Military Review

Hitler's aircraft carrier

Hitler's aircraft carrier

Messages about the start of construction of two ABs in Germany, which first appeared in the naval press in 1936, immediately provoked conflicting assessments among specialists. An analysis of the published characteristics of the first German AB under construction made it possible to conclude that the current German doctrine fleet provides for the possibility of the ship participating in an artillery battle with the enemy, and not only in a situation where artillery is used for self-defense. The armament of the ship with sixteen 150-mm guns was one of the obvious features of the German AB, surpassing the light cruisers of the German fleet in artillery power. In the second half of the 1930s. such an emphasis caused supporters of the American AB concept, which provided maximum attention to its aviation armament and the preservation of only medium-caliber anti-aircraft artillery exclusively for self-defense, a wary surprise. They would be even more surprised to learn that initially the Germans wanted to equip their AB with artillery of a heavy cruiser - eight 203 mm guns. Note that the Americans themselves in the early 1920s. they did exactly the same with their Lexington-class aircraft carriers, but these ships, as you know, were being built in new quality from battlecruisers, so they became an exception to the rule. However, the artillery armament of the German AB, as well as other solid fuel cells of the ship, which were strictly kept secret, were unknown in the West.

The beginning of the AB design work in Germany relates to the 1933 / 1934 winter, when tactical and technical requirements (TTT) were formulated: displacement around 20 kt, full speed of the 33 node, 50-60 aircraft, eight 203-mm guns, powerful anti-aircraft weapons, protection - by standards for light cruisers.

Draft design of the aircraft carrier "Graf Zeppelin"

Sketch design under the direction of the German naval engineer W. Hedeler’s shipbuilding engineer was carried out during 1934. In the course of the work, it was decided to replace heavy 203-mm guns with 150-mm, anti-aircraft artillery in the amount of ten 105 mm guns and large-caliber machine guns, and increase the speed to 35 nodes. The standard displacement of the AB was 23 thousand tons. Apparently, already then the project laid the basic solutions that distinguish it from foreign counterparts. These include the "cruising" armored deck with bevels, the constructive inclusion of the flight deck in ensuring the overall strength of the hull and the lengthy vertical booking of thickness along the hull. The choice of a two-tier hangar scheme was determined by the number of aircraft placed in them.

In the fall of 1935 in the fall with Japanese Akagi and the study of the technical documentation received from the Japanese on the aircraft’s aircraft equipment resulted in the appearance of a third - medium level airplane lift in German AB.

The general architectural layout of the German AB produced the impression of a fairly traditional one: the full flight deck with bow and stern cantilever overhangs, the superstructure displaced to the starboard side - the “island” with the main boilers passing through it, the open layout of the tank and the utah occupying most of the surface of the hull two-tier hangar.

The welded hull of the ship with a length of KVL 250,0 m and a side height of 22,2 m was subdivided by main transverse bulkheads reaching the hangar deck, into 19 waterproof compartments.

A typical protection scheme for German ships was by arranging an armor deck with thickened bevels (40 and 60 mm, respectively) and a narrow armor belt with a maximum thickness of 100 mm located on the KVL in the region of the MKO, was also applied to the AB. The thickness of the upper (flight) deck was 20 mm. Having secured the protection of a mechanical installation with armor, the German designers seemed to have left a high freeboard, behind which was a vulnerable hangar, practically unprotected. However, in part from the penetration of enemy projectiles, the upper hangar should have been protected by 30-mm caliber artillery units located on the side of the half-consonants in armored 150-mm armor casemates, and partially 30 mm-thick longitudinal bulkheads that limited the hangar from the sides.

The most interesting in the project of German AV was actually "aviation"part. Launch of deck vehicles, unlike foreign practice, was supposed to be carried out exclusively with the help of two polyspast-pneumatic catapults located on the bow of the flight deck. K-252 catapults with a sliding truss of the Deutsche Werke factory design provided four starts without recharging air cylinders .

The flight deck, covered with a deck of 50-mm tick bars, had a length of 241,0 m, a width of 30,7 m and communicated with the upper and lower hangars by three electric elevators, which were located on the same axis, somewhat displaced from the center plane to the left side. The bow and middle elevators, which had two octagonal cargo platforms, could simultaneously move aircraft from both hangars, and aft - only from the top. In the fore and aft parts of the flight deck there were lifts ABP, two more elevators were intended for the descent into the hangar (for repair) of aircraft engines and launch carriages. From the cellars to the lower hangar, the ABP was supplied by special lifts, and to the upper ones - only by air lifts.

