Military Review

Fate of Palestine

67
Fate of PalestineAfter the collapse of the Ottoman Empire in 1920, the UK received a mandate to rule Palestine, where the conflict between Arabs and Jews had already flared up. The Englishmen were hated by both of them. Because of this, the Arabs openly supported Hitler during World War II. The Jews, for obvious reasons, could not do this, but expected that they would immediately turn back after the end of the war. weapon against the British, having gathered before this combat experience in the ranks of the English army.


The collapse of the empire

After the victory over Hitler, the British Empire began to crumble immediately (to which the United States was very helpful). After that, responsibility for Palestine London shifted to the UN Special Committee, which recommended the creation of two states - Arab and Jewish, with the international status of Jerusalem. The UN General Assembly in November 1947 supported this option, which, as one would expect, didn’t like either the Jews or the Arabs. Both those and others began to quickly arm themselves, realizing the inevitability of war.

In December, the League of Arab States (LAS) consisting of Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Yemen decided to prevent the creation of a Jewish state by any means. The Jews were completely satisfied with this decision: their leader, Ben-Gurion, said that non-recognition by the Arabs of a Jewish state “would allow us to take such actions and achieve results that we would never have achieved in any other way. We will have the right to take everything that we can. ”

WAR BEGINS

Right on New Year's Day, January 1, 1948, the Jewish militant groups Hagana, Irgun and Stern launched a terrorist war in Jerusalem with the goal of squeezing the Arabs out of the city. The Arab group "Jihad Warriors" immediately responded in the same way. In addition, the Arabs began blocking the road from Tel Aviv, which was used to supply Jerusalem. Jews had to organize convoys under the cover of improvised armored vehicles armed with machine guns. Until a certain point, it brought success, but on March 24, the Jihad Warriors completely defeated one of the convoys, preventing it from breaking through to Jerusalem. The Jews had to organize a large-scale operation to unlock the narrowest (literally and figuratively) places on the highway, the Bab el-Oued pass. This task was accomplished in three days. On April 6, another convoy was able to pass to Jerusalem.

To consolidate the success of the Jews began to clean up the Arab villages in the vicinity of the pass, expelling them from the population. On April 9, the village of Deir Yasin was completely slaughtered, killing all of its 254 residents. Four days later, Arab militants completely destroyed a Jewish medical convoy of 10 buses in Jerusalem, killing 75 people, almost exclusively medical staff. Thus, no states in Palestine have yet been created, but the parties have already committed a lot of grave crimes against each other, precluding the possibility of reconciliation.

Despite the problems surrounding Jerusalem, the Jews were able to take complete control of the north of their potential state (Tel Aviv and Haifa region) and its south (Negev desert). In turn, the next LAS conference decided to conduct a joint offensive by the armies of Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Egypt, Jordan and the Palestinian groups with the aim of the complete capture of all the Jewish territories of Palestine. Since all these countries had regular armies with armored vehicles, artillery and aviationand the Jews had only groups of militants with makeshift armored cars, the Arabs had no doubt that two weeks after the start of the offensive they would hold a parade in Tel Aviv. Other scenarios were simply not considered.

INDEPENDENCE AND NEW WAR

14 May 1948, the British troops finally left Palestine, on the same day the state of Israel was proclaimed. The next day, the Arab armies launched an offensive with the aim of its complete destruction.

At the same time, there was equality in the personnel: both the Arabs and the Jews put up thousands of fighters on 20. However, as mentioned above, absolute superiority in technology was on the side of the Arabs. On the other hand, the level of combat training of the Arab armies was extremely low (some exception was the Jordanian 7-thousandth Arab Legion), joint planning of operations and rear support were practically absent. On the side of the Israelis was also the presence of internal communications, which allowed them to maneuver forces between different strategic directions.

In the north, Syrian and Lebanese troops, despite significant superiority in men and technology, almost did not succeed. With great difficulty, the Jews managed to contain the offensive of Iraqi troops in the center of the country in order to reach the Mediterranean and cut Israel in half. However, the command of both sides believed that the outcome of the war would be decided in the battle for Jerusalem. The basis of the Arab forces here was the 4 th mechanized regiment of the Arab Legion. His commander acted extremely competently, gradually squeezing the Jews from their positions. At the same time, the Arabs managed to seize the city of Latrun and thereby again block the Bab el-Oued pass, while the Egyptians, advancing from the south, were able to connect with the Jordanians. The attempt of the Jewish units to dislodge the Arabs from Latrun ended in disaster for them - they lost 220 people. On May 28, the Jews in the Old City of Jerusalem capitulated, and the Arabs freely released all civilians from there.

So, having failed to take Latrun, the Jews performed a labor feat, in three days they built a mountain road bypassing the pass. Because of this, 10 June to Jerusalem, part of which Jews still held, came the first convoy. At the same time, Israel began to request a truce mediated by the UN and secured it. The truce also began on June 10 for a period of one month. It largely saved the Jews from a general defeat.

DECLINING TRAIL

Both sides were well aware that the ceasefire would not be extended, so they tried very hard to arm themselves. The Arabs, however, did not succeed, and all the above-described shortcomings in planning and logistics were not overcome. Jews were much more successful. They produced several thousand small arms, 30 fairly new at that time American tanks M4 "Sherman", more than 30 guns. I got Israel and military aviation, which was very powerful - 3 “flying fortresses” V-17, several English Spitfire fighters, 5 American P-51 Mustangs and, most importantly, 20 Messerschmitts Bf-109G. These aircraft were produced at that time in Czechoslovakia (the benefit of a license from defeated Germany was not required to buy), whose government, almost entirely made up of Jews, gladly sold the aircraft to compatriots. Many volunteers from the USA, Europe and the USSR came to Israel, almost all of them had excellent combat experience of World War II. It should be noted that at that moment the USSR clearly supported Israel, hoping to make it its stronghold in the Middle East, so the arrival of volunteers was not impeded.

