Military Review

The United States used the myth of "inhuman" submarine warfare to oppose Germany

49
The US stands on the side of the Entente


Unlimited submarine warfare caused widespread public discontent in the United States. American companies made good money on military supplies during the war years, while incurring almost no losses. Now, the goods remained in warehouses and ports, because shipping companies refused to transport them by sea because of the military threat. Entrepreneurs began to suffer losses. Immediately showered demands on the government to take radical measures against the German fleet, the press began to fan military hysteria. A negative opinion against the Germans was already formed after the death of Lusitania.

In addition, another event occurred that was a good reason for declaring war. British intelligence intercepted a radio message sent by German Foreign Minister Arthur Zimmerman to ambassadors in Washington and Mexico City in mid-January. In it, the Germans offered Mexico a union, assistance, and recognition of its special rights to the US states of Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico (their America took America away from Mexico) if they participated in the war on the side of Germany. At that time, there was a civil war in Mexico, during which American troops made several incursions into its territory. Strong anti-American sentiment reigned in the country, so there were chances of causing a conflict between the United States and Mexico. It was also proposed in Zimmerman’s dispatch to hold talks with representatives of Japan and convince them to withdraw from the alliance with the Entente and join the Central Powers.

The British deciphered the dispatch and passed the information to the Americans. After consulting the Americans and the British, a special plan was developed for its legalization. So that the disclosure of secrets relating to the United States would look like the business of the Americans, and avoid rumors of a possible provocation by England for the purpose of America’s opposition against Germany. As a result, the original telegram was transmitted to the United States, where it was formally deciphered by American experts. This allowed President Wilson to declare that the telegram had been intercepted and its secret was discovered on American territory. After that, the question of the entry of the United States into the war was finally resolved.

March 1 in American newspapers published the text of the so-called. "Zimmerman telegrams." Also on the same day, the US Congress decided to arm all of its merchant ships to counter the unlimited submarine warfare. British military historian Neil Grant noted: "Zimmerman's telegram provided evidence of Germany’s hostile attitude toward the United States, which, as President Wilson often repeated, was necessary for him to make a decision to declare war." Thus, Washington received an iron reason to start the war.

On April 1, the Aztec steamer was sunk, killing American citizens 28. This was the last straw. 6 April American President Woodrow Wilson announced the entry into the war on the side of the Entente and the beginning of the war with Germany. Following the United States, half of the Latin American states, as well as China, entered the war on the side of the Entente, which further strengthened the Allied economic base.

Speech in the US war seriously changed the military situation in the Atlantic Ocean. The Americans had a powerful fleet, which included dozens of destroyers. Also, the United States had a powerful shipbuilding, which allowed us to constantly strengthen the military and commercial fleets. Washington launched a giant new fleet construction program. True, the Americans were in no hurry. Therefore, in April 1917, the German fleet achieved the greatest success for the entire war - 512 ships were sunk and damaged with a total displacement of more than 1 million tons. At the same time, the Germans lost only one submarine, which was blown up by a mine. Over the next four months, the Allied losses were also high: 869 thousand tons - May, June - more than 1 million tons, in July and August - more than 800 thousand tons. Due to the introduction by the Allies of the convoys system, their losses somewhat decreased, but still the average amount of lost tonnage of the Entente countries to the end of 1917 averaged 600-700 thousand tons.

In general, it must be remembered that the US intervention on the side of the Entente was originally planned by the masters of Washington. The masters of the West (Britain, France and the USA) unleashed the First World War to destroy Germany, Austria-Hungary (competitors within the Western project) and Russia (the germ of the Russian globalization project) and build their new world order. In February-March, the Russian Empire collapsed 1917, the new liberal-democratic Russia was rapidly collapsing and lost its ability to wage war, which eased the position of the Central Powers. In the spring of 1917, the position of England became critical. That is, Germany had the opportunity to slip out of the trap and conclude a more or less acceptable world for it. Washington saw in the position of England a great danger and found it necessary to intervene at this particular time, since the decision to participate in world war was made a long time ago. Unlimited submarine warfare was only an occasion that allowed public opinion to be created by the masters of the USA and England.

From the first day of the war, the United States helped England. At Wilson’s insistence, the German loan in America was rejected as violating its neutrality, and at the same time he won the right to supply the Entente with military equipment and gradually prepared the ground for the US armed attack. Washington for a long time loudly declared neutrality, but put at the disposal of the allies financial capabilities and the military industry. Wilson allowed the Franco-British propaganda in America, as the latter could prepare American public opinion in favor of the war. The decision on the war did not depend on the Lusitania incident, nor on the methods of conducting the underwater war. The United States was initially preparing for war with Germany, but they were waiting for the right moment to play the role of the “senior partners” of England and France (exhausted by the war).

The United States used the myth of "inhuman" submarine warfare to oppose Germany

Speech by President Woodrow Wilson

England on the brink of disaster

It is worth noting that Germany has achieved excellent results in the submarine war in 1917. By April, Britain already had a shortage of tonnage of merchant ships. There was a dangerous situation, since maintaining the pace of sinking of British ships by German submarines could lead England to a crisis. The country has already started the shortage of food, not enough raw materials for factories. According to the calculations of the English Admiralty, it turned out that if the rate of death of the ships was maintained, then by November 1 1917, the UK would have to ask for peace, unable to withstand the underwater blockade.