A feature of the take-off operations was the use of launch carts, on which the aircraft were installed in the hangar and with them were fed to the flight deck. From the elevator platform on rails a trolley with an aircraft with the force of a propeller or with the help of deck spiers was moved to one of the catapults. After the aircraft was launched, the trolley descended on the hangar deck by means of special inclined chain conveyors located in front of the nose section of the flight deck and was transported to the hangar. The elevator was supposed to be used in case of failure of inclined conveyors.

Kiel, January 1941 of the year. Photo taken by a British reconnaissance aircraft.

At the end of the summer of 1939, a small batch of Ju-87C-0 was delivered to the 4 squadron of the 186 th aircraft carrier group, which was formed in December 1938 in Kiel. The aircraft received attachments for launching from a catapult and a landing hook, dropped landing gear for emergency landing on the water and manually folding wing consoles.

To protect airplanes on the deck from side wind, special windshield bombs were designed, raised to an upright position by electric motors by means of a simple screw drive in a few seconds. The landing of the aircraft was to be ensured by four aero-finisher, the cables of which were guided by a system of blocks to the brake winches installed on the intermediate deck. For landing of aircraft in low visibility conditions, the flight deck was equipped with electric curtains, which indicated the dimensions of the runway, flush with the wooden flooring.

The internal structure of the hangar, the design of the petrol and oil systems, the fire fighting equipment of the German ship differed in a number of noteworthy original technical solutions, among which are the high-speed fireproof curtains, the starting carriage transport system and aircraft engines, fuel and oil filling columns in the hangar.

The total capacity of aviation gas tanks, located in two storages in the forward part of the ship hull, exceeded 330 thousand liters. Aircraft refueling with fuel and oil (as well as the suspension of ammunition) should have been carried out in hangars equipped with filling stations. The same posts were envisaged on the flight deck.

The ship's GEM, in accordance with the applicable standards of the German fleet, was chosen without special hesitation by a steam turbine, with increased steam parameters. Required for the development of the full stroke 200 thousand hp distributed into four shafts, which were supposed to drive the GTZA with a full design capacity of 50 thousand hp. Each unit was supplied with steam (75 atm., 450 degrees. C) four La Mont boilers with a capacity of 50 t / h. The supply of boiler fuel in the 6500 t was sufficient to provide a cruising range of six thousand miles with an economic course. An interesting technical feature of the German AB was the use of two Voit-Schnaider units — wing-type propulders — to increase the controllability of a ship with a large sail at low speeds.

The order for AB "A" standard displacement 24114 t was issued to Deutsche Werke Kiel 16 in November 1935. The bookmark AB under the 252 serial number on the stocks 1 took place on December 28 1936. Two years later, 8 in December 1938, a solemn ceremony took place the launching of the ship into the water attended by the top leaders of the Reich - Hitler and Goering. On that day, AB was named - he christened it in honor of his famous father, Countess Hella von Brandenstein-Zeppelin (Hella von Brandenstein-Zeppelin).

One of the main difficulties on the path of the first German AB was the creation of deck aircraft — Reich Aviation Minister G. Gering, seeing in Adam Reder’s insistent desire to get deck aircraft (and “at the same time” - and subjugate naval aviation to the fleet) did not manifest the threat of its monopoly there is no interest. His winged expression was the famous: "Everything that flies is mine!" However, in 1938-1939's. passed flight tests fighter-biplane "Arado-197", which was a development of "Arado-68". The “Me-109T” was finally approved for the role of a deck fighter, and the “Junkers-87C” was planned as a deck attack aircraft. Five Junkers-87С machines equipped with folding planes were manufactured and tested at the Luftwaffe Flight Test Institute in Travemünde. The Germans planned to use the Fieseler 167 and Arado 195, built in prototypes, as multipurpose aircraft (reconnaissance aircraft and light torpedo bombers).

German soldiers posing in front of the colossus. Kiel, September 1941 of the year

The crew of the Aviation Group AB, which changed during the construction process for March on 1941, was supposed to include twenty multi-purpose Fi 167 planes, ten Me 109T (Bf 109Т) fighters and thirteen Ju 87C dive bombers. The air group was located as follows: 18 aircraft - in the lower hangar, the remaining 25 - in the top.

Launched "Graf Zeppelin" at the beginning of the war has already reached 85% readiness. The formation of the crew and air group V / 41.

At the end of April, 1940, at the suggestion of the Commander-in-Chief of the Navy, the work on the construction of the AV is stopped, 150-mm guns are dismantled and sent to Norway - to strengthen the coastal defense. 6 July 1940. The tugs transferred the “Graf Zeppelin” to Gotenhafen, where it was used as a floating warehouse. Before the attack on the USSR, fearing possible raids by Soviet aviation, the caring owners towed it to Stettin - the Graf Zeppelin ш 21 of June was moored there. After being convinced that their fears were unfounded, in November the Germans transferred the ship back to Gotenhafen, where it stood until spring 1942.