June 29 was officially created by the Israel Defense Forces (IDF in Jewish abbreviation). On July 9, immediately after the end of the truce, the Jews launched a successful offensive, improving their position immediately in all directions. In particular, the pressure of the Arabs on Jerusalem was significantly reduced, although the Jews did not succeed in capturing Latrun and the Old City, the Arab Legion showed exceptional resilience. In the south, parts of the IDF unlocked the Negev, again breaking the link between the Egyptian and Jordanian troops. Now the truce was urgently requested by the Arabs and received it already on July 17. The UN mediator, Swedish Count Bernadot, proposed a territorial compromise, which involved the transfer of the Negev to the Arabs, for which the Jews killed him.

Like last time, the Jews successfully used the armistice for three months to buy weapons and finally turn the battle groups into a regular army. The Arabs did not do anything again; moreover, the kings of Egypt and Jordan proved to each other which of them is more important in the anti-Israeli coalition.

The fighting resumed on October 15. In the north, the IDF completely defeated the Lebanese army in two weeks, leaving the border with this country, and pushed the Syrian army to the foot of the Golan Heights. The fighting in the south were extremely fierce. Part of the Egyptian troops was pushed into the area now known as the Gaza Strip, while others fell into several "boilers", which, however, the Israelis were not able to eliminate. However, the attempt of the Egyptians to unblock the surrounded parts turned into a crushing defeat, as a result of which the Jews not only occupied the Negev, but also entered Sinai, that is, on the territory of Egypt. After that, the UK presented Israel with an ultimatum that if it did not withdraw its troops from Egypt, the British would come to the aid of Cairo. Moreover, it came to air battles, during which Israeli fighters shot down six British fighters. In early January, the fire in the area was stopped.

The war ended on March 10 1949, when the Jews took Eilat, thereby gaining access to the Red Sea. After that, they in turn signed a truce with all Arab countries. The Egyptian units surrounded in the Negev, under the armistice terms, went home with weapons and equipment.

In general, the Arabs suffered a heavy defeat in the war, which they themselves had unleashed and which, given the initial balance of power, had to win. Arab Palestine was never created, its territory was de facto divided by Israel, Egypt and Jordan. There were almost 800 thousands of Palestinian refugees, which the Arab governments have cynically used to this day for their own purposes.

On the other hand, Israel failed to establish full control over Jerusalem, which it considered to be its capital. Almost 6,5 thousand Jews died in the war, including more than 4 thousand IDF troops.

New wars were inevitable. The bloodshed that began 70 years ago has not yet been completed, and, objectively speaking, there is not the slightest prospect of its ending even in the immense future.
Author:
Originator:
http://nvo.ng.ru/realty/2017-12-01/1_975_palestina.html
67 comments
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  1. Cat
    Cat 3 December 2017 06: 52 New
    +4
    Thanks to the author for an article on an interesting topic. It remains to wait for the comments of members of the forum!
    1. Black5Raven
      Black5Raven 3 December 2017 13: 37 New
      +1
      Quote: Kotischa
      It remains to wait for the comments of members of the forum!

      There will be srach wassat Here are the comments
      1. long in stock.
        long in stock. 3 December 2017 15: 34 New
        +4
        if you are not here, there will be much less srach ...
  2. Krasnodar
    Krasnodar 3 December 2017 07: 19 New
    11
    1) Jews agreed with UN resolution
    2) In Dir Yassin, the entire population was not slaughtered - the bulk of the civilians were taken out by truck after the battle
    3) L / s figures are not correct - the Jews at the beginning of the war for independence had about 40 thousand fighters, the Arab League and local Arabs about 30
    4) Volunteers from the USSR were Polish citizens who served in the Polish Army. Nobody allowed Jewish citizens of the Union, despite the abundance of those who wanted to fight for Israel.
    5) During the air battles over Sinai, 5 British planes were shot down.
    The bulk of the Israeli pilots were not Jews - American and Canadian volunteers or mercenaries.
    The rest of the article is balanced and truthful.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 3 December 2017 08: 02 New
      +9
      Who prevented a US-Canadian mercenary from being a Jew?
      1. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar 3 December 2017 08: 18 New
        +2
        Quote: 3x3zsave
        Who prevented a US-Canadian mercenary from being a Jew?

        Nobody, but the bulk were not Jews :)
    2. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 3 December 2017 11: 37 New
      +4
      Der Yasin had a “technical flush,” not a sinister plan
      kill civilians. The loudspeaker did not work,
      through which, in Arabic, civilians were invited to leave
      at home before the assault on the village (the battery was dead).
      They shouted in a voice, but was not heard in the houses.
      In the Arab houses of that time there was only one room. During the assault
      one or two grenades were thrown out the window. From grenades died (or were) injured
      many civilians. In subsequent operations and wars, such cases were taken into account,
      and they did not repeat anymore.
      1. long in stock.
        long in stock. 3 December 2017 15: 38 New
        +4
        c'mon ... Stern there is completely covered up ... about the megaphone I hear for the first time from you, I have never seen such a version .. you should not wash the scum from the blood, even if they are Jews ..
        1. Aaron Zawi
          Aaron Zawi 3 December 2017 17: 29 New
          +3
          Quote: long in stock.
          c'mon ... Stern there is completely covered up ... about the megaphone I hear for the first time from you, I have never seen such a version .. you should not wash the scum from the blood, even if they are Jews ..

          Without underestimating the brutality of the war, I would like to remind you that civilians have always suffered in street battles.