Admiral Viscount Jellicho, First Sea Lord of the Admiralty (from December 5 1916) noted: “Awareness of the critical situation, the worst history England would have undermined the much-needed faith in the victory of our people. The truth could not be made public, in order not to give the enemy more extra trumps in his hands. But those who, day after day, saw the enemy on an increasing scale, destroy our cargo tonnage, looked at the future with great concern. They had enough reasons to give themselves a clear account of the consequences of the dark days of unlimited submarine warfare. The rate of destruction of the enemy's boats was completely inadequate and while in Germany many new boats were being built, our merchant shipbuilding was minimal. ”

The American admiral W. Sims, who was the US naval representative in London and after the USA entered the war, was appointed commander of the US Navy in England and Europe, wrote Ambassador Peig to London in those days: “It remains a fact that the enemy is successful, we are not. Our ships are fueled faster than world shipbuilding has time to reimburse them. This means that the enemy is close to winning the war, the latter cannot be a secret. In the near future, submarines will undermine our means of communication, and as soon as they succeed, we will have to accept the conditions of peace dictated by the enemy. ” The American government admiral telegraphed: "In short, my opinion is that at the moment we are ready to lose the war." After arriving in London in April 1917, the admiral expressed his opinion even more harshly: “The Germans not only did not lose the war, but on the contrary were close to victory”.

Prime Minister Lloyd George, in a special appeal to the Allies, demanded that Britain provide as many ships as possible for the transportation of goods, since the British did not have time to cover the losses of the merchant fleet by building new ships in shipyards. However, the United States, it took time to move to "war rails", while other countries did not have such large merchant fleets, all ships were involved, there were no free ships.

The British mobilized every opportunity to prevent a catastrophe. From neutral countries have made the continuation of the supply of goods in exchange for strongly reduced tariffs and good prices. On an emergency basis, we recruited volunteer sailors for newly built ships, used all available ships, even the smallest schooners, to pay the captains large compensation as a merchant fleet. Even the ships that had previously been written off were returned to service. In the ports of the ships were loaded to the eyeballs, violating all safety standards. England and France formed a special rescue service, which accompanied the damaged ships to the ports, and also raised the sunken ones. Great attention was paid to the quick repair of damaged ships.

Improving anti-submarine defense

However, the development of new anti-submarine defense systems took the first place. It is worth noting that until the middle of 1917, the main weapons German submarines were not torpedoes, and artillery guns. The submarine, having risen to the surface, shot the defenseless steamer. If the ship was armed, then such ships German submariners preferred to attack from a submerged position, which increased the ship's chances of survival. Therefore, the British began to massively arm merchant ships: they put guns on them, equipped them with special anti-mine trawls, smoke bombs, which put smoke screens. Cargo ships were supposed to keep closer to the shore, as this made it difficult to detect the ship and made navigation in shallow water difficult for enemy submarines.

Britain has stepped up the construction of surface ships, which were intended to fight the German submarines. However, for a long time the British were content with old destroyers armed with fishing vessels and yachts, but they were slow moving. Due to the overload of shipyards with other works, a significant number of anti-submarine ships in England could not be built. The available patrol vessels and coastal boats cost a little in combat. More adapted were high-speed American boat hunters. The first two American fleets of 36 boats arrived in the summer of 1917, and were based in Plymouth. Then the same flotillas began to be based in Ireland. The British submarines, which had one main goal — to sink the German submarines, while the Germans were chasing surface ships, were quite effective weapons. As a result, the English submarines recorded at their own expense about 20 German boats.

For military purposes, the first anti-submarine defense training school was organized. On ships, they began to use special hydroacoustic instruments that “heard” the boat under water. Such devices already existed before the war and were used with 1914 for submarine alarm. But the new hydrophones should not only detect the noise from the propellers, pumps, etc., but also give direction to the object that publishes it. The sound, which had been reclaimed from several ships, gave the exact location of the noise source, and with the determination of the place of the boat, the struggle with it was facilitated. Only by the end of 1917 did the hydrophones come into service, which gave more or less satisfactory results in determining the direction of sound, and only in 1918 did they achieve the accuracy of these instruments. The duration of the training of personnel on the use of devices also served as a big problem. The carriers of underwater hearing aids were usually small, high-speed vessels. The Americans called them boat hunters. These ships were reduced to flotilla, which conducted the search for enemy submarines off the coast. To enhance observations in hazardous areas, auditory buoys were set up, transmitting sound from the noise of propellers of passing boats to coastal observation posts. Without a doubt, by the end of the war, hydrophones made life difficult for German submarines.

By the beginning of 1917, a new depth bomb was refined, the first samples of which immediately entered the fleet. Mine could be blown up at four depths: 15, 30, 45 and 65 meters. In the first months of the 1917, the fleet each month received up to 300 of such mines, from the middle of the 1917 of the year - 1200 mines, by the end of the year 4000 had already been produced. Only with 1918, the destroyers began to be supplied with a complete set of bombs (30-40 pieces per ship). The imperfection of the remote tubes for a long time did not allow explosions to be carried out at great depths, and small bombs turned out to be generally unsuitable because of their weak action. Bombers that allowed the bombardment of boats from close range by depth charges appeared for the first time in July 1917, and by December 1 of the same year there were only about 238 units. In addition to these bombers, more howitzers were introduced, shooting at submerged boats from long distances, reaching 1100-2400 m, grenades with a charge weight of 45 kg. The difference between the two types of throwers was only that the first were throwing short-range bombs of exceptionally high-explosive action, and the second were firing at long distances, striking the boats with both an explosion and directly with shrapnel. As a result, the British fleet was able to effectively deal with enemy ships and in a submerged position.

