ministry of Finance to raise the retirement age, arguing that early retirement is one of the main reasons why people choose a military career, rather than go to more financially advantageous civilian positions. Today, the average pension of a retired army contract officer is comparatively not so great - 19 thousand shekels a month. (5 445 dollars, or 315 000 rubles in figures you can understand) And he gets it from the time he retires (at the age of 46-47 years ) and until the end of life - with appropriate indexation as the cost of living increases.
      1. Des10
        Des10 26 December 2017 13: 17 New
        +2
        Quote: A. Privalov
        Today, the average pension of a retired army contract officer is relatively not that big - 19 thousand shekels a month. ($ 5, or 445 rubles in figures clear to you)

        This is very good, even too much))), by our standards. Let not an officer, but senior pr-k - the same 19 tons), but p. pensioner. smile
        1. alexsipin
          alexsipin 26 December 2017 14: 17 New
          +3
          Quote: Des10
          This is very good, even too much))), by our standards. Let not an officer, but senior pr-k - the same 19 tons), but p. pensioner.

          Your officers are given free apartments for officers after 20 years, but we don’t.
          1. Des10
            Des10 26 December 2017 18: 11 New
            0
            Quote: alexsipin
            Your officers are given free apartments for officers after 20 years, but we don’t.

            Much earlier - on a military mortgage (but - the state pays) and not only to officers - to all double basses. Moreover, regardless of the presence (absence) of housing - you will have 5 apartments (suppose) - they will "give" the sixth. If the wife also serves in the counter, then she also has an apartment. It is a fact.
            As well as the fact that it works - since 2002 the first contract. If - before 2002 - you fly over (except for those who do not have or are few according to housing standards).
            1. alexsipin
              alexsipin 26 December 2017 19: 24 New
              +1
              Quote: Des10
              Much earlier - on a military mortgage (but - the state pays) and not only to officers - to all double basses. Moreover, regardless of the presence (absence) of housing - you will have 5 apartments (suppose) - they will "give" the sixth. If the wife also serves in the counter, then she also has an apartment. It is a fact.
              As well as the fact that it works - since 2002 the first contract. If - before 2002 - you fly over (except for those who do not have or are few according to housing standards).

              Including an apartment in Moscow?
              1. Des10
                Des10 26 December 2017 20: 16 New
                +1
                ))) There accumulate funds in a personal account - well, and there, - buy in any city - if only enough.
                In most cases, enough.
                1. alexsipin
                  alexsipin 27 December 2017 00: 43 New
                  +1
                  Quote: Des10
                  ))) There accumulate funds in a personal account - well, and there, - buy in any city - if only enough.
                  In most cases, enough.

                  I get it. We also have this, only money is accumulated in one of the insurance companies and paid at the end of the service. Usually these are amounts from 0.5-1 million shekels. In the amount of 1 million, you can buy an apartment in a provincial town. In Tel Aviv and Jerusalem, apartments cost 4-6 million shekels. (1 nis = 18 rubles).
        2. Okolotochny
          Okolotochny 29 December 2017 17: 19 New
          +5
          This is very good, even too much))), by our standards. Let not an officer, but senior pr-k - the same 19 tons), but p. pensioner.

