Alas, for half a century russophobes of all stripes have argued that Stalin only brought harm to the Red Army in 1941 – 1945. He de beheaded the Red Army, he de concluded the Moscow Treaty of 1939, and thus unleashed the Second World War, he de ignored the warnings of intelligence officers about the time of the outbreak of the war.
In two years (1938–1939), the Red Army received 158 thousand commanders, political workers, and other military specialists. In the three pre-war years (1939–1941), 48 thousand people graduated from military schools, and 80 thousand graduated from advanced training courses. In the first half of 1941, another 70 thousand officers were sent from schools and academies to the troops. In total, as of January 1, 1941, the payroll of the commanding officers of the army and fleet amounted to 579 people. In addition, 581 thousand reserve officers were trained in four years (from 1937 to 1940).
Arrested in the same 1937 – 1938 years (according to different authors) were no more than 10 thousand commanders and political workers.
The very modest lack of command personnel (13% on 1 in January 1941) was not at all due to repression, but a threefold increase in the number and huge increase in the technical equipment of the Armed Forces in three years.
After lying to the thesis that in the 1937 year, "the very best were shot, and medals and rogues were appointed to replace them." Judging by such a formal criterion as the level of education, then from 1937 to 1941 a year the number of officers with higher and secondary military education not only did not decrease, but doubled from 164 to 385 thousand people. On posts from the battalion commander and above, the proportion of commanders without military education was only 0,1% on the eve of the war. Among the commanders of divisions, as of 1 in January, 1941, higher military education had 40%, secondary military education - 60%. Among the corps commanders respectively 52 and 48%.
Another question is what was the "efficiency" of the then military education, if the Military Academy. Frunze in 1920-x - the beginning of 1930-s received commanders with two classes of parochial school. Unfortunately, in these words there is no exaggeration. It was with such a “education” that the People’s Commissar of Defense Voroshilov rose to the very top of the military hierarchy, and Zhukov, who replaced him as Commissar Tymoshenko, Commander of the Kiev Military District, and Kirponos who succeeded him in that post. Against this background, the predecessor of Zhukov simply looks indecently intelligent at the post of Chief of the General Staff Meretskov - he had four classes of a rural school and an evening school for adults in Moscow.
"The genius strategist" Marshal Tukhachevsky graduated only from an infantry school and never studied anywhere else, but preferred to teach others. Marshal Blucher graduated from 1 (one!) Class parish school and nowhere else he studied.
As for the People's Commissar of Heavy Industry, Sergo Ordzhonikidze, and his deputy, Ivan Petrovich Pavlunovsky, they did not finish military schools either. Ordzhonikidze in 1901 – 1905 studied at the medical attendant school and, apparently, did not finish it. But Pavlunovsky was nowhere else, except in the parish school, did not study. But Pavlunovsky was also in charge of the mobilization department of the Red Army. These glorious dilettantes in 1920 – 1930's were decided by the fate of the Red Army.
I note that every civil war is a disaster for the army, whose leadership includes bawlers, "ideologues" and "partisans." Recall that in the 1789 – 1793 years, several thousand lawyers, grooms, artists, and the like got into the generals in France. They spoke at rallies and meetings, successfully killing their own citizens in Vendée, Brittany, Lyon and Marseille. But during the siege of the heavily fortified fortress of Toulon, three commanders changed in a month. And here, on a war council among the revolutionary generals, a puny 24-year-old captain with an olive face squeezed through. “Here is Toulon,” he jabbed his finger at Fort Egillet, 8 km from the city. "And the guy is not strong in geography," the generals laughed. Appreciated the guy only Commissioner Augustin Robespierre, brother of the all-powerful dictator.
Toulon fell in one day. And throughout Europe they marched large battalions led by a “small corporal”. But among his marshals there was not a single revolutionary general. Generals of the 1789 – 1793 model were executed, expelled from the country, sent to their estates grabbed during the revolutionary years, or, at best, held administrative positions in the military ministry. And the capitals of Europe were taken by lieutenants and private soldiers who went on the attack on Fort Egillet and on Arkolsky Bridge.