Since 1917, they have also been used to combat submarines. Aviationincluding airships. They were based in Ireland and on the English Channel. Balloons were used mainly for detecting boats and observing them. When they saw the submarine, they sent other anti-submarine vehicles to the place of its appearance, or when the convoy was serving, at their signal the whole convoy promptly deviated from the course of the enemy boat. Their problem was that they could only work in calm and clear weather. From the end of 1917, hydroplanes armed with heavy bombs became a more dangerous enemy for submarines. But, despite the rapid growth in the importance of aviation, the Allies did not manage to expand this matter to the desired result until the end of the war. In general, the Allies were able to solve the problem of defending all important areas of the coast by air squadrons and threaten from air the German base in Bruges. The United States played the main role in this matter. The first detachment of planes arrived from the United States to France in June 1917. At the beginning of 1918, the first American naval flight station in Britain was organized. By the end of the war, the US Air Force in Europe totaled over 500 aircraft with personnel of 24,5 thousand people. By the end of the war, the Americans had 6 air stations in France, 3 bases for air ships, 3 kite stations with full equipment and a northern bomber squadron against Bruges. One last counted 112 devices. The presence of an air threat seriously constrained the actions of submarines in coastal areas.

However, the main role in the fight against the German submarine fleet played a system of convoys. At first, the British Admiralty saw no use in such a system and violently resisted this idea, not wanting to give the ships necessary for the defense of the British Isles and the naval blockade of Germany. The Admiralty considered the separation of the main core of the combat fleet and the separation of warships for the protection of merchant ships dangerous. But it soon became apparent that the convoy was more likely to survive than a single vessel, that the convoy was effective not only against surface raiders, but submarines. As a result, a whole system was developed that prescribed the concentration of vessels from different ports at special destinations, the average speed (8-12 nodes), from which ships went, the number of escort vessels (40 destroyers 9 transports), the order of construction. True, escort ships for the convoys often lacked.

As a result, the loss of the Allies from the attacks of the German submarine fleet began to decline. The critical period of England survived. If during the first seven months of 1917, the Entente countries lost 3 100 000 tons, in the period from August to December this figure decreased more than twice, to 1 400 000 tons. Also, between February and December 1917, the German fleet lost 62 submarines, which was a serious loss. The German fleet received 92 new submarines for the same period. However, it was impossible to quickly compensate for the death of experienced commanders and crews on boats. Teams had to be replenished by sailors from surface ships, who did not have the necessary training, and they didn’t have such a high fighting spirit. In 1917, the discipline in the surface fleet dropped dramatically. The termination of the real offensive actions of the fleet after the start of the submarine war had a strong impact on the crews. Coast patrols were quite boring and monotonous, and the crews were able to access the temptations of coastal life. Also increased political agitation. As a result, in the 1917 year, such phenomena as insubordination and riots on the coast appeared in the fleet.

As E. Reder noted: “Another reason for lowering the level of discipline on individual ships was that, as the war progressed, the best of the middle command officers — lieutenant commander and lieutenant — received more responsible appointments, and those who came to them on shift, did not have the qualities of their predecessors. This effect was especially pronounced on large ships with large crews, since on light cruisers and smaller ships the senior and middle commanders lived in closer contact with their subordinates. It is noteworthy that on torpedo boats and submarines discipline remained at a very high level until the very end of the war, which is explained by the closer relations between the officers and the team and their active participation in actions against the enemy. ”

The increase in the number of submarines could not correct the fact that the boats could no longer sink ships from a surface position. As a result, the effectiveness of the German fleet rapidly declined. The expansion of the zone of unrestricted submarine warfare to the coast of the Azores and the permission to sink neutral ships as part of the convoys did not help either. But even in spite of this, the influence of the underwater war continued to be felt by the Allies, since the shortage of tonnage could not be eliminated and responded painfully in the conduct of the entire war. Until the very end of the war, it was also necessary to think of the fight against underwater danger, which required the intense activity of many thousands of people and a huge amount of materials and equipment.


Mine (torpedo) submarine compartment

Results

In the German Empire, the high command gradually became imbued with skepticism towards submarine warfare. From January to August 1918, the German fleet lost 45 submarines, but their submarine fleet even increased, as 57 new ships were built. But it became obvious that the system of convoys works properly. In 1918, the tonnage of flooded ships on average decreased from 650-680 thousand tons at the beginning of the year to 420-440 thousand tons in August-September. In addition, the Entente for the entire military year 1918 for the first time built more merchant ships than lost.

But in general, they decided to continue the submarine war. Admiral Scheer, who took over as commander of all naval forces in August 1918, set himself the goal of maximally expanding the scope of the underwater war and elaborated a program for new boating construction. As a result, a huge program was adopted at 1918 that included the construction of more than 300 new submarines. Negotiations with industry representatives found that enterprises are able to supply boats initially on 16 monthly, and then in the near future raise this figure to 20-30 boats per month. The new boat building program received its final design at the October 1 meeting in 1918 in Cologne. The army, in principle, decided to help the fleet with the necessary technical staff - all the best craftsmen and workers needed in the industry to build boats were also very necessary in the army. They had to enter the fleet by the end of the year, but because of the end of the war, the program was never implemented.

