- Comrade Commander-in-Chief, the Russian Navy began the countdown of the next decade in its more than 300-year-old stories. The main command of the Navy is deployed within the walls of the Admiralty, which not only remember this story, but also absorb the events of the new time. And what these walls remember over the past few years?
- Any development, including the Naval fleetis of a staged nature. There are so-called reference points, or boundaries, after which the most significant transformations begin. And in the annals of the Admiralty the most significant milestone was clearly introduced, which gave a start to a new stage in the development and activities of the Russian Navy. This milestone came 5 years ago. The Armed Forces received a powerful impetus for development, and the Navy, as their component, received a strong impetus and clear guidelines indicating the exact course of further movement.
Surprisingly, it so coincided that the High Command of the Navy relocated to St. Petersburg just 5 years ago. Coincidence, but significant.
The Navy, as befits a maritime power fleet, regained its presence in the oceans. In the far and sea zones there are more than 100 ships of all four fleets.
We returned to the oceans solely to ensure the security of the interests of the country and maintain stability in the conditions of the constant emergence of new threats at sea. The RF Minister of Defense has been tasked with making this presence even more effective. The geography of the areas where the St. Andrew’s flag is seen has expanded. The operational-strategic command in the Arctic zone, the permanent operational connection of the Navy in the Mediterranean, was created. These are the most important decisions that allow us to further improve, ensuring the safety of Russia's maritime activities. Diverse groups of warships are increasingly performing assigned tasks at sea, continuing to hone inter-fleet interaction. Looking back, only a few years ago we were just starting to work out the actions of the forces of the fleets at sea according to a single plan and plan. Now this level has become incomparably higher. For example, the ships of the Northern, Pacific, Black Sea and Baltic fleets successfully operate in the Mediterranean Sea, performing common tasks and complementing each other in the groupings for various purposes. That is how it should be. Naval art can not be static.
Speaking of naval ships navlavlennosti, I can note the following dynamics. In 2013, it was 5900 days. 2014 12 700 2015 14 200 2016 15 600 days 2017 17 100 XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX days
- In educational institutions, naval sailors study the history of naval art. Do new pages appear in this science?
- Of course. The nature of the actions of the forces of the Russian Navy over the past few years allows us to write entire chapters on the basis of new unique experience. Take, for example, the campaign of a naval aircraft carrier group led by the Admiral Kuznetsov Tavkr in 2016-2017. The first in a new history combat use of our heavy aircraft-carrying cruiser, the first execution of real combat missions of a decked naval aviation from the board of this ship. The pilots of the air wing of the Northern Fleet have successfully accomplished combat missions involving striking at ground targets of a real enemy - terrorist groups in the territory of the Syrian Arab Republic. They performed 420 sorties, of which 117 in difficult night time conditions. They hit 1252 terrorist targets. For the first time, in real conditions, the Admiral Kuznetsov TAVKR multi-functional wing wing was developed, including Su-33, MiG-29K aircraft, Ka-52, Ka-27PL, Ka-27PS, Ka-29 helicopters. This allowed us to fulfill the full range of tasks in the airspace above the sea and land.
This experience, as well as the experience of high-precision shooting weapons 636.3 submarines of the project, 1135.6 frigates and small rocket ships on the objects of terrorists, analyzed, included in training programs in naval educational institutions, used in the training of ship commanders and officers.
A naval presence is a necessity and an important instrument of stability in the oceans. In this regard, we continue to improve the general-purpose forces. This task has been assigned to us by the Minister of Defense of the Russian Federation, and we will fulfill it. Once, in the recent past, St. Andrew’s flag in the ocean was perceived by many as a kind of sensation. But now everyone who is skeptical about this, they understand - this is reality. Our ships carry out tasks of inter-fleet crossings, in all latitudes they operate as part of detachments and groups, participate in international exercises, exercises of inter-fleet and interspecific scale. Combat training activities at sea have sufficient momentum and efficiency. For example, if in the 2012 year we conducted a little more than 200 tactical exercises, now, in the 2017 year, we have reached the level around 500. This is not intensity for intensity. This is a steady improvement in the quality parameters of our training. We will continue to improve.
- You said about international studies. What goals are achieved during these exercises?