16 April 1942 Fuhrer decides to resume completion of the "Graf Zeppelin".

Due to the danger of the air raids, the transfer of the ship to Kiel was postponed, during which time three twin 37-mm and two quad 40-mm anti-aircraft guns, anti-aircraft searchlights, were installed on it. On November 30 alone, 1942 three tugs brought the Graf Zeppelin into the sea, and on December 5 escorted three minesweepers and six Graf Zeppelin escort boats safely to Kiel, where he was immediately put into the 40000-ton floating dock and began work. However, on January 30, 1943 was followed by a new order from Hitler - to stop completing the construction ... Admiral Raeder commented on this event, calling the consequences of the Fuhrer’s decision "the cheapest in stories the victory of England at sea. "21 April 1943." Graf Zeppelin "was transferred to Stettin, where he stood until the end of the war.

By April 1945, the state of AV was characterized by the following: there was no artillery equipment on it, the installation of instruments and the equipment of fire control posts was not completed; the electrical equipment is only partially assembled, as well as special aviation technical devices.

At the time of the attack on the city of Soviet troops "Graf Zeppelin" was in the channel of the river Monder Oder. In 18.00 24 on April 1945, the senior naval commander of Stettin, captain Zurzee V. Kahler (W. Kahler), gave radio orders to a special team stationed on AV. The explosions of the charges laid very intelligently led to the complete uselessness of the use and restoration of the main turbines, electric generators, aircraft lifters. By the time Soviet troops entered the city, small water holes penetrated into the internal compartments of the AB hull through small holes, cracks and leaks in the outer skin, and the ship was therefore in a submerged state.

The aircraft carrier Graf Zeppelin (Graf Zeppelin) in Stettin, June 1945

In the summer, the ship was raised by forces of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet Emergency Rescue Service; on August X, the unfinished and disfigured German Air Force was recruited by the German Navy as a combat trophy.

Shortly after the signing of the act of capitulation of Germany in the Second World War, the Potsdam Conference of the three victor Powers was held. Among the decisions of this conference was this: "Suitable for use surface ships of the German fleet, including ships that can be brought to expiration within the prescribed time, along with thirty submarines will be equally divided between the three Powers. The rest of the German fleet will be destroyed." 23 January 1946, the newspaper Pravda published an Anglo-Soviet-American communique, announcing the appointment of a tripartite naval commission.

The USSR got as a result of the drawing “Graf Zeppelin” got into the group “C” - flooded, damaged or unfinished ships, which had to be repaired by means of German shipyards for more than half a year to be alerted.

The tripartite commission developed recommendations, in accordance with which all warships of the “C” group were to be destroyed in a timely manner by flooding at great depth or disassembling into metal.

In 1947, the government issued Resolution No. 601 "On the destruction of former German ships of category" C "in 1947. At the suggestion of the new command of the USSR Navy, it was decided to use these ships for conducting experiments on the combat survivability (the same was done with trophy ships Allies, the most valuable practical experience was gained by the Americans as a result of the bombing of the German battleship “Ostfriesland” even after the end of the First World War).

After raising. Stettin, 1947 year

The “Graf Zeppelin” liquidation was handed over to the TsNIIVK with the maximum military-scientific and practical effect. For this purpose, a special commission was created under the chairmanship of Vice-Admiral Yu.F. dynamic "(actual shooting and bombing) options. It was assumed that the AB would first undermine the pre-laid bombs and artillery shells of various calibers, then it would be bombed from airplanes, shot from the guns of the main caliber of cruisers and, finally, complete the work of "dashing" torpedo attacks of surface ships. It was also planned to undermine mines at various depths and distances. In the intervals between the variants of this scenario, groups of military scientists were to measure, calculate, and test elements of the ship with minimal actions to restore its survivability (for example, starting pumps for pumping water).

The implementation of the test program was assigned to the 4 of the Navy.

By the time this decision was made, Graf Zeppelin was far from being in the best condition, even from unfinished construction. By 17 August 1945, the ship was surveyed in the naval base Stettin by the 77 squadron of the ACC Red Banner Baltic Fleet. "Count Zeppelin" lay (or rather, "stood") on the ground without trim with a slight roll on the starboard. All turbines, auxiliary boilers and electric generators of the ship were blown up by the Germans, and the watertight bulkheads were destroyed at the explosion sites. There were underwater holes with 0,8 dimensions on 0,3 m and a crack of about 0,3 m length. The propellers were removed from the shafts and placed on the flight deck (to reduce the electrochemical corrosion of the hull). The aircraft lifters were also blown up, and there was a large dent in the flight deck area with a 0,2 m deflection. Other, less extensive dents from projectiles hit the flight deck flooring.