So it all happened again in Russia. The elimination of the “heroes of the Civil War” was not a disaster, but a blessing for the Red Army.
Stalin PRASHAL WAR
Khrushchev and others lied shamelessly that Stalin had to be awakened in order to report the start of the war. Well, then he de 7 days did not take anyone, locked himself in the country. But let's take a look at the logbook of individuals accepted by Stalin: June 21 1941 from 18.27 to 23.00 he accepted the 13 man. Beria was in Stalin's office from 19.05 to 23.00, Voroshilov from 19.05 to 23.00. Molotov never left Stalin’s office from 18.23 to 23.00.
Well, 22 Jun. Stalin from 5.45 (!) To 16.45 accepted 29 people, among whom almost the entire leadership of the USSR.
23 June in 3.20 (!) Entered Molotov and Voroshilov, after 5 minutes - Beria, after another 5 minutes - Tymoshenko. A total of 21 visitor was accepted. The latter was released in 1.25, that is, already 24 June.
Anyone can compare these data with the diary of Nicholas II in the first weeks of the First World War.
Stalin received several dozen reports of Soviet intelligence officers with the dates of the beginning of the war from 15 in May to July 1941, among them were June 22.
In terms of military strategy, the plan of Barbarossa was an adventure. During the nine weeks of the fighting, the Wehrmacht was supposed to reach the Arkhangelsk – Kazan line, and then along the Volga - to Astrakhan.
For a moment, let us assume that the Germans, if not for nine weeks, but by the end of the year, took this line. But even then it would not be the end of the war, but only its new phase. There, the Germans would have rested against the "Eastern Wall of Stalin" (my name), passing through Gorky, Kazan, Saratov, Stalingrad and Astrakhan. Already in September 1941, the construction of fortifications began there. By the end of 1941, 39, thousands of fire installations, 5,7, thousand kilometers of non-explosive anti-tank barriers, 15, thousand dugouts, were built there. The volume of earthworks amounted to 78 million cubic meters. m
I note that the construction of the URs (fortified areas) proceeded not only along the Volga, but also along the Sura River. Let me remind you that Sura flows from south to north parallel to the Volga at a distance of 300 – 450 km over 1200 km, and the UR on its banks was covered by the Volga cities of Cheboksary, Kazan, Ulyanovsk and Kuibyshev.
On the territory of the Chuvash Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, the Sura border ran along Sura along the line of the village of Zassursky of the Yadrinsky district - the village of Pandikovo of the Krasnochetaysky district - the village of Sursky Maidan of the Alatyrsky district - Alatyr to the border with the Ulyanovsk region. Tens of thousands of residents of the Chuvash ASSR took part in the construction of the building. Sura frontier was built in 45 days.
By the resolution of the State Defense Committee and the order of the People's Commissar of the Navy of 23 in October 1941, the training detachment of the ships of the Volga River was reorganized into the Volga flotilla. And on November 6 of the same year the composition, organization and basing of its forces were determined.
Planned to form six teams of river ships with inclusion in their composition 54 gunboats, 30 armored, 90-trawlers boats, patrol boats and 60 boats - marine hunters and 6 squadrons (36 aircraft), 6 separate battalions of marines, 6 divisions torpedo boats. These organizational arrangements were scheduled for completion by April 1 of 1942.
So in a fantastic way out of the Wehrmacht on the Volga from Gorky to Astrakhan, the Germans would have found a powerful line of defense.
Hitler had a perfectly reasonable alternative to ending England in 1941, to take control of the entire Mediterranean basin, including the Middle East and Turkey. By the way, the latter could have been done without Churchill's capitulation. The Luftwaffe and the kriegsmarine could have put England on the brink of collapse, interrupting the maritime message across the Atlantic. And in the spring of 1942, having much greater potential than in June of 1941, Hitler could start a war or negotiate with the USSR.