By September, 1918, against the background of the military defeats of the countries of the Central Powers, began the winding up of submarine operations. September 29, on the orders of the High Command, began the evacuation of Flanders. For the submarine fleet, this meant the loss of the base of Bruges, valuable in tactical terms and its well-equipped repair shops. Despite the planned evacuation, 4 unable to self-transfer boats were blown up there. Germany suffered even more tangible losses in the abandonment of the bases of Paul and Qatarro (October 28), after the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In all, 10 boats were blown up in these ports. October 20, under pressure from Parliament and the Chancellor, the Kaiser decided to end the unlimited submarine war. October 29 on the big ships of the German Open Sea Fleet an uprising broke out, which soon led to the loss of the German fleet's combat capability, including the submarine.

After that, the German submariners achieved another loud victory. 9 On November 1918, the battleship Britannia was torpedoed by a German UB-50 submarine leaving the Adriatic and sank off Trafalgar Cape. According to the battleship four torpedoes were fired, three of which passed by, but the fourth torpedo from the salvo of the UB-50 submarine hit the middle part of the ship. The British battleship became the last English warship sunk during World War I and its death became an allegory of the collapse of British maritime rule.

Compared with the slaughter on land, the underwater warfare did not take too many lives - about 30 thousand people, about half of them are sailors of the English merchant fleet. The other half are employees of foreign commercial fleets and a small number of passengers. The British sea blockade of Germany caused her more serious damage. “The official statistics of the Ministry of Public Health shows that during the war, as a result of the blockade, more than usual people died in 763 in Germany, 000. In one 1917, the death rate from tuberculosis increased by 30000 people compared to 1913. Therefore, the blockade in one year killed more people: women, children and the elderly than the submarine war for all 4 years ”(Michelsen A. Submarine war 1914-1918 yy.).

Thus, the myth of excessive cruelty and barbarism of submarine war was created in England and the USA in order to deliver an informational blow to the enemy. During the war, for example, Lord Fisher wrote an open letter to Admiral Tirpitz, which contains the recognition that Tirpitz is the only German naval officer who understood the goals of the war and that he does not in any way accuse the admiral because of the underwater war, the initiator of which he thinks Tirpitz: “I would do the same, only our idiots in England do not want to believe it.”

It is also obvious that the British officers acted in a similar manner about the same, without humanism. Other statements are hypocrisy. It is known that in cases where the opportunity presented itself (the Sea of ​​Marmara, the coast of Dalmatia and the Baltic Sea), the British submarines acted without a twinge of conscience, even violating neutrality. For example, in October 1915 in the Swedish territorial waters 4 German steamer, which did not possess weapons, were torpedoed. In the Sea of ​​Marmara, both postal and passenger ships, including the hospital ship Madeleine Rickmers (100 wounded on board) were fueled without warning. The same thing happened in the Adriatic. All this happened in 1915 and 1916, i.e. before the Germans declared an unlimited war. Especially it is possible to emphasize the case of sinking (without warning) of the Turkish passenger ship "Istanbul" 5 in May 1915 by an English boat. This event occurred exactly 2 day (May 7) before the death of "Lusitania". Around the “Lusitania” a universal high was raised, but “Istanbul” was not mentioned at all.

Thus, the German submariners showed the world enormous opportunities for the conduct of submarine warfare, causing great damage to England. However, the Germans did not succeed in achieving a complete victory due to a number of objective reasons (the imperfection of submarines, the development of anti-submarine defense). However, the rich experience that the Germans gained during this war was well studied, and on this basis, the German theorists developed a new tactic for conducting an underwater war, which was used in full during the Second World War. Other powers also recognized the importance of submarine forces, and began to actively develop them as a means of fighting them.


Sinking "Britain"

Sources:

Basil Henry Liddell Garth. History of the First World War. M., 2014.
Gibson R., Prendergast M. Germanic Submarine War 1914-1918 Mn .: 2002. // http://militera.lib.ru/h/gibson_prendergast/index.html.
Gray E. German submarines in the First World War. 1914-1918 M., 2003. // http://militera.lib.ru/h/gray_e01/index.html.
Michelsen A. Submarine War 1914-1918 M. —L., 1940. // http://militera.lib.ru/h/mihelsen_u/index.html.
Raeder E. Grand Admiral. M., 2004.
Secrets of the underwater war. 1914 — 1945. M., 2012.
Scheer R. The German navy in World War. M. — SPb., 2002.
http://rusplt.ru/ww1/.
Author:
Articles from this series:
1917 Campaign

The transition of the Central Powers to a strategic defense
Entente plans for 1917 year: bet on a decisive victory in the war
Russian army to the beginning of the 1917 campaign of the year: the approach of the general collapse
Attack without shot: Mitav operation
How Germany began the unlimited submarine war
German submarine vs UK
How the German submarine fleet tried to crush the "mistress of the seas"
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  1. Basil50
    Basil50 8 February 2017 06: 24 New
    +7
    To enter the war with Spain, the Americans blew up their own ship in the port of Havana. Then the Negro sailors died, but all the whites were on the shore.
    The Americans entered WWI when the Germans sank a specially prepared transport and passenger ship with American passengers, which transported military cargoes, of which the Germans had been notified in advance.
    Americans entered WWII after they set up their own Pacific fleet under Japanese bombers in Hawaii.
    They started the war with the Vietnamese after they announced an attack on their own ship.
    Some kind of bad American tradition, with current information technologies, it is quite possible to start military operations without destroying your own ships. It is possible to declare a loss and attach the prepared video.
    1. venaya
      venaya 8 February 2017 06: 53 New
      +6
      Quote: Vasily50
      What a bad American tradition ...