          There are no questions, the amount of the pension is impressive. But it would be correct and the level (approximate) of the monthly military pensioner's expenses lead. Debit-Credit-Balance.
          1. A. Privalov
            30 December 2017 01: 54 New
            +1
            To paint in detail - it will turn out very long and obscure. In short, you should know that Israel is a very small country with relatively high costs for security, imports, infrastructure, including desalination, etc. Naturally, this country is expensive to live. However, the military average pensioner is almost twice as rich as the average pensioner from the industrial sector and almost three times as pensioner from the agricultural sector. Those are not in need, and the military pensioner in general is self-sufficient. The military man, during the years of service, meets a lot of people, and since our country is small, he will have friends everywhere who will help him in finding a job for quite a decent job with a very good salary. Moreover, I put in my words a completely positive connotation. Many during military service have time to get additional education. People from the army here like to take on leadership positions. Not even experts in the industry, almost always good organizers. I worked here a lot near the military and under their leadership. Overwhelmingly people are very decent in communication. I myself am a man in the old school rather organized and obligatory - it was easy for me with them. Having retired today at 47, a retiree of 20 will work for more years, and then also live for his own pleasure, having saved up something and received another pension. The average life expectancy for men is almost 83 years, and the right military people are mostly healthy people. Something like that. hi
            1. Okolotochny
              Okolotochny 31 December 2017 00: 09 New
              +5
              Alexander, I get it. I just would like to know the average level of monthly expenses of an average military pensioner. So, for comparison.
              1. A. Privalov
                31 December 2017 14: 36 New
                +1
                To do this, I will have to write here "consumer basket". It, as you understand, is different for people with different levels of wealth. I will simplify. The "subsistence minimum", the one for which it is impossible to live, is about half the minimum wage. A salary of two minimums is considered good. The minimum wage, as you know, is a lousy thing, but the pension of the average military retiree today is equal to four minimum wages. This money will be enough for the wave of the normal maintenance of the family and the payment of a modest mortgage. With proper management of the farm, he will be able to go once a year to rest, or to travel abroad, or to put this amount in savings. If he also works, and his spouse does not sit at home either, then they live in clover. In other words, in our territories military retirees are considered to be wealthy people. No, well, you can, of course, manage to rattle everything and sit in debt. fellow
    2. long in stock.
      long in stock. 26 December 2017 16: 44 New
      +2
      these are not the Shermans who fought in the Great Patriotic War. M50 and M51 are already heavily modified cars. With the old 75mm, there were 107 pieces. Upgraded 408 pieces. The most interesting thing is that these tanks were bought as scrap metal and restored in Israel.
  10. brigadir
    brigadir 26 December 2017 10: 43 New
    +3
    Informative and exciting.
    Thank. I look forward to continuing.
  11. The comment was deleted.
  12. igor67
    igor67 26 December 2017 12: 16 New
    +3
    Sherman, it seems 39 years old, there is a tablet inside. It is located near Kuneitra, in general in the Golan from that war there are dozens of tanks and other equipment, My neighbor was then captured by the Syrians, they were beaten almost every day, the toilet for themselves, there was practically no food which, the pilots told, it got worse, they beat and scoffed much harder than ordinary soldiers. They freed them with the participation of the Red Cross, now and after 40 years after captivity, he cannot fall asleep without drinking a glass of Arak (anise vodka)
    1. long in stock.
      long in stock. 26 December 2017 16: 45 New
      +2
      in 39 shermans there wasn’t yet ..
      1. igor67
        igor67 26 December 2017 20: 26 New
        0
        Quote: long in stock.
        in 39 shermans there wasn’t yet ..

        maybe just some kind of plate inside
  13. 79537074784
    79537074784 26 December 2017 13: 45 New
    +4
    The author, but it was impossible to immediately write the entire cycle of articles and post them at least every other day. And then three weeks have passed since the last article. I was tortured to wait, dtsmal that everything, I can not wait to continue. So do not over tighten so long. It is very interesting to read about this war.
    1. A. Privalov
      26 December 2017 14: 17 New
      +7
      Quote: 79537074784
      The author, but it was impossible to immediately write the entire cycle of articles and post them at least every other day. And then three weeks have passed since the last article. I was tortured to wait, dtsmal that everything, I can not wait to continue. So do not over tighten so long. It is very interesting to read about this war.

      A lot of material. We have to select the most important and interesting episodes. I would like to submit them most neutrally, according to the versions of famous military historians and experts on whom there are consensus opinions. In the network goes a lot of tales, stories based on various conspiracy theories. It is necessary to re-read all this, sweep away the husks .... I do not have time. Excuse me. hi
      1. long in stock.
        long in stock. 26 December 2017 16: 54 New
        0
        just don’t do it like that ..... topwar.ru ›1728-stalnoj-kulak-izrai
        lya.
    2. Dym71
      Dym71 26 December 2017 15: 39 New
      +3
      Quote: 79537074784
      And then three weeks have passed since the last article. I was tortured to wait, dtsmal that everything, I can’t wait to continue. So don’t drag out for so long.