- We have always been open for cooperation at sea. I mean naval cooperation when common priorities coincide. From this point of view, I can cite as an example the annual Russian-Chinese naval doctrine “Sea interaction”, the exercise with our Indian colleagues “Indra”. In the course of these exercises, we interact based on common interests, the main of which is stability and security at sea and, of course, from equal partnership relations. In exercises of this format, the interoperability between the fleets of states is tested, a unique experience is gained, and traditions are exchanged. It is very cool when sailors from different countries understand each other at sea.
By the way, akin to international studies, international competitions, which are held within the framework of ARMI. Only in this case one more incentive is added - competitiveness. The international naval competitions “Depth”, “Sea Cup” have already become an excellent annual tradition, which brings sailors from many countries together during the competitions.
- The Navy is in the process of active retrofitting. What is the dynamics in this critical area?
- Stable. Literally over the last five years there has been a positive positive trend in all areas of equipping the fleet with submarines, surface ships, weapon systems. The groupings of strategic missile submarine cruisers are being updated due to the construction of nuclear submarines of the Borey and Borey-A projects. The grouping of multi-purpose submarines is being updated due to the construction of nuclear submarines of the project "Ash".
By the way, I will inform readers of the "Red Star" such news. Literally in the near future, at the Sevmash enterprise in Severodvinsk, another strategic nuclear-powered submarine cruiser, Prince Vladimir, will be taken out of the shed. This event will take place in November.
As part of the development of the general-purpose naval forces, the non-nuclear component of the naval submarine forces is also being updated. The diesel-electric submarines of the 636.3 project for the Black Sea Fleet were built. And not just built, but also proved their effectiveness in striking Caliber missiles at terrorists in Syria. Now the Admiralty Shipyards in St. Petersburg has begun construction of submarines of this project for the Pacific Fleet.
At the same time, the construction of the diesel-electric submarines of the 677 project (of the Lada type) Kronstadt and Velikiye Luki continues. Just a few days ago, at a meeting in the Admiralty, I was informed that the sections of the first serial submarine of this Kronstadt project were joined into a single building, and the installation of pipelines and various life support systems of the submarine is underway. Electrical equipment and shaft lines are being installed, sliding devices are being loaded. On the submarine "Velikiye Luki" the bow and stern sections of the hull were formed, hydraulic tests of both sections were carried out. We have worked out such a system of work in matters of shipbuilding, which allows us to accompany every stage of the construction of a ship or submarine from the moment of laying up to the transfer to the Navy.
- How do you characterize the process of equipping the Navy with new models of equipment and weapons in relation to the geography of the deployment of fleets?
- I will give a few examples that illustrate the practical and purposeful work of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation and the High Command of the Navy in the development and renewal of fleet forces in the places of their deployment. Describing the southern direction, I can say that the positions of both the Black Sea Fleet and the Caspian Flotilla have been significantly strengthened. But I draw attention to the fact that this strengthening is in order to create the necessary balance of power. I mean the restoration and development of the potential that will effectively ensure the security of the state from sea directions in the operational zone of responsibility of the Black Sea Fleet and the Caspian Flotilla. So, again, the submarine forces of the Black Sea Fleet over the past few years have been replenished with a series of newest submarines of the 636.3 project, and its surface component continues to be replenished with 1135.6 frigates, small rocket ships of the 21631 project, equipped with high-precision weapons. By the end of the year, the Black Sea Fleet will receive the third frigate of the 1135.6 project “Admiral Makarov” and the next small rocket ship Vyshny Volochyok. In 2018, the Black Sea Fleet will be replenished with the lead patrol ship of the new generation, Vasily Bykov.
A series of these patrol ships is being built for the Black Sea Fleet. Their capabilities will be most in demand in the operational area of responsibility of the Black Sea Fleet.
The Caspian flotilla has become a truly highly mobile association that can solve problems of any complexity. It is updated with rocket ships, small rocket ships and small artillery ships. The infrastructure of the basing of the Caspian flotilla is developing and the marines are being re-equipped. If you look at the recent past of the Caspian Flotilla, you can see in it a truly rare mix of artillery boats. It was just recently. In a short time, the Caspians received the newest ships that fit the tasks performed by the flotilla.
- Positive changes in the Far East ...