      Your post relies on only four specific examples. But over the two hundred years of the existence of the USA / USA, just about two hundred similar provocations were organized, followed by military operations. In the 11.09.2001st century, the most noticeable one took place on September XNUMX, XNUMX in Manhattan, and this last war still does not stop, occasionally only calming down, it still keeps the whole world in suspense. This is the key feature of the “democratic” structure of state power; on this, someone (a demos, or maybe an oligos) does not earn a living poorly at the expense of other people. This is a feature of any slave-owning society (open or hidden) - someone constantly earns someone.
      1. Basil50
        Basil50 8 February 2017 07: 17 New
        +2
        Well, all the provocations of the US state * pull * on a multi-volume study. And I just wrote a comment on the article.
    2. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 8 February 2017 10: 57 New
      +4
      Quote: Vasily50
      Americans entered WWII after they set up their own Pacific fleet under Japanese bombers in Hawaii.

      In fact, the Americans in 1941 set up the Philippines and the Asian Navy. And Pearl Harbor turned out to be an extremely unpleasant surprise for them, which at once moved the second (offensive) phase of Japan’s pre-war plans to subdue and bring down Japan for at least a year.
  2. Prometey
    Prometey 8 February 2017 07: 15 New
    +8
    Some strange trend has been going on lately - to expose Germany as a victim of provocations of “insidious” Yankees. Finish doing nonsense - German militarism was the instigator of two world wars, no more excuses are needed.
    1. venaya
      venaya 8 February 2017 07: 50 New
      +3
      Quote: Prometey
      ... German militarism was the instigator of two world wars, no more excuses are needed.

      Well, actually for that the “German Empire” was created in 1871 by the real owners of the “Bank of England” by the Rothschild family in order to organize all kinds of wars, first of all against the then Russian Empire, which the Rothschilds could’t take for granted. And the provocations for these wars were precisely created by exactly those who were related to the creation of this very “German Empire”. If you dig a little deeper into this topic, then everything immediately falls into place. Provocations, even with the Austro-Hungarian prince, are organized just by overseas strategists, and not by the local chantropa. I think that you at least agree with me on this.
      1. Prometey
        Prometey 8 February 2017 08: 19 New
        +6
        Quote: venaya
        Well, actually, the “German Empire” was created in 1871 for the real owners of the “Bank of England” by the Rothschild family

        Bismarck was apparently a member of the board of directors of the Rothschild Bank and acted exclusively in their interests. And following, tabloid analysts completely discard the economic and political preconditions for the unification of Germany.
        Quote: venaya
        in order to organize all kinds of wars, first of all, of course, against the then Russian Empire, which the Rothschilds could not bear to the spirit.

        Is there any documentary evidence of all this? And what side is the agrarian Ross.imp. with a serfdom, with a constant budget deficit prevented the Rothschild Bank from earning capital? Yes, they "laid" on her, I apologize for the slang.
        Quote: venaya
        the provocations, even with the Austro-Hungarian prince, were organized by overseas strategists

        Only documentary evidence is needed, the rest is speculation in the spirit of the medieval Inquisition. There will always be those who will profit from war. But in 1914, German militarism unleashed a war and European countries climbed into this massacre. To whom is war and to whom is mother dear?
        1. venaya
          venaya 8 February 2017 09: 17 New
          +5
          Quote: Prometey
          what side is the agrarian Ross.imp. with a serfdom, with a constant budget deficit prevented the Rothschild Bank from earning capital?

          Let's start with an amazing passage about a certain Rothschild bank. The Rothschild family had a lot of banks, cans, jars and even banquets available, and in different countries of the World, however, as now. But the main and determining bank was undoubtedly "Bank of England"which the Rothschilds ruled undividedly. Even during the time of Paul I, the entire economy of the British Empire was staggered after Paul sent his Cossacks to conquer India, from the robbery of which, basically, the economic and financial well-being of the entire British Empire was concluded. So The islanders had a "tooth" in the Republic of Ingushetia, and having the Bank of England in their control, the Rothschilds practically ruled the whole World, as the Fed now rules. In particular, during the Crimean War, the British Parliament did not finance the British army from the state budget BI, unlike Napoleon III, who paid for the war from state funds, so the Rothschilds took money to pay for the British troops practically from their own money, that is, from the private Bank of England and other private sources. So the Rothschilds didn’t They even carried the whole Romanov family. Maybe you don’t know anything about this at all? Although the information on this subject flies from all sides, it is not secret. About Bismarck: Is that the first servant (prem a minister, in Latin), or as the keykeeper of Malka, under Princess Olga (chancellor in Prussia), can bypass King Wilhelm of Prussia, or a higher authority, called the Bank of England, inspire the empires that are reassuring there? type German. Please be serious, do not fall for fairy tales "about a gray bull-calf" or similar. So serious events without "powerful of this world", simply not possible. Do not be fooled by yourself, and fog the brains of other people on this subject!
          1. ukoft
            ukoft 8 February 2017 13: 43 New
            +1
            Well, actually, before the war, ri was following the Ottoman path. enslavement by French English and Belgian capitals. all that they wanted and so did in Russia. and finances and many concessions were with them.