      And you do not pull too with your next comment, please, otherwise you have this first one since registration (April 12, 2017 14:50)!
      Quote: 79537074784
      So don’t drag out for so long.

      wassat
  14. sevtrash
    sevtrash 26 December 2017 16: 32 New
    +1
    The description seems somewhat one-sided. On the one hand - the heroes of the defenders, on the other - a crowd of aggressors. The Arabs, too, probably had their heroes. Tanks someone hit, like airplanes.
    1. Shahno
      Shahno 26 December 2017 19: 08 New
      +3
      Undoubtedly there were. But something they do not want to write about these episodes. Plus 2-3 multiple advantage on all counts from manpower to technology among the Arabs, they crushed in bulk and modern weapons. Therefore, the Jews probably have more vivid "impressions."
    2. A. Privalov
      26 December 2017 19: 08 New
      +5
      Quote: sevtrash
      The description seems somewhat one-sided. On the one hand - the heroes of the defenders, on the other - a crowd of aggressors. The Arabs, too, probably had their heroes. Tanks someone hit, like airplanes.

      I read about the defense of the Brest Fortress - "On the one hand - the heroes-defenders, on the other - the crowd of aggressors." Yes, during the Second World War, probably some fascist "heroes" and tanks were burning and planes shot down, but there is no information about them available to us. So now, all the famous literature on the Second World War considered "one-sided"? He opened the literature on Afghanistan. Probably in that war there "also, for certain, had its own heroes. Someone tried to make tanks, as did the planes" ... However, I have no information about these "heroes" either.
      I have a book "Arab-Israeli wars. Arabian view.", Excerpts from which I use. But even there only the top commanders and army commanders are mentioned. The following articles will be about this. Either the Arabs do not write about ordinary soldiers, or write in Arabic. My Arabic is not so perfect as to translate military history literature, alas ...
      1. Shahno
        Shahno 26 December 2017 19: 17 New
        +3
        I tried to find something detailed on this war. But, unfortunately, in Arabic there are only dry facts and summaries. Maybe they are sternly silent, I don’t know.
      2. sevtrash
        sevtrash 27 December 2017 18: 35 New
        +2
        Quote: A. Privalov
        I read about the defense of the Brest Fortress - "On the one hand - heroes-defenders, on the other - a crowd of aggressors." Yes, during the Second World War, probably some fascist “heroes” and tanks burned and shot down planes, but there is no information available to us about them. So now what, to consider all known literature about the Second World War "one-sided"?