The rise of "Graf Zeppelin" was carried out by simply pumping out water with motor-pumps with preliminary sealing of the underwater hole and the crack. Surface holes in the hull and faulty windows illuminated, however, the damaged watertightness of the decks was not possible to be restored due to the large amount of work and lack of time.

After that, the "Count Zeppelin" was towed to Swinemünde. When the ship arrived at a given square on the night of 15 on 16 August, it turned out that the station anchor because of the break of the anchor chain (which turned out to be a defective link) would not succeed, and the Admiralty light anchor (small stop anchor) would only limit AB drift to an insignificant degree. This circumstance, as we shall see, had a decisive influence on the entire test program.

On the morning of August 16, tests began on the surface effects of ammunition. First, the FAB-1000 (in the chimney), three FAB-100 and two 180-mm artillery shells under the flight deck were simultaneously undermined (FAB is a high-explosive aerial bomb with a corresponding weight-caliber index in kg). During the second blast, another FAB-1000 was blown up on the flight deck. The third series of simultaneous explosions was the simultaneous detonation of a FAB-250 and two 180-mm projectiles.

After the first series of explosions, an aerial bombardment of AV was carried out by aircraft. For this task, the 39 crews of the 12 Guards Aviation Regiment, the 8 th Torpedo Division and the 25 of the Pe-2 airplanes — all of the operational aircraft of the regiment — were assigned. Two nines of planes bombed at the signal of the lead in the link, and part of the Pe-2 attacked the target individually. The strikes were provided by two Catalina-type planes, one of which, while above the target, brought a strike force at it, and the second worked in the search and rescue variant. In addition, the shock groups were also controlled from Volynets, and on the deck of the “victim” a white 20 cross was painted on 20 m with a width of five meters.

The first attacking group struck from a height of 2070 m and dropped 28 aerial bombs, the second - approximately the same height, dropped 36, and the third (individual bombing) “unloaded” 24 with bombs. Three aircraft were forced to drop bombs at sea in an emergency. The result of the bombing of the almost immobile, defenseless and not at all small ship turned out to be “impressive”: out of a hundred bombs only six hit the target, and only five hits were found in the deck. The pilots insisted on eleven, believing that part of the bombs had fallen into places already destroyed by previous explosions. One way or another, the bombardment of the AB did not give anything in terms of survivability: the P-50 bombs turned out to be too thin and did not cause significant damage, except for dents in the 5-10 depth deck. However, one of the bombs made a hole in a bule with a diameter around 1 m. For combat training, "Stalin's falcons" attack "Graf Zeppelin" were too polygon and, apparently, a little instructive: air defense, of course, was not carried out, the guidance aircraft freely "walking around" the target, the height of the bombing corresponded to the area of Foot anti-aircraft fire.