The main reason for the failures of the Red Army in the first months of the war was that the German army mobilized in August-September 1939, and even defeated the army of a dozen European states in one and a half years, faced an unmobilized Red Army not ready for war.
So why didn't Stalin start mobilizing in May 1941? He hoped for Hitler’s common sense, that he would start the war in the 1942 year, and in every way he tried to pull it off.
Recall that in 1914, Germany declared war on Russia precisely in response to the start of the mobilization of its army.
Therefore, Stalin led the hidden mobilization. In late May - early June, 1941 was partially mobilized under the guise of training reserve fees, which made it possible to summon over 800 thousands of people used to replenish divisions located mainly in the west of the country. From the middle of May, the advance of four armies (16, 19, 21 and 22) and one infantry corps to the line of the Dnieper River and Western Dvina began from the internal military districts. From the middle of June, a latent rearrangement of the formations of the most western border districts began: under the guise of entering the camps, more than half of the divisions that made up the reserve of these districts were set in motion. From 14 to 19, June, the commands of the western border districts were instructed to withdraw front-line controls to field command posts. From mid-June, leave has been canceled for personnel.
I found a curious, top-secret document from 16 June 1941 about the transfer of Degtyarev machineguns to western Urs: Degtyarev machineguns due to an emergency supply of internal districts, 2700 thousand Degtyaryov machine guns and Xm Max from the stocks of the Far Eastern front. The latter have been ordered to return to the Far East in the fourth quarter of 3 of the year - no one will fight with Russia in the winter.
It seems that many commanders of Western districts ignored the instructions of the Center. For example, an order was not executed to disguise airfields, disperse airplanes, and take out families of commanders for a summer holiday.
Even in 1940, Stalin literally became furious: “Our air camps in western districts resemble gypsy camps!” Indeed, in the western regions of Ukraine and Belarus, where there were relatively good living conditions, wives, children, mother-in-law, aunt, etc. rushed in crowds. The rhetorical question: did the children run to the air bases of the Luftwaffe in the General Government?
Why did orders “not to give in to provocations” go from Moscow to the border districts?
What could be a provocation - synchronous with a massive attack of the Wehrmacht or spaced in time for several hours or days? To be afraid of synchronous provocation is complete idiocy. Then there is the option of provocation, which gives Germany a reason to declare himself a victim of aggression and start a war. However, Hitler had long ago made lightning attacks without any provocations - Norway, Holland, Belgium, Yugoslavia, Greece, etc.
So why did the Führer now have to deprive himself of the surprise factor for at least a few hours and allow the USSR to bring the troops into full combat readiness, start general mobilization, etc.? Surely and without provocation, Goebbels could not explain to the Germans the reasons for the attack on the USSR?
So, maybe, a handful of German officers without a leadership sanction would have decided to provoke, in order to start a war with the USSR? Alas, it is excluded. By June 22 a general conspiracy against Hitler had already taken shape, but his goal was not to expand the war, but to eliminate the Fuhrer and make peace.
WAR WITH POLAND ... NOT END
Few people know that by June 22 the USSR was already in a state of war with ... Poland. When 17 September 1939, part of the Red Army crossed the Polish border, the Polish government already dragged into Romania and was more puzzled in finding a new permanent residence. Declaring war on the USSR to Polish ministers was not enough, the main thing is to get more zolotishka.
But 18 December 1939, the emigrant government of Vladislav Sikorsky, formed by the Anglo-French in October 1939, in France, with full observance of all formalities, declared the USSR a war. And, I will tell you a secret, since peace with Poland is not concluded, formally Russia is still in a state of war with Poland, which is now considered the successor of the emigre government of Sikorsky.