        Well, why - one-sided. It is widely known about the Germans, who can be called outstanding soldiers and, of course, the heroes of the German nation. Hartmann, Wittmann, Prien, Doenitz, Rommel, Manstein, but you will not list everyone. And the creators of the electric robot, ME262, turbo engines, the genius von Braun. In short, a lot of them.
    3. A. Privalov
      1 January 2018 19: 07 New
      +1
      Found! I quote specifically for you:
      In the early days of the war, Soviet anti-tank guided missiles (ATGMs) of the “Baby” type delivered to the Egyptians perfectly proved themselves. It was the Egyptian ATGM operators that became the first Arab heroes of that war. Mohammed Ibrahim Abd el Moneim al-Musri, who was 1973 years old in 25, burned Israeli tanks with his “Little” 27. He was awarded the 2 degree Order of the Star of Sinai. Sergeant Abdel Ati Sharaf destroyed 23 enemy tank in front of his commanders and officers of the Libyan army. The Egyptians awarded Sharaf, as well as al-Musri, the Order of the Star of Sinai of the 2 degree, and the Libyans received their Order of Honor.
  15. Tramp1812
    Tramp1812 26 December 2017 19: 51 New
    +3
    My gratitude to the author for an objective description of the Doomsday War, the use of the most authoritative sources. As for me, the main thing is the epic and multi-layer nature of those events, the mood of the Israeli fighters. For the Arabs, the defeat in the 1973 war is another insulting defeat. No more. Jews are not entitled to defeat, since this is a return to the horror of exile and all the "charms" associated with it. At one time, the late King Hussein said in an interview with the Israeli elite: "Israel can win many more glorious victories. But you thought about what would happen if he suffers one defeat?" Jews and not only Israel, are well aware of what will happen. Therefore, it will not. Now about the comments about Eitan and the bazooka. This is not a figment of the author’s imagination. This episode is famous. I will say more that when working with sources, the author tried to avoid pathos as much as possible. For example, the text of the article contains the phrase “I never found out that four people blocked his path.” The same idea was presented somewhat differently by M. Sternschis: “I never found out that four Jews blocked his army.” Similarly, the phrase of the wounded Gringold is not given. I am familiar with all sources and I can say that Alexander neutralizes emotions, giving preference only to facts. Again, to avoid pathos. And the thing, I believe, is not only the author’s desire to get away from sentiment. Apparently, I don’t want to wound the gentle souls of the anti-Semites once again.
    And from myself I will cite the surviving transcript of the “debriefing” of the Doomsday War in the Politburo of the CPSU Central Committee. I quote from memory, but the meaning is the same. Brezhnev: “The Arabs had a double superiority in aviation, triple in tanks, and in artillery and air defense — absolute. And again they were scolding. And what are your advisers, Matthew advised them. Neither ....... they advised. No , diplomatic relations must be restored with Israel. "
    1. A. Privalov
      26 December 2017 22: 22 New
      +4
      I will clarify. Brezhnev and Gromyko discussed what to do next in the Middle East. This conversation was recorded by Anatoly Chernyaev, deputy head of the international department of the CPSU Central Committee.
      Brezhnev said Gromyko:
      - It is necessary to restore diplomatic relations with Israel. On their own initiative.
      Gromyko cautiously remarked:
      - Arabs will be offended, there will be noise.
      Brezhnev answered very sharply:
      - They went to the ... mother! For so many years we have offered them a sensible way. No, they wanted to make war. Please, we gave them a newest technique - which was not in Vietnam. They had a double superiority in tanks and aircraft, triple - in artillery, and in anti-aircraft and anti-tank weapons - absolute. So what? They were gouged again. And again they dragged. And again they screamed for us to save them. Sadat twice raised me to the telephone in the middle of the night. Required me to send troops immediately. Not! We will not fight for them. People will not understand us ...
      1. Tramp1812
        Tramp1812 26 December 2017 23: 42 New
        +2
        The appropriate is more precise. But I stipulated that I am quoting from memory.
        1. Dym71
          Dym71 27 December 2017 00: 11 New
          0
          Quote: Rogue1812
          The appropriate is more precise. But I stipulated that I am quoting from memory.

          Reasonably! winked
          In this case, let me clarify who Matvey is in your memory? bully
          Quote: Rogue1812
          And again they were draping. And what are your advisers,Matthew they were advised. Neither ....... they did not advise.
        2. A. Privalov
          27 December 2017 12: 56 New
          +2
          Quote: Rogue1812
          The appropriate is more precise. But I stipulated that I am quoting from memory.

          The meaning you convey is absolutely true. Thank. I just clarified the quote. hi
  16. Tramp1812
    Tramp1812 27 December 2017 05: 34 New
    0
    Quote: Dym71
    Quote: Rogue1812
    The appropriate is more precise. But I stipulated that I am quoting from memory.

    Reasonably! winked
    In this case, let me clarify who Matvey is in your memory? bully
    Quote: Rogue1812
    And again they were draping. And what are your advisers,Matthew they were advised. Neither ....... they did not advise.

    I allow: Zakharov Matvey Vasilievich — chief of the General Staff of the USSR. A quote, (from memory), I quoted from Mlechin from the book: "Why did Stalin create Israel?" In the Internet version, it is possibly truncated.
    1. Dym71
      Dym71 27 December 2017 10: 28 New
      +5
      Quote: Rogue1812
      I authorize: Matvei Zakharov - Head of the General Staff of the USSR.