          The commanders of Irgun and Lehi believed that the villagers would leave her, fleeing, but the attack met resistance. According to Gelber, the villagers did not realize that the attackers' goal was to capture it, and believed that it was just a raid, as a result of which they did not flee when they still had such a chance. The sniper fire of the defenders from high points, especially from the house of the Mukhtar, successfully restrained the attack. The attackers had no experience attacking an Arab village, and they were poorly armed. They resorted to the tactics of capturing houses one after another. Before entering the house, grenades were thrown into the window and door, two grenades at the house, according to the order of the commander Irgun Bentsion Cohen. Ezra Yakhin, a participant in the attack, recalled: “To take possession of the house, you had to either throw a grenade or fire. Who stupidly would have opened the door, he would have been immediately killed, sometimes by men dressed in women's clothing. "
          In Deir Yassin, according to various estimates, from 107 to 254 people died.
          Sharif Kan'ana of the Palestinian University Bir Zayt interviewed the survivors and in 1988 published data now recognized by the scientific community as authoritative: 107 people (according to deiryassin.org, half of them women and children [22]) were killed, 12 injured [ 23] [24]. The Arab historian Arif al-Arif wrote in 1956 that he counted 117 killed, of which, according to his data, 7 died in battle, and 110 were killed in their homes. The leader of the operation Ra'anan called the number of those killed 240 - by his own admission, with the aim of intimidating the Arabs. A similar figure - 254 killed - was named by the leaders of the Supreme Arab Committee in order to "dramatize the tragedy" and "provoke international pressure on the Zionists." [4] [25] Battle of 110 prisoners were executed and thrown into the quarry, Gelber considers these data reliable. According to Gelber, the only alternative to executing the prisoners would be to release them, since there was no way to keep an underground prisoner of war camp under the noses of the British authorities.



          1. long in stock.
            long in stock. 3 December 2017 19: 01 New
            +2
            it was not a street battle. there were no troops or partisans in deir yasin. as far as we know, the local headman even drove off Arab agitators-
            Arab militants tried to establish a camp in the village, which led to a shootout with the residents of Deir Yassin, in which one of them died. Around January 28, 1948, a Holy Army Army unit of 400 men approached the village under the command of Abd al-Qadir, who wanted to recruit villagers into his unit. However, the village elders opposed this plan, and the detachment left. In this regard, Mukhtar (village headman) was called to give explanations to the Supreme Arab Committee (HAC) in Jerusalem. He was asked what are the relations of the villagers with the Jews, Mukhtar replied that they live in peace with them. No measures were taken against the mukhtar and he was not required to break the peace agreement. On February 13, an armed group of Arabs appeared in the vicinity of the village, intending to attack Givat Shaul, but the villagers “ousted” it, as a result of which members of the group killed a flock of village sheep. . These weren’t street fights, they started much later when the Arabs fought off the village. And if the British authorities could have kept an underground army with armored vehicles, then 25 prisoners would not be a big problem .. it wasn’t a war, it was a massacre. “In the career I saw five female bodies and two boys 13-14 years old - were shot. In the hollow of 25 bodies, one on top of the other, children and women (Avigdori and Dorian - the doctors are Dead), prisoners of war say ... I understand that you do not like it, but it was ..... like the order to clean up after yourself ... very reminiscent of Warsaw and the actions of the dirlewanger brigade ...
            1. Operator
              Operator 3 December 2017 20: 20 New
              +1
              The logic of Jewish terrorists is Arabs, we need your village Deir Yassin, but our megaphone has broken, so we will cleanse the village of you with grenades.
              1. Aaron Zawi
                Aaron Zawi 3 December 2017 20: 45 New
                +3
                Quote: Operator
                The logic of Jewish terrorists is Arabs, we need your village Deir Yassin, but our megaphone has broken, so we will cleanse the village of you with grenades.

                T / e storming a village near Berlin in 1945, do you also consider it a terrorist attack?
                1. Operator
                  Operator 3 December 2017 23: 08 New
                  0
                  The villages near Berlin in 1945 were cleared of enemy troops, not civilians.
                  1. Aaron Zawi
                    Aaron Zawi 4 December 2017 00: 03 New
                    +2
                    Quote: Operator
                    The villages near Berlin in 1945 were cleared of enemy troops, not civilians.

                    t / e to suppress the enemy is not actively used artillery to fire at home? Or did someone bother, those in the house from where the fire came from civilians or not?
                    1. Operator
                      Operator 4 December 2017 01: 30 New
                      +1
                      In Deir Yassin, no fire was fired from houses or artillery was used, Jewish terrorists had every opportunity to notify civilians of leaving their homes, coming directly to each house,

                      Instead, Jewish terrorists silently threw grenades at each house and shot on the outskirts of the "prisoners" - women and children who were trying to leave the village.
          2. Slavs
            Slavs 31 March 2018 14: 57 New
            0
            The cynicism of your excuses is astounding.
        2. voyaka uh
          voyaka uh 3 December 2017 22: 56 New
          +2
          I am not a fan of Irgun and Lehi. I consider their campaign of terror against the British mistaken.
          But portraying them as supporters of the massacres of civilians is also not necessary. They fought fiercely, but never planned to sweep the territory from the inhabitants. If the Arabs fled, they were not persecuted. If it was possible to just scare them into the loudspeaker so that they would run away, they would let me run away and not shoot them.
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 3 December 2017 08: 04 New
    +2
    They produced several thousand small arms, 30 fairly new American M4 Sherman tanks at that time, and more than 30 guns. I got Israel and military aircraft, and very powerful - 3 “flying fortresses” V-17, several English Spitfire fighters, 5 American P-51 Mustangs and, most importantly, 20 Messerschmitts Bf-109G. These aircraft were produced at that time in Czechoslovakia.
    ... B-17- was it produced in Czechoslovakia too? Like the P-51 Mustang?
    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 3 December 2017 08: 18 New
      +2
      Quote: parusnik
      They produced several thousand small arms, 30 fairly new American M4 Sherman tanks at that time, and more than 30 guns. I got Israel and military aircraft, and very powerful - 3 “flying fortresses” V-17, several English Spitfire fighters, 5 American P-51 Mustangs and, most importantly, 20 Messerschmitts Bf-109G. These aircraft were produced at that time in Czechoslovakia.
      ... B-17- was it produced in Czechoslovakia too? Like the P-51 Mustang?