- Over the 5 years, an impetus has been given to the process of strengthening the Pacific Fleet, whose forces ensure the security of Russia in the Asia-Pacific region. The newest nuclear submarine cruisers “Vladimir Monomakh” and “Alexander Nevsky” arrived in Kamchatka. The rescue forces of the Pacific Fleet have received the ocean rescue vessel “Igor Belousov”. The construction of the newest diesel-electric submarines of the 636.3 project for the Pacific Fleet has begun. The first two, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and Volkhov, are built on the stocks of the Admiralty Shipyards. Ship repair issues are being resolved in respect of multipurpose submarines of the Pacific Fleet and its surface ships. New generation corvettes are being built. This process is in development. I think that the main thing has been done - all production chains involved in military shipbuilding have been restored and developed in the Far East. The renewal of the Pacific Fleet is ongoing and will be activated, since the operational area of responsibility of the Pacific Fleet is huge and requires an appropriate composition of surface and submarine forces. Pacific Ocean effectively and efficiently solve tasks, participating in long-distance campaigns, exercises and other combat training activities.
As for the North. The last few years have allowed us to clearly coordinate on shipbuilding issues for the Arctic. Established in accordance with the decision of the Minister of Defense of the Russian Federation, the integrated strategic command "North" has become an effective tool that allows you to guarantee the security of Russia's interests in the Arctic zone. And now our task is to make this tool more efficient and self-sufficient.
A few examples. The first icebreaker for the Navy, Ilya Muromets, was built in 40 years. By the end of the year, it will be accepted as part of and will arrive at the place of deployment in the Northern Fleet. On November 1, after the completion of state tests, the icebreaker will arrive in St. Petersburg, where all its systems and equipment will be checked. Fundamentally new ice-class patrol ships of the type “Ivan Papanin” are being built. Soon the Northern Fleet will begin to accept frigates of the type “Admiral Gorshkov”. I would like to say to those who are ironic about the fact that the timing of admission to the head ships in the series is not always as fast as we would like. In this matter (admission to the head ships of new projects) we, as the main command of the Navy, are extremely, but reasonably picky. Industry understands this position. After all, the process of building the rest of the series depends on what the characteristics of the lead ship will be. Reliability and efficiency are paramount. Our position - the Navy needs ships with the combat capabilities of tomorrow. OPK understands us in this matter.
I will also say that the heavy nuclear missile cruiser “Peter the Great” will be repaired and modernized. There is a repair and modernization of the heavy nuclear missile cruiser “Admiral Nakhimov”, which is currently at the Sevmash enterprise in Severodvinsk. This is a complex task, and the main command of the Navy will fulfill it.
In November, the second small rocket ship of the 22800 Typhoon project will be launched at the Pella enterprise in St. Petersburg. The lead ship of this project "Hurricane" is already on the water at the pier of the plant, where the outfitting work is being done. These ships are equipped with precision weapons. The military-scientific support for the creation of the project of these ships was carried out by the Military Training and Research Center of the Navy.
According to the instructions of the Minister of Defense of the Russian Federation, in a short time we seriously rethought the entire system of testing new equipment and weapons. As a result, the issue of bench tests of ship weapons systems has been intensified and fleshed out. For this purpose, the corresponding polygon base will be used. This will allow already at the preliminary stage, before the introduction and integration of systems into the new ship, to fully test one or another weapon system or ship system, avoiding the process of further modifications directly on the ship.
For example, in the current year, a test site on Lake Ladoga, built by PJSC Severnaya Verf and Zaslon, JSC, began testing the newest electronic weapons and optical systems where it is possible to create real ship conditions for testing equipment, which will significantly reduce test dates of the ship and work out the modes of application in an environment of any complexity.
In the short term, the Navy began to be equipped with small-displacement ships, but with high-precision long-range weapons. It almost erased the differences or the line between ships near and far sea zone. Efficiency is proven, as you know, in practice. In the foreseeable future, the Navy will receive dozens of such ships from industry, gradually beginning to build ships of a larger displacement.
In the development of technical documentation and maintenance of ships and submarines, we turned to the use of 3D-modeling. This work on our order was carried out by the head organization of the Russian Navy for the development of regulatory, methodological, design and technological documentation for the repair of ships and ships - the 51 Central Design Engineering Institute for Ship Repair of the Russian Ministry of Defense. In just a few years to 2014 – 2015. Thanks to the conceptual decisions of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation in the field of military shipbuilding, we have reached the 30 – 40 indicator of new ships and support vessels that come to us annually from defense companies.