At this point, the “static” surface test program was completed, preparations for conducting tests under the influence of underwater weapons. However, 17 August began a gradual deterioration of the weather - increasing excitement to three points (wind - 5-6 points) - and AB began to drift into the shallow water area. There was a real threat that it could not be flooded at a decent depth (at the beginning of the test, such was 113 m, and at the end of the first stage - already 82 m). Vice-Admiral Yu.F.Rall made an independent decision to stop the tests and quickly finish off the AV with torpedoes of surface ships. Therefore, torpedo boats (such as “Elko”) TK-248, TK-425 and TK-503, as well as the destroyers Glorious, Strict and Slender were called from Baltiysk. The first to AB profit boats. The TK-248 attack was unsuccessful - the torpedo, without exploding, passed under the keel of the AB. After 15 minutes TK-503 hit a torpedo in the starboard. The explosion destroyed the structure of the boule, but the armor belt located behind it was intact. An hour later, the destroyers approached, the “Glorious” torpedo shot back into the starboard again. "Count Zeppelin" began to slowly fall on the starboard side, after a quarter of an hour the roll reached 25 hail. At the same time, the trim on the nose increased. Eight minutes later (after 23 minutes after the explosion of the second torpedo) “Graf Zeppelin” with a roll of 90 hail. and trim on the nose 25 hail. disappeared from the sea.
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  1. Denis
    Denis 19 August 2013 08: 26 New
    eight 203-mm guns, powerful anti-aircraft weapons, protection - according to the standards for light cruisers
    Dead end option, ruined passion for gigantism
    AB should be only AB. It can even be seen that the hull is larger than the flight deck.
    How much could they produce? And would babysit as with Tirpitz
    And the Americans made their ABs almost tinny and with only one purpose — a floating airdrome. Then, of course, it took more time for it than for transporting the Liberty tina
    In total, 18 shipyards were employed in the construction of Liberty (not counting the numerous subcontractors), and in 1943 the output averaged 3 vessels per day
    but not much
    And losing them wasn’t so hard
    1. Nick_1972
      Nick_1972 19 August 2013 10: 40 New
      On the basis of serial civilian vessels (tankers and transports), the Americans built only escort aircraft carriers. Even light aircraft carriers were built on the basis of Cleveland LC. The British went even further; they placed armored flight decks on their aircraft carriers. True, the air group has become smaller smaller, but slowly they fixed it. This is me on the issue of aircraft carrier rigidity.
      And as for the easy attitude to the losses of an aircraft carrier: 1. These are always dead people, no matter whose side; 2. One of the terrible losses of the Japanese fleet in the battle at Midway Atoll was the loss of not only aircraft carriers, but also the entire elite of carrier-based aviation. And to make an expert out of a naval aviation school cadet probably longer than to build an aircraft carrier. Which, incidentally, partly confirms the absence of air groups by the end of the war on the remaining Japanese aircraft carriers.
      1. Denis
        Denis 19 August 2013 14: 39 New
        Quote: Nick_1972
        This is me on the issue of aircraft carrier rigidity.
        And what about the easy attitude to the loss of an aircraft carrier
        They understand that they played with images
        Meant them relative simplicity, and therefore the high speed of construction
        I realized that I’m an x-th writer, but not bloodthirsty. It’s just that the loss of some escort aircraft carriers is almost comparable in tonnage to the losses of the entire Nazi fleet
    2. Per se.
      Per se. 19 August 2013 12: 20 New
      Quote: Denis
      Dead end option, ruined passion for gigantism
      Why is it dead end? The Americans on the “Saratoga” and “Lexington” (by the way, converted from unfinished linear cruisers) towers with 203 mm guns stood before the 1942 year, after which they were replaced with universal guns. As for the length of the flight deck, in many ABs it was shorter in the bow or stern of the ship's hull. The Yankees can only be considered “tinny” except for escort and escort aircraft carriers converted from civilian vessels; all other ships had a solid reservation.
    3. Dmitriy69
      Dmitriy69 19 August 2013 12: 52 New
      Quote: Denis
      The dead end option, ruined by a passion for gigantism, AB should only be AV. It can even be seen that the hull is larger than the flight deck. Could they produce a lot? And would babysit as with Tirpitz

      The ship was clearly planned to be used as a raider with or without a limited escort, and under this concept it is "imprisoned" in my opinion optimally.
      His appearance on the Atlantic communications would cause the Allies much more problems than the same “Bismarck” and even more paired with it.
      1. Denis
        Denis 19 August 2013 15: 01 New
        Quote: Dmitriy69
        would cause the Allies much more problems than the same Bismarck
        Undoubtedly, like Tirpitz, these were significant and powerful military units — one exit caused a commotion, but only a few. And often this commotion was something akin to the most difficult supply difficulties, like the lack of toilet paper or ice cream
  2. Kibalchish
    Kibalchish 19 August 2013 09: 42 New
    It's a shame that they flooded. Could be the first Soviet aircraft carrier, albeit a training one. And so the construction of the carrier fleet was delayed for another 30 years.
    Our Anglo-Saxon friends divorced us here too. They did not need the USSR with aircraft carriers.
    1. Vadivak
      Vadivak 19 August 2013 10: 28 New
      Quote: Kibalchish
      Could be the first Soviet aircraft carrier, albeit a training

      Moreover, the USSR washed more seas and oceans than Germany
      1. t72
        t72 19 August 2013 21: 57 New
        What was there to finish building! It’s clearly written, the Germans competently blew everything up! And a new box is easier to rive than to sort through the debris and glue snot.
    2. Ivan_Ivanov
      Ivan_Ivanov 19 August 2013 10: 36 New
      USSR / Russia is a land civilization.
      America / Britain is a civilization of the sea.
      For a civilization of the sea, a strong fleet is vital; the main component of which is currently aircraft carriers (AUG). This does not mean that civilization of the sea cannot have a sufficiently strong land army at certain intervals.
      For land civilization, the presence of a strong land (not sea) army is vital; the main component of which at the moment are tanks / tank armies. This does not mean that land civilization cannot have a sufficiently strong Navy.

      The simultaneous development of a powerful Navy with AUGs and the same powerful ground forces with thousands and tens of thousands of tanks is neither economically nor resourcely (human, scientific, industrial, financial, food and other resources) IMPOSSIBLE.