            I just think the human factor and the factor of the case you do not quite take into account. don't you think?

            if there hadn’t been a World War I there would have been no revolution. the Americans supported the Entente, because it had more money and enslaving them was more profitable than colonless Germany.
            if the Britons and the French lost, who would pay the debts for them? as they say, when you owe a lot to the bank this is already a problem and the bank too.
          2. Operator
            Operator 8 February 2017 16: 37 New
            0
            Venaya - Tie Down with a Samosad laughing
    2. Weyland
      Weyland 8 February 2017 08: 00 New
      +6
      Quote: Prometey
      German militarism was the instigator of two world wars, no more excuses are needed.

      Sure? And are you sure of the official version of the Nuremberg Tribunal about the Glyivitsky incident?
      And I don’t - because its I'm used to thinking with my head. Poles who one week before WWII the British and Gauls gave security guarantees; they wanted war no less than Hitler. And on fig, Hitler needed the Glyavitsky incident on August 31, if he already had a magnificent and more than legitimate reason for war: August 30, 1939 German consul August Schillinger killed in Krakow! Hitler simply realized that the Poles would achieve their goal anyway!
      Of course, I’m not trying to justify Hitler - only Poland is not any better - just, as they say in India, "a dove (and in this case a hyena) and would like, but cannot sin in a tiger!"
      1. Prometey
        Prometey 8 February 2017 08: 28 New
        +3
        Quote: Weyland
        Of course, I'm not trying to justify Hitler

        And from your text, the opposite was initially thought. Hitler needed a doll to train before a decisive battle. She became Poland. Whether she wanted a war or not is a second question since she could not compete with the Wehrmacht.
      2. ukoft
        ukoft 8 February 2017 14: 08 New
        +1
        Yes, it seems like Poland between two fires: Germany and the USSR. USSR was more afraid. in the event of a war with Germany, they planned to hold out until France entered the war. understood that weaker. but they didn’t climb on the rampage
    3. Olgovich
      Olgovich 8 February 2017 13: 20 New
      +3
      Quote: Prometey
      - German militarism was arsonist of two world howlsn, no more excuses are needed.


      Of course it is. We will not forget the terrible Franco-Prussian war of 1871, also unleashed by the Germans, eager for conquest. In many ways, PMV was a continuation of it.

      All this unfounded conspiracy theology about the "omnipotent" anonymous masters of the world from the West is not worth a damn. Somewhere, supposedly, very far away, very secret, very without a trace, someone was going to and set, set, set (and insisted) !! Apparently, these "someone" said: "Fas!" stupid Germany (A-Hungary, Russia), without hesitation, with bloodshot eyes, spitting on their interests, rushed to tear each other.

      Interestingly, there are no venues, no documentary traces of the meetings, no participants, no traces of “enticing” —and no one cites them. And it cannot lead, for they were not.
    4. Stas57
      Stas57 8 February 2017 15: 30 New
      +3
      wild anti-Americanism that goes so far as to cry for Dresden, Nagasaki or Tokyo
      1. Uncle Murzik
        Uncle Murzik 8 February 2017 17: 35 New
        +1
        Well, yes, in Nagasaki it was packed with Japanese troops!
        1. Stas57
          Stas57 8 February 2017 22: 04 New
          0
          Well, yes, in Nagasaki it was packed with Japanese troops!


          During the Second World War, the city, which was a large seaport, acquired special significance also as an industrial center, in which steel production and the Mitsubishi shipyard, the Mitsubishi-Uraki torpedo production were concentrated. The city made guns, ships and other military equipment.
          1. Uncle Murzik
            Uncle Murzik 9 February 2017 07: 26 New
            +1
            Stas57 leaves the troops in Nagasaki wasn’t? They would have bombed the shipyard! bully
            1. Stas57
              Stas57 9 February 2017 17: 31 New
              0
              Of course, where did the troops come from in warring Japan? peaceful town
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 8 February 2017 07: 51 New
    +4
    The United States initially prepared for war with Germany, but waited for a convenient moment to act as the “senior partners” of England and France (exhausted by the war).
    ... Well done, Americans, well, well done ... I did it all right .. Chef, appeared at the very last moment, the monkey sat on a tree and looked at the fighting tigers, then got down, took off all her skins and became King Kong. .A Russian Empire, boldly stepped into the abyss .. to protect the Serb brothers and did not save the Serbs .. Austrians occupied Serbia with the Bulgarians and Germans in 1915 and died ...
  4. Olgovich
    Olgovich 8 February 2017 07: 51 New
    +3
    The masters of the West (England, France and the USA) unleashed World War I to destroy Germany, Austria-Hungary (competitors within the Western project) and Russia

    An article from parallel reality. The authors would have studied at least a chronology of events: Germany and A-Hungary were ready to unleash the WWII back in 1909, 1912, 1913, and only thanks to the efforts of Russia they were able to avoid this. But in 1914 they did it on the basis of their interests and no one had them anywhere " set and didn’t bite "
    In February-March 1917, the Russian Empire collapsed, the new liberal-democratic Russia rapidly collapsed and lost its ability to wage war, which facilitated the position of the Central Powers. In the spring of 1917, the position of England became critical. That is, Germany was able to slip out of the trap and conclude a more or less acceptable world for it.