- Comrade Admiral, what can be said about the activities of the Navy in the development of the World Ocean and the study of its seas?
- In October, 2017 turned 190 years since the founding of the Hydrographic Service of the Navy of Russia. Many outstanding geographical discoveries of the Russian fleet, basic research of the World Ocean and Earth’s atmosphere, and achievements of Russian science in the field of oceanography and hydrometeorology are associated with the activities of military hydrographs.
Currently, ships of the Hydrographic Service of the Navy conduct comprehensive oceanographic research in the oceans and seas, contributing to the deep study of hydrophysical processes, bottom topography, hydrochemistry of waters, and to ensure the safety of navigation. If we analyze the last 5 years, during this period the Navy, and in particular the military hydrographs, have done a tremendous amount of work, proving the leadership of the state in the study of the World Ocean. I note that the beginning of large-scale activities of the Navy in the field of oceanographic and hydrographic research.
For example, in 2014 – 2015 for the first time after a long break (more than 30 years), ships of the Navy Hydrographic Service went to distant, little-studied areas of the World Ocean. Oceanographic research vessel "Admiral Vladimirsky" made a voyage around the world with a passage through the seas of the Arctic Ocean, the hydrographic vessel "Marshal Gelovani" crossed the Pacific Ocean. In 2016, the Antarctic expedition of the oceanographic research vessel Admiral Vladimirsky was successfully completed, the hydrographs of the Northern and Pacific fleets performed a significant amount of hydrographic work in the areas of Franz Josef Land, New Earth, New Siberian Islands, Wrangel Island, and also brilliantly solved the tasks in Japan and Yellow , South China Seas.
By the way, I will voice you such an important fact. Until the end of 2017, sea nautical charts will be reissued to areas of the Antarctic seas - the Commonwealth, Davis, Astronauts, Lazarev and Riiser-Larsen. This is the result of a lot of work being done by the Department of Navigation and Oceanography. The first two printed maps just yesterday were already shown to me by the Department of Navigation and Oceanography.
Let me clarify that within the framework of the international obligations of the Russian Federation and the tasks of creating and maintaining a national collection of marine navigation maps of the World Ocean, the Directorate of Navigation and Oceanography of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation publishes and maintains international standards and national marine navigation maps to the seas surrounding Antarctica. The new maps are based on the materials of research and hydrographic work performed in 2015 – 2016 during the Antarctic expedition of the oceanographic research vessel of the Russian Navy “Admiral Vladimirsky”.
In general, we can be proud that the Navy’s hydrographic service has created one of the world's largest collection of nautical charts and navigation manuals, which includes the 8400 Admiralty nautical chart numbers and 620 navigation manuals.
In 2017, on the instructions of the RF Minister of Defense, together with the headquarters of the RGO in St. Petersburg, we digitized all editions of the unique Atlas of the Oceans, which has no analogues in the world. The most recent work of our hydrographs is the newest Atlas of the Eastern part of the Gulf of Finland. Behind these publications there is a huge work connected with the whole complex of studies of water areas with the help of hydrographic vessels of the Navy.
This work does not stop. In 2017, the hydrographic vessels of the Black Sea and Baltic fleets performed tasks in the Gulf of Aden, the Mediterranean and the Red Sea. The other day I received a report from the Northern Fleet that the expedition of the hydrographic vessel of the Northern Fleet "Senezh" completed oceanographic research in the northern part of the Novaya Zemlya archipelago, discovering the island in the area of the Chaeva glacier. This and other facts of discovery suggest that there are still a lot of "white spots" in the oceans. But we have all the possibilities and potential to make these spots smaller.
In the 2019 year, the Russian Navy will include two newest hydrographic vessels of the 19910 project with increased navigation autonomy and enhanced ice class. One of the hydrographic vessels of the 19910 project is being built at the Vympel shipbuilding plant in Rybinsk, and the order of the commander-in-chief of the Navy is named Nikolay Skosyrev, and the second ship, Alexander Rogotsky, is located on the stocks of the Blagoveshchensk Shipbuilding Plant. All work is on schedule and under the control of the Main Command of the Navy. These vessels will meet the highest requirements for hydrographic vessels. They will have an increased autonomy of navigation and will be able to take on board an increased number of military hydrographs, which, of course, will allow to conduct hydrographic expeditions at a new level of efficiency. Hydrographic vessels of the 19910 project are intended for servicing navigation aids, delivering cargo to an unequipped coast, and performing research using a multibeam echo sounder. They will have a reinforced ice class, and will be able to work not only in the conditions of the deep sea, but also in shallow water.