      This is it about Messers
      1. parusnik
        parusnik 3 December 2017 08: 33 New
        +3
        And the rest, in the "black market" .. from under the floor ...
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 3 December 2017 08: 55 New
          +2
          Quote: parusnik
          And the rest, in the "black market" .. from under the floor ...

          Something through third countries, something in landfills.
        2. long in stock.
          long in stock. 3 December 2017 08: 58 New
          +6
          in general, yes ... collected from aviation cemeteries .. generally compiled. fuselages from dumps wings from downed Egyptian ... hodgepodge .. fortresses were armed with Czech machine guns in Czechoslovakia by German machine guns ... and about pilots of mercenaries ... These days regular pilots arrived from Czechoslovakia: Leon Frankel, Aaron "Red" Finkel, Sid Entin, Bill Pomerantz, as well as two more from South Africa - Lione l Bloch and Arnold Rukh. I am certainly not a specialist, but they are not Canadian by my last name ..
          1. Krasnodar
            Krasnodar 3 December 2017 09: 39 New
            +3
            Quote: long in stock.
            in general, yes ... collected from aviation cemeteries .. generally compiled. fuselages from dumps wings from downed Egyptian ... hodgepodge .. fortresses were armed with Czech machine guns in Czechoslovakia by German machine guns ... and about pilots of mercenaries ... These days regular pilots arrived from Czechoslovakia: Leon Frankel, Aaron "Red" Finkel, Sid Entin, Bill Pomerantz, as well as two more from South Africa - Lione l Bloch and Arnold Rukh. I am certainly not a specialist, but they are not Canadian by my last name ..

            Names of pilots who participated in battles with the British over Sinai:
            Jeff Cooper, Frank Klose, Tim MacLau, Ron Cyres, John McElroy, Chalmers Goldin.
            Cyres and Goldin are possibly Jews. Tanks were collected mainly in landfills. Mustangs bought through Ecuador, in my opinion, I don’t remember exactly about the B-17.
            1. long in stock.
              long in stock. 3 December 2017 10: 08 New
              +4
              B17 were bought in the United States from private individuals. Moreover, in the version of the bomber there was 1 that kept all the turrets but it didn’t fly. Still 1 photo reconnaissance and 2 completely disarmed. They armed them in Czechoslovakia with German machine guns and bomb holders. Spits were collected in landfills until the Czechs sold their batch. about Ecuador did not meet. in Mexico, they tried to buy, but the Americans clearly tracked and banned the deal .. it was like buying in Italy at demilitarized warehouses about 15-20 fuselages. but in the first stage of the conflict there were only 4 cars and they quickly ran out. accident was outrageous. tanks bought in that Italy, there were many warehouses with unnecessary military equipment ... you can call it a landfill ...
              1. Krasnodar
                Krasnodar 3 December 2017 11: 33 New
                0
                Quote: long in stock.
                B17 were bought in the United States from private individuals. Moreover, in the version of the bomber there was 1 that kept all the turrets but it didn’t fly. Still 1 photo reconnaissance and 2 completely disarmed. They armed them in Czechoslovakia with German machine guns and bomb holders. Spits were collected in landfills until the Czechs sold their batch. about Ecuador did not meet. in Mexico, they tried to buy, but the Americans clearly tracked and banned the deal .. it was like buying in Italy at demilitarized warehouses about 15-20 fuselages. but in the first stage of the conflict there were only 4 cars and they quickly ran out. accident was outrageous. tanks bought in that Italy, there were many warehouses with unnecessary military equipment ... you can call it a landfill ...