      Stop dreaming about aircraft carriers. Of course, we can have several aircraft carriers (1-2), but both in terms of quantity and their characteristics, we, remaining a land civilization, will not be able to compete with the Americans. First you need to abandon the thousands of tanks, their design, production, maintenance. In this case, we immediately lose unconditional dominance on land. And this is not acceptable.
      1. prophet190
        prophet190 19 August 2013 13: 20 New
        You say the case, do not spray power.
      2. Per se.
        Per se. 19 August 2013 13: 41 New
        Quote: Ivan_Ivanov
        The USSR / Russia is a land civilization. America / Britain is a sea civilization.
        Thank you for not remembering the "civilization of the sky", if such, the aircraft carriers would become an alloy of all the "elements". Maybe enough about the "land Russia"? There are strong countries, and there are weak, like their armed forces. If you don’t know the measures, you can foolishly go broke on inflatable mock-ups in millions of copies. The maritime border of Russia is much larger than the United States, and disproportionately larger than the UK. The argument that a large part of it, the Arctic, does not affect the pasture of enemy boats under its ice on our shores, in addition, the arrival of foreign icebreakers with foreign ships has not been ordered. Whether this is an attempt on resources or military pressure is no longer so important, the important thing is that Russia will not survive without a strong fleet, in defending its interests on the seas, and a strong fleet involves all classes of ships, in particular aircraft carriers.
        1. Ivan_Ivanov
          Ivan_Ivanov 19 August 2013 14: 05 New
          There are strong countries, but there are weak ones ..

          Thanks, I explained everything ... laughing

          Can we read?
          This does not mean that land civilization cannot have a strong enough Navy

          If we had a dozen battleships before the start of World War II, we would not have won the war.
          1. Per se.
            Per se. 19 August 2013 21: 12 New
            Quote: Ivan_Ivanov
            Thanks, I explained everything ...
            Looks like no. You are right that military expenditures should be feasible, but they themselves exaggerate, making the army and navy absurd. In August of the 1939 of the year, the leadership of the USSR Navy wanted to bring the composition of the battleships by January 1948 of the year to 15 units (6 battleships for the TF, 4 battleship for the BF, 3 battleship for the Black Sea Fleet, 2 battleship for the Northern Fleet), but it soon became clear that such plans construction overwhelming. However, four battleships of the Soviet Union type were laid down, as were the new cruisers and destroyers. We could not have a dozen battleships before the war, but if tsarist Russia built 8 new battleships and 4 battlecruisers before the First World War, the Soviet Union, if they had been with us, this would not have prevented us from winning the war, rather the other way around. And do not be offended, these are just our opinions, true or false, maybe time will tell.
      3. Vadivak
        Vadivak 19 August 2013 14: 30 New
        Quote: Ivan_Ivanov
        USSR / Russia is a land civilization.

        What is this statement based on?
        On party and government strategies?

        For reference, the total length of the state border of Russia is 59 km. The length of the sea borders of Russia is 836,3 38 km.

        Or the amount of AUGs for the destruction of which the USSR created, and Russia destroys a less expensive project like
        1. “Kursk” - 1 billion S (24 “Granit” supersonic cruise missiles),
        A modern Nimitz-class Navy aircraft carrier costs $ 4,5 billion to $ 5 billion .- The estimated cost of the Anglo-French robot carrier is € 4 billion. Feeding 5700 people of the US Navy’s aircraft carrier Theodore Roosevelt costs more than a month. in a million dollars. In his warehouses and refrigerators are constantly stored products worth $ 2,5 million.

        Other counteraction projects
        2. Missile cruisers of the Glory type
        3. The screen "Lun"
        4. Tu-22M2 and m3 and even AN-70 (Modifications AN-170,171) and much more

        Without a strong Navy, we would not be a power in the full sense of the word, poachers or Somali pirates will ridicule us. Another question of strategy is what the Navy should be like.
        1. Ivan_Ivanov
          Ivan_Ivanov 19 August 2013 15: 33 New
          What is this statement based on?

          On the logic of the development of Russian Civilization.
          The origin of our civilization took place deep in the continent. The expansion went both from the depths of the continent to its borders - the coast, and deep into the continent. Land was developed, roads, cities were built ... Our expansion naturally brought us to the coast. But our main resources, trade and other routes are land and are located within the continent. Naturally, after reaching the coast, for our protection we needed a fleet. He is needed now. And the stronger, the better. Only its settlement should not be due to the weakening of ground forces. It is the ground forces that are our strategic resource.

          What a love of manipulation and twisting. I said very clearly and clearly (and I repeat) that we need a strong fleet, but its development should not be at the expense of ground forces. And to build and maintain a sufficient number of aircraft carriers without damage to land is now simply impossible. It is better, much cheaper and more effective for defense, to build a multi-purpose nuclear submarine and a long-range aviation squadron instead of an escort carrier.
          1. Vadivak
            Vadivak 19 August 2013 16: 00 New
            Quote: Ivan_Ivanov
            Our expansion naturally brought us to the coast

            This day can be considered the day of the Navy ..
          2. The comment was deleted.
      4. PSih2097
        PSih2097 19 August 2013 21: 16 New
        Quote: Ivan_Ivanov
        USSR / Russia is a land civilization.
        America / Britain is a civilization of the sea.
        For a civilization of the sea, a strong fleet is vital; the main component of which is currently aircraft carriers (AUG). This does not mean that civilization of the sea cannot have a sufficiently strong land army at certain intervals.