Hydrographs again go to remote areas of the oceans. In recent years, the volume of complex research has doubled. In 2013 – 2017, new geographical features were discovered and studied in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation - 11 islands, 9 capes, 6 straits and 5 bays in the Novaya Zemlya archipelago and Franz Josef Land.
- Comrade Commander in Chief, the fleet is one of the most science-intensive types of the Armed Forces. How is the pulse of the scientific sphere of the Navy beating today, how does the High Command rely on basic science?
- By the decision of the Minister of Defense of the Russian Federation, branches of the Nakhimov Naval School were established in Murmansk, Sevastopol, Vladivostok. The training centers, structurally included in the 907-th Joint Naval Training Center, have proven their effectiveness. There we are preparing crews for new ships and submarines, marines for anti-terror groups that are on all of our ships in the far-sea zone. At present, the military education system of the Navy is a fairly well-functioning and effectively working mechanism that provides training in all levels of education, professional retraining and advanced training of military personnel in the system of continuing professional education.
Achievements in science and military education have become noticeable. Thus, the Military Training and Scientific Center of the Russian Navy "Naval Academy" won the annual competition "The best innovative projects in the field of science and higher education in St. Petersburg." The software product presented in the project allows you to automate the process of conducting inventive, rationalization and patent-licensing activities in a research-and-production, research or educational organization.
The project was submitted to the competition for the results of trial operation in units of the VUNTs of the Navy “Naval Academy” in 2016 – 2017. Previously, the program was presented at the XX Moscow International Salon "Archimedes-2017", where it was awarded a gold medal.
All naval high schools and, most importantly, the highest special officer classes of the Navy have been preserved. One can only imagine what could have happened with the training of the ship commanders and flagship specialists of the formations, if the relevant decisions had not been made by the RF Minister of Defense very timely, and the Navy Headquarters and the leadership of the Naval Academy did not do a lot of work. save this unique educational institution. The commander-in-chief of the Navy succeeded in creating a system of additional professional education for officers, unprecedented even in the scale of the USSR. VUNC Navy has created 200 training groups, in which more than 1000 fleet officers are trained annually. The research institutes that were part of the Naval Academy retained the entire list of research areas to justify the construction and development of all components of the Navy, the creation of promising models of weapons, military and special equipment. A distinctive feature of naval education at the present stage is full integration with the life of the fleets and the tasks that carry out the Northern, Pacific, Black Sea, Baltic fleets and the Caspian flotilla. The system of our education began to possess the flexibility and ability to respond quickly to their needs in training military personnel of all levels.
In 2017, we reached the full capacity of students and cadets. In recent years, the Navy is not experiencing any problems with the acquisition of the first courses in terms of either the number or the level of knowledge of applicants. For example, this year the average competition exceeded more than three people per place. This is an average figure, and in some specialties - more than 7 people into place. This is for the boys, and for the girls the competition was 2 times more - 12 people into place. Girls are trained at the faculty of automated control systems of the Naval Polytechnic Institute.
The Navy receives more and more science-intensive and technologically sophisticated marine equipment. This objectively required most of the midshipmen as the first officers' assistants to be staffed with specialists with specialized secondary vocational education. Today, such training is conducted in our 21 specialty. The task of the Minister of Defense of the Russian Federation to give mobility to military education has become the fundamental basis for the active introduction of new forms of training. Since 2016, students and cadets of the Naval Academy have been transferred to e-textbooks and teaching aids. On the basis of the uniform standard approved by the Minister of Defense of the Russian Federation, the faculty of the VUNC Navy developed and digitized over 2 thousands of textbooks and teaching aids in all academic disciplines, in almost all levels of education. Basic electronic textbooks on 40 have been introduced for disciplines common to all military universities.
The use of forces and troops of the Navy in the Syrian Arab Republic and the need for operational use of the experience gained in the educational activities of the Naval Academy became the basis for priority consideration for teaching posts of officers who took direct part in hostilities. This was done in accordance with the instructions of the Minister of Defense of the Russian Federation and is already showing its exceptional effectiveness.