                I didn’t know so much about airplanes, thanks!
                1. long in stock.
                  long in stock. 3 December 2017 15: 39 New
                  +3
                  I always liked the first phase of the conflict, from a technical point of view, of course ... there were so many unusual ways of getting weapons ...
            2. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 3 December 2017 10: 43 New
              +3
              The surname is not an indicator of nationality, the surname did not prevent Yul Brinner from being a Little Russian, and Charles Aznavour an Armenian.
              1. long in stock.
                long in stock. 3 December 2017 15: 40 New
                0
                for one person, yes. I agree. but when the score is tens worth it and think twice ..
            3. Curious
              Curious 3 December 2017 11: 53 New
              +3
              You dumped a bunch of English and Israeli pilots participating in an air battle over Gaza on 07.01.1949/XNUMX/XNUMX between the Israeli and British air forces.
              Jeff Cooper, Frank Klose, Tim MacLau, Ron Cyres - British pilots.
              McElroy, Chalmers Goldin - Israeli.
              The Israelis shot down four Spitfire Mk XVIII aircraft from the 208th squadron and one Hawker Tempest aircraft. Two British pilots died, two were captured by the Jews.
              1. Krasnodar
                Krasnodar 3 December 2017 12: 14 New
                +1
                That's right. My mistake.
    2. Aspid 57
      Aspid 57 3 December 2017 15: 37 New
      +2
      "Fortress" had no sights. At Messerschmitt, the DB-605 engines were replaced by the Jumo-211. 150 hp less powerful and 100 kg. heavier. The alignment of the aircraft has shifted greatly and it has practically ceased to be accessible to pilots with a qualification environment! Ikht didn’t smell of any serviceable, combat-ready Sherman! These are fairy tales! Volunteers were only Jews. From the USA, Canada, Great Britain, Australia. But without serious combat experience! Relied on the fact that the Arabs were even bigger clowns!
      1. long in stock.
        long in stock. 3 December 2017 16: 43 New
        +2
        until the Arab Legion entered into business ... those guys weren’t clowns at all ..
  4. andrewkor
    andrewkor 3 December 2017 09: 02 New
    +3
    I do not like Israel for its anti-Russian policy, but I admire its armed forces and the military-industrial complex. With the country surrounded by irreconcilable (!) Enemies, how else can you defend yourself and just survive? Only by spreading hostility between them, pushing Shiites, Sunnis, Alawites and others among themselves . The case can go to the global annihilation of Israel and its adversaries, of which 100 times more!
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 3 December 2017 09: 16 New
      +2
      And Israel also has nuclear weapons.
    2. Cartalon
      Cartalon 3 December 2017 09: 39 New
      +3
      And what is the anti-Russian policy of Israel?
      1. long in stock.
        long in stock. 3 December 2017 10: 10 New
        +1
        in alliance with the usa .. can not a friend of my enemy be a friend to me. as they say nothing personal is business .....
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 3 December 2017 11: 37 New
          +5
          Quote: long in stock.
          in alliance with the usa .. can not a friend of my enemy be a friend to me. as they say nothing personal is business .....

          Nevertheless, Israel did not support either sanctions or anti-Russian resolutions on Crimea.
          1. long in stock.
            long in stock. 3 December 2017 15: 42 New
            +1
            so no one says that Israel is a blind subordinate .. but if God forbid, the time has come for the big fox, I think Israel will have no choice. but this is my personal opinion.
    3. Aspid 57
      Aspid 57 3 December 2017 15: 38 New
      0
      And what is the anti-Russian policy of Israel? Tell me, please! Clockwork and write to the Kremlin! And then there is clearly not in the know!))))
  5. Curious
    Curious 3 December 2017 12: 01 New
    +5

    Mordechai Alon - commander of the first ever Israeli fighter squadron.
    The first air victories belong to him. June 3, 1948. the commander of the only fighter squadron at that time, Moddy Alon, on an S-199 fighter, shot down two Dakotas in the sky above Tel Aviv, which were going to bomb the densely populated quarters of the Jewish capital.
    Details http://www.airwar.ru/history/aces/acepostwar/pilo
    t / alon.html.
    I hope that no one doubts that this is a Jew.
    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 3 December 2017 12: 18 New
      0
      Quote: Curious

      Mordechai Alon - commander of the first ever Israeli fighter squadron.
      The first air victories belong to him. June 3, 1948. the commander of the only fighter squadron at that time, Moddy Alon, on an S-199 fighter, shot down two Dakotas in the sky above Tel Aviv, which were going to bomb the densely populated quarters of the Jewish capital.
      Details http://www.airwar.ru/history/aces/acepostwar/pilo
      t / alon.html.
      I hope that no one doubts that this is a Jew.

      There were Jews, no one disputes, but the bulk of the pilots were Americans and Canadians - some for ideological reasons, some because of money - and most of them were not Jews.
      This is what I know from Israeli sources.
      In the second battle between Hale Avir and the British from four Israeli aircraft, the Jew was in only one - this is Ezer Weizmann. Another was an English volunteer and two American mercenaries.
      1. Curious
        Curious 3 December 2017 13: 11 New
        +2
        The fact is that the article has two very significant flaws. And one of them is the almost complete lack of information about the mahal - foreign volunteers, participants in the war for independence.
        Let us turn, as you say, to Israeli sources.
        Foreign volunteers took an active part in the Israeli War of Independence, which began in 1948, immediately after the proclamation of a Jewish state. Approximately 3500 volunteers from 43 countries then arrived in Israel and took direct part in hostilities as part of the IDF units and formations. According to the countries of origin, the volunteers were divided as follows: approximately 1 volunteers arrived from the USA, 000 from Canada, 250 from South Africa, 700 from the UK, 600 from North Africa, 250 from Latin America, France and Belgium. There were also small groups of volunteers from Australia, Rhodesia, and Finland. Not all of them managed to survive until victory - 250 foreign volunteers died in the battles for the freedom and independence of Israel.
        Among them were both Jews and Christians (usually supporters of the ideology of Zionism), as well as just mercenaries.
        The greatest presence of volunteers was felt in the Israeli Air Force, their number was almost a quarter of the Air Force personnel.
        Therefore, to say that the bulk of the Air Force were mercenaries is not necessary.
        (Alexander Shulman. Foreign volunteers in the Israeli Army, http://www.sem40.ru/index.php?newsid=224677).
        The second very significant drawback of the article is that it does not contain a word about the role of the USSR in the events described. But this, in essence, is the Soviet war for the independence of Israel.
        This gap can be filled at http://old.nationaldefense.ru/2332/2348/index.sht
        ml? id = 7444.
        So the author approached the writing of the article superficially.
        1. A. Privalov
          A. Privalov 3 December 2017 14: 31 New
          10
          Quote: Curious
          The author approached the writing of the article extremely superficially.

          I can not disagree with you. This is the difference between a political scientist and a historian. The historian is bound hand and foot with a profound knowledge of historical retrospectives, and a political scientist, as you see, can begin the story with any time point he likes (necessary at the moment), or, having likened him to a not quite conscientious journalist, place suitable accents. Is it possible to begin the story of the Second World War only with the battle of Moscow? Similarly, January 1, 1948, is not at all the main point of reference for a fundamental change in the "fate of Palestine."