        Well, if it’s dry, maybe all the SSBNs, or even the whole fleet, will we get drunk? AUG - in Soviet times, was created not for the massacre with the Americans, but for covering the dispersal areas of the SSBNs (it is clear that they later went north) ...
        1. Ivan_Ivanov
          Ivan_Ivanov 20 August 2013 12: 28 New
          if it’s dry, maybe all the SSBNs, or even the whole fleet, will we get drunk?

          Leave the privilege to lie, manipulate and twist the meaning of the words of the interlocutor to the liberals. They get paid for it.
          Do you want to sink the entire fleet?
          How can you write such nonsense?
    3. Corsair
      Corsair 19 August 2013 21: 57 New
      Quote: Kibalchish
      It's a shame that they flooded. Could be the first Soviet aircraft carrier, albeit a training one.

      By the middle of 1939, the CRI-45 developed a pre-draft design for a small aircraft carrier that received No. 71. This project is most consistent with the ideas of the Navy about the aircraft carrier and the capabilities of the shipbuilding industry. The following data was suggested: displacement 11 300 t, power mechanisms 126 500 l. sec., speed 33 knots; armament: 8 100-mm universal guns, 16 37-mm guns, 20 12,7-mm machine guns; air group: ten multipurpose aircraft and 20 fighters, two catapults. The base was the hull of the light cruiser Ave. 68, with a machine and boiler installation, this facilitated the development of a new type of ship by industry. Work was carried out on the formation of the most favorable, from an aerodynamic point of view, appearance. Most of the ship systems and assemblies, artillery and fire control devices, with the exception of aircraft equipment, were mastered by industry. Plant No. 199 in Komsomolsk-on-Amur was chosen as the construction site, with the start of construction of the first ship in the year 1942.

      The entry of the USSR into World War II did not allow the construction of aircraft carriers of 71 Ave. to begin. Outline design continued: in 1944, in TsNII-45, a new project was developed under No. 72. The basis for it was the pre-war project 71-B. In appearance and tactical and technical characteristics, the 72 Aircraft was very similar to the British aircraft carriers of the Impleable type. Displacement 28 800 t, power of the main power plant 144 000 l. sec., speed 30 knots, armament: 16 130-mm universal control units, 16 85-mm control units, 24 37-mm control units, 48 25-mm control units, 30 aircraft, two catapults, reservation: 90 mm side, flight deck 30 mm , hangar 55 mm, hangar 30 mm. Representatives of the fleet found the ship's air group too small for such a displacement, processing began, but everything was limited to the project.

      Clickable Image:
      1. Corsair
        Corsair 20 August 2013 00: 10 New
        Quote: Corsair
        in 1944, in TsNII-45, a new project was developed under No. 72

        Clickable Image:
  3. Volkhov
    Volkhov 19 August 2013 10: 10 New
    2 aircraft carriers began to build, and abandoned 1 ... The situation as with submarines - many disappeared somewhere at the end of the war.
    Could Zeppelin be the layout and source of spare parts for Richtofen? If the second was completed in Chile with a nuclear power plant (uranium production allowed, the Minister of Atomic Energy was 42).
    1. avt
      avt 19 August 2013 17: 52 New
      Quote: Volkhov
      2 aircraft carriers began to build, and abandoned 1 ... The situation as with submarines - many disappeared somewhere at the end of the war.

      Nowhere is it, Peter Strasser was stopped with the building in 1939, collecting to the armored deck and in 1940 dismantled.
      1. Volkhov
        Volkhov 20 August 2013 03: 55 New
        Here I am talking about that - guns and planes were thrown to Norway, perhaps the rest of the set of parts went through Chile to Norway, otherwise the paradox is huge expenses, rushing with the air group and scrapping ...
        1. avt
          avt 20 August 2013 09: 35 New
          Quote: Volkhov
          Here I am talking about that - guns and planes were thrown to Norway, perhaps the rest of the set of parts went through Chile to Norway, otherwise the paradox is huge expenses, rushing with the air group and scrapping ...

          Watch less Ren TV with Anna Chapman, more archival materials, all the metal was eaten by the Eastern Front.
          1. Volkhov
            Volkhov 20 August 2013 16: 26 New
            Quote: avt
            , all metal ate the Eastern Front.