    "Winter sweets" in Germany 1916-17, which entailed (according to the previous Samsonov) hundreds of thousands starved to death , spoke about the rapid exhaustion of all Germany’s resources and her loss of her ability to continue the war. It was the same in A-Hungary, which also exhausted resources.
    Until October, Germany did not withdraw troops from the Eastern Front, and in Romania and Turkey, Russian troops even carried out successful operations.
    So, until October 1917, there was virtually no relief for the Central Powers, just as England had no critical situation. Such a situation existed, but for the Central Powers, moreover hopeless absolutely: the economic and military capabilities of the Entente were objectively higher factor of.

    But after the seizure of power by accomplices of the German occupiers in October 1917 in Russia, indeed, the relaxation of the Centers. the powers happened and breathed new life into a war that was almost over: the German divisions were transferred to the West, thanks to the Bolsheviks, a huge stream of food and gold poured into Germany, allowing another half a million people to be killed.
    .
    1. V.ic
      V.ic 8 February 2017 08: 26 New
      +4
      Quote: Olgovich
      But after the seizure of power by accomplices of the German occupiers in October 1917 in Russia, indeed, the relaxation of the Centers. the powers happened and breathed new life into an almost finished war: the German divisions were transferred to the West,

      But it was not necessary for the bakers of the 1917 model to "overthrow the Rassian king-emperor"! You see if they wanted a revolution!
      1. antivirus
        antivirus 8 February 2017 10: 12 New
        +1
        all debaters are heroes of bookworms.
        secrets of the century - the prejudices of that time. We will not understand them. The psychology of the peasants of the beginning of the century, even advanced Germany and Britain, is not clear to us. The elitists, too, didn’t think in a native way.
        And the money was considered "mythical" by the Rothschilds in a different way. The turnover rate is different, Besides the riddles, you also draw other conclusions
        1. V.ic
          V.ic 8 February 2017 10: 40 New
          +1
          Quote: antivirus
          In addition to puzzles, you also draw other conclusions

          ... I do: there were no peasants in Britain, there were farmers.
          1. antivirus
            antivirus 8 February 2017 13: 12 New
            0
            it is said "letter-eaters." all who was familiar with manure and lived on the production of agricultural products, "peasant labor" or then, as in the 21st century, rolls in polyethylene were in full bloom?
        2. voyaka uh
          voyaka uh 8 February 2017 13: 52 New
          +1
          The Rothschilds founded and developed their financial empire precisely
          in Germany, only then expanded it in England and France.
          For the Rothschilds, any World War only meant the collapse of trade and losses.
          They were interested in profit, but they were not arms manufacturers.
          Peaceful rapid capitalism and trade brought them much more money.
          1. antivirus
            antivirus 8 February 2017 15: 23 New
            0
            agree
            I wrote earlier: ... blame everything on bankers ... on loans to England for the war on the continent, the adventure to pay. So they asked for the dough. they gave. For any purpose. but with a return. Ch-to calculate the risks of non-return
      2. Olgovich
        Olgovich 8 February 2017 12: 59 New
        +3
        Quote: V.ic
        But it was not necessary for the bakers of the 1917 model to "overthrow the Rassian king-emperor"! You see if they wanted a revolution!


        And here is "Comrade Stalin - initiator and the main creator of the Short History of the CPSU (b)“(Academician Schmidt") saw otherwise:
        Short course:

        "Bourgeoisie THOUGHT to resolve the crisis through a palace coup.
        But the people RESOLVED it in its own way.
        yes
        On February 18, 1917, a strike of Putilov workers in
        Petrograd. On February 22, workers on most of the largest enterprises went on strike.
        On International Worker's Day, February 23 (March 8) on call
        Petrograd Committee of the Bolsheviks
        female workers went outside to demonstrate
        against hunger, war, tsarism. Demonstration of workers supported by workers
        general strike action in Petrograd. The political strike began
        grow into a general political demonstration against the imperial system.

        The February bourgeois-democratic revolution triumphed.
        "The revolution was carried out by the proletariat, he showed heroism he spilled
        blood, he carried with him the widest masses of the working and the poorest
        population ... ", - wrote Lenin in the early days of the revolution (Lenin, vol. XX, p. 23
        - 24).

        And by the way, here they are largely right. The only thing that the revolution was more "soldier":
        1. Uncle Murzik
          Uncle Murzik 8 February 2017 13: 59 New
          +2
          old man Olga? wassat
        2. V.ic
          V.ic 8 February 2017 14: 40 New
          +3
          Quote: Olgovich
          they are in many ways right

          ... is it Lenin and IV Stalin? In this I agree with you!
          Quote: Olgovich
          The only thing that the revolution was more "soldier":

          The four-tier beds in the barracks are still more comfortable than in the raw trenches, this one brothers, languishing from idleness, like the sailors from the battleships in Gesingforswho ate three throats of naval contentment, and became an explosive mass. But it was necessary to set fire to the fire-resistant cord, and this was the forced abdication of Nicholas 1. Notice, not the soldiers, but the representatives of the bourgeois circles brought the tsar a "black mark". What they wanted there = now "by the drum", the end result is important, therefore the "undercut bourgeoisie" who forced to abdicate the throne of Nicholas 1. is to blame for the further troubles of Russia.
          1. Uncle Murzik
            Uncle Murzik 8 February 2017 17: 30 New
            +2
            V.ic you blow the brain to Olgovich, the Bolsheviks are to blame for everything! laughing
            1. V.ic
              V.ic 9 February 2017 09: 18 New
              +2
              Quote: Uncle Murzik
              the Bolsheviks are to blame for everything!