And in early 1941, the Soviet government received information from the NKVD that the Craiova Army was preparing a major provocation on the Soviet-German border. Imagine a breakthrough of hundreds, or even thousands of armed people, dressed in German uniforms, across our border. The battle would begin using artillery and aviation. Our planes would begin to shoot down German planes heading to the conflict area to clarify the situation, and, as they say, "let's go." By the way, Polish politicians and generals openly blurted out their dreams in 1940-1941 to set off Germany and the USSR so that “only tails remain from both.”
It was this provocation that the Soviet leadership feared in June 1941. Well, if a liberal waists away, this is supposedly frivolous, so let him take an interest in Operation Storm, launched by the London government in 1944. According to him, the units of the Home Army had to occupy large cities during the retreat of the Germans, creating civil administrations there subordinated to London, and to meet the Soviet troops in the role of masters, that is, the legitimate authorities. To implement the plan, it was planned to attract up to 80 thousands of members of the Home Army, who were mainly in the eastern and southeastern provinces of Poland and in the territories of Lithuania, Western Ukraine and Western Belarus.
An attempt by the Home Army to seize Vilnius and Lviv turned into a farce, and the Warsaw Uprising a tragedy. Needless to say, in the event of the success of Operation Storm in the center of Europe, there would be an area controlled by the Home Army, which could lead to the development of the Second World War into a third. Actually, in the emigrant government they didn’t hide that the operation “Storm” was aimed not at defeating Germany, but creating a conflict between the USSR and the Western allies.
ALL WINE PERSONAL DIFFERENCE
On the night of June 22, complacency reigned in dozens of units and garrisons at the border. Someone managed to locate the training center for the artillery regiments of the High Command in 8 km from the border. The authorities liked the comfortable houses of Polish officers in their military town. 22 June 400 152-mm ML-20 22 mm new 400 guns were delivered to the training center, but the personnel never arrived. As a result, the Germans in the morning XNUMX June captured XNUMX gun howitzers with guns and later they were heavily used on both the Eastern Front and the batteries of the Atlantic Wall.
Did Stalin make 21 on June 1941 of the year go to the theater of the commander of the Western Front, Dmitry Grigorievich Pavlov, and the commander of the Black Sea Fleet, Admiral Philip Sergeevich Oktyabrsky, to a concert at the Theater. Lunacharsky, and then arrange a party with friends?
From the crying disgrace that occurred in Sevastopol on the night of June 22, Admiral Oktyabrsky and the Navy Commissar of the Navy Nikolai Gerasimovich Kuznetsov later made a feat. So, Kuznetsov, in his memoirs, claims that he de gave an order to open fire on German aircraft in Sevastopol, contrary to Stalin’s orders, and he took great risks.
And what really happened in Sevastopol?
At about three o'clock in the morning, the duty officer at the headquarters of the Black Sea Fleet was informed that the posts SNIS and VNOS, equipped with sound traps, could hear the noise of aircraft engines.
Shooting was open only when the aircraft were over the Sevastopol Bay. In 3.48 on Primorsky Boulevard, the first bomb exploded, after 4 minutes on the shore opposite the Monument to the submerged ships another bomb exploded. But this is half the trouble. At the headquarters of the fleet, the duty officer on duty from the liaison posts, from batteries and ships was informed that dropping parachutists were visible in the searchlight beams.
Panic began in the city. Alarmed sailors and NKVD officials rushed to search for paratroopers. And not only in Sevastopol, but throughout the Crimea. In the city all night long there was indiscriminate shooting.
The next morning it turned out that there were no parachutists, and on the streets only among civilians were picked up by 30 people killed and more than 200 wounded. It is clear that this is not a matter of two bombs.
In fact, five Non-111 aircraft from the 6 squadron of the KG4 squadron based at the airfield of Tsilistria in Romania made a raid. They dropped 8 magnetic parachute bombs, two of which hit the land, and self-destructors worked. According to Soviet data, the anti-aircraft gunners shot down two Henkel, but in fact all the German aircraft returned to their own airfield.