          I will not in any way detract from the merits of the USSR in the creation of a Jewish state. From the 33-s states voted "FOR" - 3 votes were from the USSR. However, it should be understood and another side of this issue. There was no talk of any "Soviet war for the independence of Israel". The creation of Israel naturally squeezed Britain from a strategically important region and could enable the USSR to take its place. The words of Stalin are widely known:
          “Let's agree with the formation of Israel. It will be like an awl in the ass for the Arab states and will make them turn their back on Britain. Ultimately, British influence will be completely undermined in Egypt, Syria, Turkey and Iraq. ”
          After the end of World War II, Great Britain was unable to hold its colonies and protectorates. Thus, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Malaysia, Malta, Cyprus and many others gained independence. Palestine was no exception, and the keys to this territory (where the national liberation struggle was already taking place with might and main) Britain itself brought to the United Nations, having opened, of course, everything that could. Whether the UN would vote for partitioning or not, the Jewish state actually existed by that time. It created its own financial system, health and education systems (schools and universities), transport, infrastructure, power generation, agriculture. Local government bodies were organized, military units and weapons manufacturing enterprises actually existed, their own cultural life, the press, theaters existed. To all of the above, Stalin had no relation. Moreover, many things were not created thanks to, but in spite of Stalin.
          Yes, Joseph Vissarionovich graciously allowed Czechoslovakia to supply arms to Israel, but they were not of decisive importance. Deliveries were limited to 25-th reworked "Messerschmitts" of poor quality at astronomical prices and small arms. Avia S-199 were delivered to Israel - for the price of $ 180 000 per plane. For comparison, the Americans sold fighters for $ 15 000, and bombers for $ 30 000 per plane. Palestine’s air service purchased C-46 Commando medium transport planes in different countries for $ 5 000, four-engine transport planes C-69 Constellation for $ 15 000 per piece, heavy bombers B-17 for $ 20 000. I agree that at that time, any trunk was very valuable, but you should not exaggerate the value of these supplies. In Czechoslovakia, about 25 thousands of rifles were purchased, more than 5 thousands of light machine guns, 200 heavy machine guns, more than 54 million cartridges. For comparison: only in March 1948 of the year only at one underground plant in Palestine was already in production of 12 000 submachine guns "Stan", 500 machine guns "Dror", 140 000 grenades, 120 three-inch mortars and millions of cartridges.
          The same Czechoslovakia supplied weapons to the Arabs. For example, during the operation "Shoded", the Hagany fighters intercepted the ship Argyro with eight thousand rifles and eight million rounds of Czechoslovakia, intended for Syria. Artillery, for example, during the war of independence mainly consisted of French cannons purchased in Switzerland.
          In the USSR at that time, the struggle against "cosmopolitanism" was already in full swing in the country, the "Case of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee" was unwound (110 was repressed, people were shot by 14), the world-famous theater director and Jewish public figure Solomon Mikhoels followed by " The case of doctors "and other repression against the Jews.
          Moreover, just after 4, after the described events in Czechoslovakia, the so-called Slansky process, inspired by the USSR Ministry of State Security, took place. During a demonstration trial of a group of prominent figures of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, among whom was a veteran of the Spanish Civil War, General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia Rudolf Slansky, and also 13 other high-ranking party and state leaders (11 of whom were Jews), were accused of all mortal sins, including the "Trotsky-Zionist-Titovsky conspiracy." They also remembered the supply of weapons to the Zionists, although Slansky was the onlywho opposed these supplies. As a result, 11 people were executed, and 3s were sentenced to life imprisonment.
          What is true, the author correctly noted: the Arabs got exactly the same chance to create their own state as the Jews. But instead of creating it, they began military operations against Israel, in order to prevent the creation of an independent Jewish state, they lost the war and lost their chance.
          History has its own way: a new Israel in the coming year 70 years, and the Arabs and ride on donkeys cursing Jews in all their troubles.
          1. Curious
            Curious 3 December 2017 15: 13 New
            +3
            Yes, Joseph Vissarionovich graciously allowed Czechoslovakia to supply arms to Israel, but they were not critical
            Czechoslovakia was chosen as a transit point, since the USSR did not want to advertise its participation, as this was a violation of the international embargo. And Moshe Charet negotiated directly with Gromyko.
            And the fact that Czechoslovakia tried to sell something to the Arabs is pure inconsistency. All quickly corrected.
            By the way, there were other supply options. Al Schwimmer was able to secure Mexico's consent to sell 25 P-47 Thunderbolt fighters for $ 1 million, but the contract with Mexico was rejected in favor of deliveries from Czechoslovakia.
          2. long in stock.
            long in stock. 3 December 2017 15: 52 New
            +4
            all the same, you discard politics from technology .. what could you buy- For comparison: the Americans sold fighters for $ 15, and the bombers for $ 000 per plane. Palestinian Air Services purchased $ 30 medium-sized C-000 Commando aircraft, $ 46 C-5 Constellation four-engine transport aircraft, and heavy $ 000 B-69 bombers in different countries. I couldn’t tell you this. they didn’t buy it because America tightly watched for sanctions. And many transactions were disrupted and weapons were confiscated. And you shouldn’t confuse a factory-made airplane with the same mustang, which was badly battered by the war and restored several times, these are two big differences. You shouldn’t roll up you can’t find the truth in ideology ... and the fact that masses were massively beaten is another proof of the impossibility of purchasing from allies. The pilots and equipment that were available at the Israeli air force for a completely logical reason were not familiar with German technology ...
            1. A. Privalov
              A. Privalov 3 December 2017 16: 49 New
              +2
              Quote: long in stock.
              all the same, you discard the policy of technology .. what you could buy-.