      Thanks for the answer, but judge for yourself:
      Marshal, twice Hero of the USSR Zakharov Matvey Vasilyevich
      Birthday: 15.08.1898 of the year Date of death: 31.01.1972 of the year at the age of 73 of the year.
      The Doomsday War began on 06.10.1973 of the year.
      Leonid Ilyich, being the general secretary, possessed exceptional opportunities, but in order to pull a person out of the world into the Politburo of the Central Committee of the CPSU, it is unlikely. bully
      1. A. Privalov
        27 December 2017 12: 47 New
        +2
        Quote: Dym71
        Quote: Rogue1812
        I authorize: Matvei Zakharov - Head of the General Staff of the USSR.

        Thanks for the answer, but judge for yourself:
        Marshal, twice Hero of the USSR Zakharov Matvey Vasilyevich
        Birthday: 15.08.1898 of the year Date of death: 31.01.1972 of the year at the age of 73 of the year.
        The Doomsday War began on 06.10.1973 of the year.
        Leonid Ilyich, being the general secretary, possessed exceptional opportunities, but in order to pull a person out of the world into the Politburo of the Central Committee of the CPSU, it is unlikely. bully

        Come on, what could be there. Don't mess around. Quoted Rogue1812 from memory. The meaning is true. For some reason, I myself even remembered that Brezhnev said this to Marshal Grechko. fellow
        1. Dym71
          Dym71 27 December 2017 13: 59 New
          +2
          Quote: A. Privalov
          C'mon, what’s there.

          And this is not our first dialogue with Vagrant1812 about quoting from memory, thanks to which it is possible to study an alternative history of the CPSU Central Committee. Last time, his memory surprised me with a memory of, I quote:
          Quote: Rogue1812
          closed decree of the 1983 Central Committee of the CPSU prohibiting Jews from holding positions and having education at prestigious universities

          -------------------------------------------------

          Quote: A. Privalov
          Don't mess around.

          “It’s good to start with little things, the essence of things lies in them. Having understood the details, you will understand everything else.” (with)
          1. A. Privalov
            27 December 2017 14: 28 New
            +1
            Quote: Dym71
            Decree of the Central Committee of the CPSU 1983 of the year banning Jews from occupying positions and having education in prestigious universities

            Even without any "closed rulings" it is well known that discrimination was inherent in the Soviet educational system, but was built by class basis. Discriminatory system on a national basis in order to prevent Jews from entering higher education institutions, it emerged sometime at the end of the 1940s. Since the beginning of 60, many faculties of Moscow, Leningrad, Kiev and other universities, the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology were completely or partially closed to Jews. Jews have ceased to be employed in many academic institutions. One of the most scandalous areas of this discrimination was the massive non-admission of students of Jewish origin to the Mechanics and Mathematics Faculty of Moscow State University. I know well how they “felled” Jews when they entered universities. On my own skin felt the full program. I would not like to develop this topic here. Lovers of painting will come here and the srach will begin, but I do not like it. Yes, and 4 comments for my utter nonsense. So, sorry.
            1. Dym71
              Dym71 27 December 2017 16: 43 New
              +2
              Quote: A. Privalov
              I know well how the Jews “fell” when they entered universities. In my own skin I felt in full.

              It turns out interestingly, each Jew felt in his own skin, but the text is the same for everyone. (smacks of collusion laughing)
              Quote: A. Privalov
              I would not like to develop this topic here.

              I do not dare to bother you further, if the sho didn’t work out that way, let me freeze in deep sorry. hi
              1. Okolotochny
                Okolotochny 29 December 2017 17: 26 New
                +6
                (smacks of laughing)

                Urgent FAS direct, collusion cartel. And for the selection on a national basis .. I will note one thing, most likely there were no guidelines. Everything went from people. Himself born and raised in the national Republic. Many "bread" places of study and work were taken only by "their own", they shied away from the Russians, they could restore order. So now declare that there was an installation in the Republic in Russian?
                1. A. Privalov
                  30 December 2017 01: 12 New
                  0
                  Quote: Okolotochny
                  (smacks of laughing)

                  Urgent FAS direct, collusion cartel. And for the selection on a national basis .. I will note one thing, most likely there were no guidelines. Everything went from people. Himself born and raised in the national Republic. Many "bread" places of study and work were taken only by "their own", they shied away from the Russians, they could restore order. So now declare that there was an installation in the Republic in Russian?