What does the fleet commander do? He orders to put 4 thousand anchor mines on the approaches to Sevastopol. After that, from the Caucasus, the ships could only walk along the narrow channel along the main base of the fleet, accompanied by minesweepers with lowered trawls, that is, the 2 – 4 node. On the mines of October 12 exploded their ships and not a single enemy. And in this Stalin is to blame?
So, the secretary general had no mistakes? Yes, dozens! Here are just two examples. Stalin by June 1941, unfortunately, still remained an internationalist Leninist. He was confident that the divisions formed from the “zapadents” in Ukraine, the Balts and the Crimean Tatars, would fight to the death against the Germans. As a result, about 20 such divisions fled, not taking the fight, and most of the personnel went to serve in the Wehrmacht and the SS.
Did Stalin have an alternative? Yes, I would send them all, with the exception of the Communists and Jews, to the rear railway and construction units, labor armies, etc. You look, they and benefit would bring the USSR.
During the three years of the war, Stalin, having received several blows from his motherstories, changed the philosophy of the internationalist-Leninist to the philosophy of the Russian monarchs, and began the forced relocation of minorities, the overwhelming majority of whose men fought on Hitler's side.
On this occasion, the liberals are hysterical: “He could have descended his sovereign anger on entire nations!” Let’s pay attention — it is sovereign! All Russian monarchs, beginning with Ivan III and until the end of the reign of Nicholas II, carried out mass migrations on ethnic, religious and other grounds.
And here is another mistake of Stalin. 19 August 1945, the 1 Far Eastern Front and the Pacific Fleet were ordered to seize the island of Hokkaido. Assigned to the landing 87 th infantry corps began loading on the ships. And then Stalin ordered to cancel the landing on Hokkaido. A number of historians claim that after the war, Stalin sadly spoke out to the commander-in-chief of the Soviet troops in the Far East, Marshal Vasilevsky: "They could have shown independence too."
SO WHO WON WON THE WAR
Denouncing Stalin, Khrushchev claimed that the party was leading the country during the war. Then nobody dared to object to him. But the CPSU collapsed, and in 50 years no “secret party members” who led the war were discovered.
A number of truth-lovers like Svanidze argued that in 1941 – 1945 no one ruled the country and the Red Army at all - “the people won the war against Stalin”.
The current leadership can not clearly explain to the people who won the war. But, judging by the fact that monuments to Stalin’s marshals and generals are massively built in the Russian Federation and their cult is actually created, and a ban is imposed on the monuments to Stalin, Volgograd has not been renamed, it turns out that Stalin’s marshals won the war.
Alas, the "Marshal of Victory" G.K. Zhukov did not participate at all in a number of major battles in the Second World War, for example, in the Battle of Stalingrad. Instead, he failed Operation Mars. Zhukov did not participate in the liberation of Leningrad from the German half of the besieged ring in January 1944 of the year and the Finnish half in June of 1944 of the year, in the defeat of Japan in August of 1945 of the year, etc.
None of the marshals participated in the leadership of the partisan movement, in the deployment of weapons production volumes unprecedented in history, in the successful evacuation of military and civilian enterprises in 1941 – 1942.
Back in 1830, General Karl von Clausewitz formulated the axiom: "War is the continuation of politics by other means." That is, a war can be considered fully successful only in the case of a profitable peace. Otherwise, the war turns into a bloody fight.
Alas, in the last three centuries of the war, only three rulers ended up in a successful world: Peter I, Catherine II and Stalin. The marshals did not participate in the diplomatic war. A new world order was created by Stalin, Malenkov and Lavrenty Beria. A little bit more Sergo Beria helped - put a “wiretap” in Tehran and Yalta.
Marshals did not deal with the restoration of the USSR economy in 1946 – 1949. Moreover, Stalin actually removed them from work on nuclear and rocket weapons. The marshals were in pleasant ignorance until they were reported: the Berkut air defense system was created, the atomic bomb was tested, work began on the first nuclear submarine, etc.