              All the equipment was "from politics". On 180 000 (one Czech) you could buy 10 from other countries. The embargo is an embargo, and purchases are made regardless. And they broke in the same way. I repeat, Jewish Israel was needed by Stalin only as a tool to fight the UK. Neither any sentiments from the Best_Drug_Fizkulturnikov was not. Pragmatism net.
              By the way, the above I quoted a lengthy quotation from the article by the distinguished Professor "How Stalin created Israel."
              https://topwar.ru/47220-kak-stalin-sozdaval-izrai
              lk-66-y-godovschine-nezavisimosti-izrailya.html
              1. long in stock.
                long in stock. 3 December 2017 19: 18 New
                0
                I say it again. I wouldn’t buy it. Nobody would give it. It’s one thing to buy a couple of decommissioned cars. But it’s impossible to build such an air force. I don’t believe that they didn’t try, knowing the entrepreneurship of those who tried, but could not. With the assessment of Israel as a tool -I fully agree. But let's go back to our sheep. 4 b17 were bought. Of these, 1 was a full-fledged bomber with turrets and bomb holders. He didn’t get it. The Americans intercepted him at the airport and confiscated. 2-Unarmed 1 photo reconnaissance with 1 turret. also without cameras and weapons. Armed and mounted bomb racks in Czechoslovakia, there was nowhere else. Also for all other cars ... you can track the fate of everyone at all .. and the professor’s article .... he also did not answer these questions .. they are uncomfortable for him .. but in vain. it’s more interesting to watch what operations the Jewish specialists did in the extraction of weapons and its restoration.
        2. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 3 December 2017 20: 20 New
          +1
          Quote: Curious
          The fact is that the article has two very significant flaws. And one of them is the almost complete lack of information about the mahal - foreign volunteers, participants in the war for independence.
          Let us turn, as you say, to Israeli sources.
          Foreign volunteers took an active part in the Israeli War of Independence, which began in 1948, immediately after the proclamation of a Jewish state. Approximately 3500 volunteers from 43 countries then arrived in Israel and took direct part in hostilities as part of the IDF units and formations. According to the countries of origin, the volunteers were divided as follows: approximately 1 volunteers arrived from the USA, 000 from Canada, 250 from South Africa, 700 from the UK, 600 from North Africa, 250 from Latin America, France and Belgium. There were also small groups of volunteers from Australia, Rhodesia, and Finland. Not all of them managed to survive until victory - 250 foreign volunteers died in the battles for the freedom and independence of Israel.
          Among them were both Jews and Christians (usually supporters of the ideology of Zionism), as well as just mercenaries.
          The greatest presence of volunteers was felt in the Israeli Air Force, their number was almost a quarter of the Air Force personnel.
          Therefore, to say that the bulk of the Air Force were mercenaries is not necessary.
          (Alexander Shulman. Foreign volunteers in the Israeli Army, http://www.sem40.ru/index.php?newsid=224677).
          The second very significant drawback of the article is that it does not contain a word about the role of the USSR in the events described. But this, in essence, is the Soviet war for the independence of Israel.
          This gap can be filled at http://old.nationaldefense.ru/2332/2348/index.sht
          ml? id = 7444.
          So the author approached the writing of the article superficially.

          I'm talking about Hebrew sources. Shulman is somewhat pretentious and pathos - IMHO.
    2. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 3 December 2017 14: 58 New
      +3
      Interestingly, the lack of flight personnel forced pilots to be universal. The same Alon during his short career managed to be a fighter, a bomber and an attack aircraft.
  6. Operator
    Operator 3 December 2017 13: 54 New
    0
    In the First Arab-Israeli War, the number of Jewish troops and foreign volunteers exceeded the number of Arab soldiers. At the same time, about half of the Jews and all foreign volunteers were participants in hostilities in WWII, among Arabs there were none at all.

    Therefore, the outcome of the First Arab-Israeli war was logical.

    Another thing is that the advertised 500-thousandth AOI with mechanized pillboxes "Merkava" turned out to be a soap bubble - Russia was able to drive ISIS's 160-thousandth group for mozha only with a mixed regiment and free fall bombs. From which it follows that the AOI for all the time since the 1948 year has achieved "overpower" in wars with essentially irregular formations.

    Israel’s chronic diarrhea also becomes clear from the mere mention of the regular Persian army.
    1. Curious
      Curious 3 December 2017 13: 59 New
      +3
      Russia was able to drive a 160-strong ISIS group for mozha by a mixed air regiment alone.
      But have you hit the timpani early? To drive is not to eliminate.
      1. Operator
        Operator 3 December 2017 14: 01 New
        0
        I wrote very clearly "drive for mozha", and not "eliminate" (which is yet to come).
    2. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 3 December 2017 14: 53 New
      +3
      That is, in the Six-Day War, the IDF was opposed by all sorts of partisans, guerilleros, Barbunos and other irregular rabble?
      1. A. Privalov
        A. Privalov 3 December 2017 15: 31 New
        +2
        Quote: 3x3zsave
        That is, in the Six-Day War, the IDF was opposed by all sorts of partisans, guerilleros, Barbunos and other irregular rabble?

        The six-day war will begin in almost 20 years. You hurry a bit.
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 3 December 2017 15: 53 New
          +4
          I was not in a hurry, this Mr. "Operator" in the eternal maximalism asserts that in the whole history of existence the Israeli army has never encountered regular military units and formations !!!
          1. A. Privalov
            A. Privalov 3 December 2017 16: 51 New
            +3
            Quote: 3x3zsave
            I was not in a hurry, this Mr. "Operator" in the eternal maximalism asserts that in the whole history of existence the Israeli army has never encountered regular military units and formations !!!