              ... in the words of Tsar Solomon: "and you are right" ... Only it was not so much the Bolsheviks as the "inter-raions" who arrived with their Ame'giki with the comrade T'gotsky!
        3. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 8 February 2017 18: 30 New
          +1
          Paradox: the most faithful adherents and disseminators of Bolshevik and communist myths are the adherents of the RKMP. smile
          It seems that they did not read Orwell:
          For example, she believed that the party had invented an airplane, as she was taught at school. (When Winston was a schoolboy — in the late 50s — the party claimed only to invent a helicopter; ten years later, when Julia went to school, the airplane was also invented by the party; another generation — and it would invent a steam engine.)
          1. V.ic
            V.ic 9 February 2017 09: 24 New
            0
            Quote: Alexey RA
            are supporters of the RCMP.

            ... sorry, but who is this WHO? belay
            1. Alexey RA
              Alexey RA 9 February 2017 10: 08 New
              0
              RKMP = Russia, Which We Lost.
              1. V.ic
                V.ic 9 February 2017 11: 10 New
                0
                Quote: Alexey RA
                RKMP = Russia, Which We Lost.

                ... then P.ILC. And in memory of the USSR, it seems to you that it is "lump."
  5. Nukesmoke
    Nukesmoke 8 February 2017 12: 21 New
    +1
    Yes, opening a "third front" (Western, Eastern and Oceanic), Germany suddenly found itself in a dead end. Non-standard methods of victory in the Ocean, as before in Belgium, did not lead to anything other than "demonization" of Germany.
    1. Cartalon
      Cartalon 8 February 2017 13: 03 New
      +1
      Willy himself called the Germans Huns, so there was nothing to demonize, the Germans were.
      1. Nukesmoke
        Nukesmoke 8 February 2017 14: 34 New
        0
        Talk about something else. There is no smoke without fire. The Germans could not count on victory, if they did not cross the border of neutral Belgium. And that immediately made Germany a "demon." So Willy’s speech has absolutely nothing to do with it. On the other hand, should Germany have been so substituted for the interests of Austria-Hungary?
    2. antivirus
      antivirus 8 February 2017 13: 20 New
      0
      Newspapers - the media - rely now on reading skills. How many problems would be solved in RI with 100 million literate peasants? But for this it was necessary to build. 30 years before 300 schools. For village children, you don’t need much: a hut (000 times more than yours, firewood, a guard, your own well and teachers 10 h / school) + teacher courses (now pedagogical schools) + coachman with his own tarantass for the course director) and you can continue to joke.
      US newspapers printed and created world public opinion based on a literate population.
      1. Nukesmoke
        Nukesmoke 8 February 2017 14: 37 New
        0
        Hundreds of millions of rubles are needed. Of course, this will pay off handsomely, but for some reason, to admit that in the situation of the beginning of the twentieth century Russia cannot play the "great power", it did not want to recognize the government, and money was sent to the army.
        1. antivirus
          antivirus 8 February 2017 15: 30 New
          +1
          send back to the 1880s And Alexander 2 crawled out of the Crimean War pit and Crimea war was the result of an ill-conceived policy (as if everything could be foreseen) in the Holy Union and the lag in the development of the Republic of Ingushetia before Western Europe
          1. Nukesmoke
            Nukesmoke 1 March 2017 13: 37 New
            +1
            The last Russo-Turkish war rather crippled. The victory in it was pyrrhic. In financial terms, and politically as well.
  6. Vladislav 73
    Vladislav 73 9 February 2017 13: 18 New
    0
    Admiral Viscount Gellico, First Sea Lord of the Admiralty
    Actually, there was no such rank. There were either the First Sea Lord or the First Lord of the Admiralty. The first sea lord was the head of the Royal Navy of Great Britain and all Navy as well as the Head of the Naval Staff. Professional military, such as Admiral Gellico or Beatty. The First Lord of the Admiralty is the chairman of the Committee of Lords of the Admiralty, a kind of analogue of the Minister of the Sea in other countries. Unlike the First Sea Lord (military), the First Lord of the Admiralty since 1806 is only a civilian, usually a politician. Example-W. Churchill, October 1911 May 1915
  7. Atlant-1164
    Atlant-1164 10 February 2017 22: 51 New
    +2
    a summary of the post ... the Americans themselves drowned Lusitania ... so there was a reason to join the war .. \ it’s not funny by ourselves \ !!
    1. Nukesmoke
      Nukesmoke 1 March 2017 13: 58 New
      0
      Not funny. The reason for the war is perfect, and Wilson's nose should have entered the war. Most likely the “gun on the wall” factor.
      1. antivirus
        antivirus 1 March 2017 15: 42 New
        0
        I found a time when a gun hung from my grandfather on the wall.
        You may not have guns. In the United States, along with Yap and France and Germany, they could only train bakers and bake pies. And RI identity without the military could live.
        Ha ha
  8. Conductor
    Conductor 8 December 2017 19: 11 New
    0
    Kuroshupy, they.
  9. smaug78
    smaug78 27 December 2017 13: 51 New
    0
    As I understand it, Germany is good, since the United States decided to sing against it. And they don’t give a damn .. to the conspirator-traitors that Germany is waging war against RI ...