            What he ate - metallurgy has not worked since the end of 44, ore supplies from Sweden were stopped, the Rhine in the spring of 45 was first clean.
    2. Alex
      Alex 8 February 2014 00: 46 New
      Quote: Volkhov
      Could Zeppelin be the layout and source of spare parts for Richtofen? If the second is completed in Chile with a nuclear power plant (uranium production allowed
      Oh my God? You do not have paranoia by chance?

      Minister of Atomic Energy at 42 was)
      Can you tell me your last name? Something about such a minister had never heard of.
  4. vitek1233
    vitek1233 19 August 2013 10: 24 New
    A ship would be powerful
  5. ivshubarin
    ivshubarin 19 August 2013 11: 44 New
    Amerovsky in 96 saw in Busan. Awesome whopper.
  6. Per se.
    Per se. 19 August 2013 12: 26 New
    Good, informative article. I just want to add to the topic “Hitler’s aircraft carrier” that, in addition to the construction of the Count Zeppelin aircraft carrier, the Germans began work on remaking the unfinished heavy cruiser Seydlitz into an aircraft carrier, plus a civil vessel was supposed to be converted into the Elba aircraft carrier.
  7. Iraclius
    Iraclius 19 August 2013 14: 35 New
    Fuck with him, with this aircraft carrier. Why so bad our bomb pilots threw? 6 bombs from 100. What the? And why does the article say nothing about the reasons for this result? The pilots went through the whole war and did not study on simulators. And put only xnumx bombs! what
    And this despite the fact that the bombing was not a maneuvering destroyer, which could also slap a shell. A huge aircraft carrier. I don’t understand anything.
    1. Vadivak
      Vadivak 19 August 2013 14: 49 New
      Quote: Iraclius
      What is so bad our bomb pilots threw? 6 out of 100 bombs.

      Since the dive, only the pilots of the 2nd Guards Tank twice the GSS, I. S. Polbin, who died in a sortie over Breslau on February 11, 1945, fully worked, they say ....
      1. Iraclius
        Iraclius 19 August 2013 15: 10 New
        VadivakHonestly, I’ve heard about this for the first time. Thanks for the information, I will understand. what
    2. The comment was deleted.
  8. Day 11
    Day 11 19 August 2013 14: 52 New
    Even the Hans designed the auxiliary aircraft carrier "Europe". In the drawings, he was ready. Moreman, is there any info on it?
    1. Vadivak
      Vadivak 19 August 2013 15: 19 New
      Quote: Den 11
      Even Hans designed an auxiliary aircraft carrier Europe In the drawings, he was ready.

      There was such a project to rebuild the unfinished heavy cruiser Seidlitz, 90% ready, and the passenger liners Europa, Gneisenau and Potsdam into aircraft carriers. The Seidlitz was the same ship with the Prince Eugen. It had a displacement of 15660 tons, a length of 681,25 feet and was armed with 8 - 203 mm guns.
      Of the liners, the largest was "Europe" (49476 tons, 28 knots). At one time, this ship had a catapult and a seaplane to deliver airmail. The Gneisenau (18160 tons, 652 feet) and the Potsdam (17518 tons, 631 feet) were almost the same ships. Both liners developed a speed of 21 knots. Approximately the same Scharnhorst airliner was acquired in 1942 by Japan and rebuilt as an escort aircraft carrier Sinye. The aircraft carrier "Europe" was supposed to carry 42 aircraft, the remaining 2 ships - 24. "E." each. became the largest German airliner. After the outbreak of war, a decision was made to re-equip E. to the auxiliary aircraft carrier. To do this, it was supposed to install anti-aircraft guns on it
    2. The comment was deleted.
  9. Day 11
    Day 11 19 August 2013 15: 03 New
    In general, the Hans wanted to rebuild some passenger ships (liners) into aircraft carriers. Some cruisers
  10. Day 11
    Day 11 19 August 2013 15: 46 New
    Still, Hitler made the absolutely right decision, betting on the Doenitz submarine fleet! How much did it cost to build 9-ki (not to mention 7-ku) in relation to colossi such as Zeppelin, Tirpitz, Bismarck, etc. .
    1. Delta
      Delta 19 August 2013 15: 51 New
      At the same time, the same Dönitz, having become the commander of the German Navy, saved surface ships from cutting, which were recognized by Hitler as "worthless" in a fit of emotion.
      1. Day 11
        Day 11 19 August 2013 15: 56 New
        How can a seaman be handed over to the tear of his own? It's the same as a sickle in ...! Even if he understood their uselessness! Do you don’t know (judging by ava)
  11. xomaNN
    xomaNN 19 August 2013 20: 50 New
    We can see the continuity of our Kiev-carrying cruisers and subsequent ones with Zeppelin AB in an attempt to combine strike (artillery or missile weapons) in one ship with an aviation component. Our shipbuilders also applied part of the German experience.