                  Have you not heard the "national frames"? Even here in the BO wrote about it: http://qoo.by/3jV5
                  1. Okolotochny
                    Okolotochny 6 January 2018 16: 52 New
                    +4
                    So I’m talking about this. Also that there was no anti-Jewish domestic policy.
  17. doxtop
    doxtop 28 December 2017 21: 45 New
    0
    Military historians agree that Zvi Gringold destroyed up to 60 T-54, T-55, T-62 tanks per day. Zvika himself recalls that on the night of October 6 to 7, the three tanks that he consistently commanded consumed three ammunition in total, and the Centurion tank had 72 ammunition

    The final article is interesting. However, there are a few comments ...
    1) The beginning of the article is very readable (it sounds like a somewhat frivolous, but still logically meaningful statement of facts). However, from the middle to the end, it begins to look like a kid's record of soldier's tales. I would like that the test cycle would be the same as at the beginning of the article.
    2) I am not against the "memoir" presentation of events by the author, however, not all data in the article can be trusted. The quote at the beginning of the comment is an example. Without confirmed data from both sides, it is very difficult to believe that only one tanker can destroy “up to 60 enemy tanks” in a day or two. The best German WWII tank aces for all years were able to "plan" 120 or more tanks, and then one ... in two days 60! The now widely known battle of Michael Wittmann at Ville-Bocage allowed him to chalk up “only” 11 English tanks. At the same time, Wittmann acted for the enemy suddenly and taking advantage of the clear advantage of his “Tiger” in armor and weapon power. It is very controversial that Zvi Gringold could destroy so many Syrian tanks. Moreover, Centurion is well behind T-55, 62 on booking. And even though L7 has an advantage over D-10T2S, then 115 mm 2A20 is already more penetrative ... and although it is also inferior to English approx. 240 mm. on a vertical plate from 1 km. against almost 290 english mm. But this fact will not particularly protect the English "Centurion" in a direct collision with Soviet tanks. Although I agree that in that situation the Israeli tankers were more prepared than the Syrian or Egyptian. And they had a 2 to 1 chance of victory (if not 3 to 1). Although ... all these judgments are rather a topic for another discussion.
    Well, the third ... the earth rest in peace for all those who died! However, here I still stand up for Israel. After all, they were obviously victims in that war, but they were able to defend their independence and freedom!
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 2 January 2018 22: 47 New
      +3
      Technically, in the duel Centurion-T-62, the nuances were as follows.
      The Syrians fired OBPS, the Israelis - kummami.
      At 2 km from which the Syrians began to shoot, the Centurions made their way. But the Syrians fell, usually no further than 1-1.5 km.
      The Israelis began to shoot from 3-4 km. With 3 - confidently hit. In Kumma, unlike OBPSA, penetration is not related to distance. The main thing is to get there. At OBPS penetration decreases with increasing distance. Therefore, the Syrians sought to get closer.
      In the remote battle, the Israelis had a great advantage.
      But there were "dog dumps" of tanks from several hundred meters. In them there were cases when the Centurions made their way through the OBPS.
  18. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 2 January 2018 18: 59 New
    +3
    In 1989 I entered the reservist service (a month) in a small fort in the Golan.
    ("Mutsav Hodder Akasha"). He was outside the state border in the neutral zone, where he patrolled.
    UN members. So, it turned out that in 1973 his Syrians tightly surrounded, but failed
    to take. The fort was on a hill above the ravine. He was then restrained by 10 foot soldiers. In three places, at angular positions, the ground consisted of several centimeters in depth of pressed (over time) brass machine-gun casings.
    Under the fort in a narrow ravine stuck (could not climb up) self-propelled gun Su-100 and Grad machine (without missiles).
    In my opinion, they were not hit - just stuck. The RPG-7 and outlandish tiny round American grenades (not lemons) were stored in the bunker. In general, an interesting - just a historical place.

    Thank you for your interesting presentation of the Doomsday War.