            Sorry, I did not notice. hi
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 3 December 2017 17: 16 New
              +2
              Everything is good!
      2. Operator
        Operator 3 December 2017 20: 32 New
        0
        3x3zsave

        You understood correctly:
        - in the 2017 year, Russia alone dispersed the 160-thousandth ISIS group (supported by the USA, Israel, Saudi Arabia and Qatar), armed with weapons of mass destruction (chemical) and missile weapons (ATGMs and MANPADS);
        - In 1967, the 500-thousandth IDF with the most modern military equipment at that time was not able to defeat 1-million. Arab group (supported only by the USSR).

        AOI is a soap bubble.
        1. Aaron Zawi
          Aaron Zawi 3 December 2017 20: 46 New
          +7
          Quote: Operator
          3x3zsave

          You understood correctly:
          - in the 2017 year, Russia alone dispersed the 160-thousandth ISIS group (supported by the USA, Israel, Saudi Arabia and Qatar), armed with weapons of mass destruction (chemical) and missile weapons (ATGMs and MANPADS);
          - In 1967, the 500-thousandth IDF with the most modern military equipment at that time was not able to defeat 1-million. Arab group (supported only by the USSR).

          AOI is a soap bubble.

          Kindergarten.
    3. Tramp1812
      Tramp1812 3 December 2017 17: 08 New
      +4
      In October 1973, Israel was opposed by an almost million-strong Arab military group. Which included more than 4000 T-55, T-62 tanks, under a thousand jet aircraft of the MiG-21, 23 type. I'm not talking about air defense and artillery. The largest tank battle in human history after the battle of Prokhorovka! Are these irregular formations? Do not disgrace .....
  7. Tramp1812
    Tramp1812 3 December 2017 17: 01 New
    +3
    The publication as a whole, marked the War of Independence with more touches and somewhat abstract. A war cannot be fought without rank-and-file commanders. The author did not mention the architects of Israel's victory in the war: Shaltiel, Alon, Rabin, Yadin. Not a word about John Glabbe, who created and trained the Jordanian legion, Abdullah Tal, who were very serious opponents. There was no place in the article about the special operations of the Israelis who intercepted a ship with weapons for the Arabs, who blew up another Arab ship with weapons on a raid in Italy.
    1. long in stock.
      long in stock. 3 December 2017 19: 22 New
      +2
      it will not be an article but a series of books to write ...
  8. Zeev Zeev
    Zeev Zeev 4 December 2017 15: 13 New
    0
    Quote: parusnik
    They produced several thousand small arms, 30 fairly new American M4 Sherman tanks at that time, and more than 30 guns. I got Israel and military aircraft, and very powerful - 3 “flying fortresses” V-17, several English Spitfire fighters, 5 American P-51 Mustangs and, most importantly, 20 Messerschmitts Bf-109G. These aircraft were produced at that time in Czechoslovakia.
    ... B-17- was it produced in Czechoslovakia too? Like the P-51 Mustang?

    And here it was funny. Israel’s tank forces at the end of the war comprised 4 tanks at the front (two Sherman and two Cromwell’s, moreover, the Kromveli were stamped by the British, and one of the Sherman’s had a 20-mm Oerlikon gun disguised in a pipe) and 10 in the rear (Hotchkiss).
    Quote: Operator
    3x3zsave

    You understood correctly:
    - in the 2017 year, Russia alone dispersed the 160-thousandth ISIS group (supported by the USA, Israel, Saudi Arabia and Qatar), armed with weapons of mass destruction (chemical) and missile weapons (ATGMs and MANPADS);
    - In 1967, the 500-thousandth IDF with the most modern military equipment at that time was not able to defeat 1-million. Arab group (supported only by the USSR).

    AOI is a soap bubble.

    In 1967, Israel was armed mainly with tanks of the Second, BTR, World War II, artillery of the Second World ... Aircraft were newer, but also did not surpass the Arab MiGs with either novelty or superpowers. In addition, the Arab armies had an advantage in numbers and in more convenient positions. The result is known.
    1. long in stock.
      long in stock. 4 December 2017 16: 30 New
      0
      But have not the Hotchkisses lost everything by this time?
  9. Zeev Zeev
    Zeev Zeev 5 December 2017 09: 41 New
    0
    Quote: long in stock.
    But have not the Hotchkisses lost everything by this time?

    In fact, not a single one was lost. Four were left on the battlefield near Iraq-al-Manashiya, but since the IDF remained with the IDF, they were returned to duty and used for training purposes.
    1. long in stock.
      long in stock. 5 December 2017 17: 01 New
      0
      Yes. Sorry. Memory sometimes fails ..
  10. mko
    mko 9 March 2018 20: 10 New
    0
    The French city of Suren once suffered greatly from pigeons. As a result of some kind of epidemic, the birds had diarrhea, and the pigeon droppings literally dotted the roofs. Suren City Hall spent large amounts daily for cleaning, but it was all in vain.
    One of these days, a man came to the mayor who promised the following:
    “I know about your problem, and am ready to rid the city of pigeons in one day.” And I will do it completely disinterestedly if you promise that you will not ask me a single question later. Otherwise, I will demand from you one million dollars.
    the mayor agreed. The next day, a man climbed onto the roof of the city hall, pulled a green pigeon from his bosom, and released it into the sky. All the pigeons of the city, noticing a green brother, strayed into a huge flock and flew after him. And not one came back.
    Upon learning of this, the mayor of Suren was so shocked by the miracle that he handed the owner of the bird a check in the amount of one million, and asked:
    “Do you happen to have a green Arab?”