Did Stalin and Hitler unleash a war?
Now dozens of politicians and journalists claim that Stalin is the same criminal as Hitler, and together they started the Second World War. Suppose they are right. What follows from this?
It is necessary to destroy all the monuments of Stalin's commanders. After all, in Germany, no one will allow to erect monuments to Göring, Dönitz, Kesselring, Keitel, etc.
All international treaties concluded with 1939 to 1953 year, including the border agreement, should be declared void and canceled. Part of Karelia, part of the Leningrad Region, the entire Kaliningrad Region, half of Sakhalin, the Kuriles, etc. we must give to our dear neighbors.
Russia must start paying reparations to at least a dozen countries. How much? Well, just like Germany. After all, Stalin and Hitler together unleashed a war.
All citizens of the Russian Federation should unanimously repent for Stalin and their ancestors. Imagine an Evenk or Dolgan, who was obliged to repent for his ancestors, who from 1917 to 1953 year grazed deer peacefully on Taimyr.
I note that collective repentance does not conform to the canons of Christianity, and Orthodoxy in particular. Since the 1st century AD, repentance was only personified, that is, each person can repent only for himself and only for his sins.
Why does the Russian people and other peoples of Russia impose collective repentance? To instill in us all the inferiority complex.
As we see, Stalin's defamation and calls for collective repentance are aimed at the complete collapse of Russia.
All attempts by some politicians to find a middle ground between Russophobia and patriotism look very much like schizophrenia. Let me remind you that schizophrenia is derived from the Greek words "cleavage of reason", when a person thinks in two or more non-intersecting planes.
For example, Stalin is a villain, unworthy of monuments, and all his generals and marshals who unquestioningly carried out all his orders are heroes worthy of admiration. And it is necessary to arrange a tantrum, if their monuments are destroyed in Poland, in Ukraine and in other countries.
The Moscow Treaty of 1939 of the Year - the criminal Molotov – Ribbentrop Pact. But the borders established by this agreement are holy and inviolable.
Tens of millions of rubles are spent annually on the November 7 parade in honor of the 1941 parade of the year, but the Mausoleum, on which Stalin stood, carefully disguises itself from the people.
The rhetorical question: is there a future for the people if they finally implant such a schizophrenia? How to get rid of schizophrenia? Take a sample of the attitude towards history in the United States and Western Europe.
May I be given at least one example when Soviet aviation in 1941 – 1945 specifically targeted the civilian population. This was not and could not be. But the US and British aircraft in 1939 – 1945 destroyed over 6 a million civilians, specifically bombarding cities where there were no military units and military factories, such as Dresden, Hiroshima and hundreds of others.
In the twentieth century, only during local (colonial) wars, US, British and French troops killed up to 20 million women and children.
We can learn about all this by visiting the open archives of the West and studying narrowly specialized, but open literature. There no one hides the war crimes, the horrors of the colonial penal prisons, etc. But there is not and cannot be any mention of this in the mass media.
We have over the years 25 central television and other media daily defame Stalin. Of the other rulers of Russia goes only to Ivan the Terrible. And we really gradually have a feeling of inferiority and guilt for our ancestors.
And what if tomorrow someone will also begin, and strictly documented, to prove that Ivan III, Vasily III and Peter I were not less bloody tyrants than Ivan IV and Stalin? So far, our population is not aware that during the reign of Alexei Mikhailovich, Peter I and Anna Ioannovna in Russia, over a million people were murdered by the Old Believers, Muslims and other non-believers. For comparison, I will say that under the “personality cult” there was not a single sentence that spoke of religion. Rightly or unjustly, but they were tried exclusively for anti-Soviet agitation, conspiracies to violently overthrow the government, terrorism, false denunciations, etc.
In order to survive, Russia needs to stop engaging in self-flagellation and accept national history as it is. And we will be comforted by the fact that “over the hill” everything was much worse - that in the west, in the east.