Soon, six years, as in Syria, there is a civil war - a multilateral armed conflict with foreign intervention.
Officially, in this war, the Assad government, supported by Iran and Russia, is confronted by a rather heterogeneous opposition of a moderate nature, whose interests are defended by Turkey, Saudi Arabia and the United States. However, there is a third party to the conflict, the most dangerous one is the extremist Islamic State, or ISIL (the organization is banned in Russia and other countries). They fight against all.
As often happens when the interests of several powers collide, the conflict has been protracted, with very large casualties. For the time being it is impossible to talk about more or less clear prospects for solving the Syrian problem.
Government troops of Bashar al-Assad are now greatly weakened during the more than four years of civil war. The mobilization (and especially human) resources of Damascus are close to exhaustion. Given this, an important task now is to attract the regular armed forces of Iran and Iraq to crush the IS and other terrorist groups. Last news and statements by politicians allow experts to say that it is possible to form a military-political bloc with the participation of Iran, Iraq and Russia in the war against the banned Islamic State group. China and Turkey are already attributed to the formed military bloc.
How realistic is the emergence of a military alliance between Moscow, Tehran, Baghdad and Ankara is a topic for a separate analysis, but the military potential, or rather its component - the military industry of the parties to the conflict, is of undoubted interest. And if the military industry of Russia, the United States, China is constantly in the center of attention and there is a lot of information about it, then the military industry of regional players does not enjoy such attention.
Undoubtedly, Iran is the most serious contender for regional leadership. In modern conditions, the Islamic Republic of Iran (IRI), being a powerful regional power, in carrying out its policy is based on its own ideas about the features of wars and the principles of using its armed forces, the directions of military construction, the choice of potential adversaries, allies, etc.
The foundations of the military-political views of the military-political leadership (CDF) were laid by Ayatollah Khomeini and his colleagues before the Islamic revolution in Iran in 1979 year. Immediately after the seizure of power by the Shiite clerics based on the “Khomeini’s teachings” was formulated and then adopted by the parliament, the “Doctrine of national security of the Islamic Republic of Iran”.
Certain adjustments to military doctrinal views were made by the leadership of Iran in August 1988. These changes reflected the processes occurring in the country and around it in connection with the cessation of hostilities on the fronts of the Iran-Iraq war, and the Iranian authorities, under pressure from the objective factors, of certain military-political concepts. In the future, in the course of the development of military affairs, military doctrinal views are supplemented with certain provisions, based on the current military-political situation and an assessment of the prospects for its development.
Within the framework of the teachings of Khomeini, on the basis of its fundamental concepts, Iran’s national (state) interests are formulated, which are the guiding principle in determining the priorities and main objectives of its policy.
In accordance with national interests, the main goal of the Iranian leadership’s policy is to create, under the auspices of the Islamic Republic of Iran, the so-called world Islamic community, the Ummah. This provision, the essence of which is officially enshrined in Art. 11 national constitution is long-lasting.
The possibility of achieving this goal depends largely on the capabilities of the national military industry.
As a paramount direction in the development of the national military industry for the foreseeable future, the military-political leadership (CDF) of the country has determined the formation of a scientific and production infrastructure that has the capacity to serially produce modern weapons and military equipment based on its own developments using foreign technologies.
The construction of the research and production base of the military industry is carried out in accordance with the revised annual plans within the framework of the state program "Iran-1400", calculated for the period from 1997 to 2021 year. The issues of equipping national armed forces with modern models of weapons and military equipment are under the constant control of the state and are solved with its direct participation.
The centralized management of military industry enterprises is carried out by the Ministry of Defense and Armed Forces Logistics (MODAFL) by distributing government orders for the development and production of weapons and military equipment.
In the framework of the IESP, all military enterprises are consolidated into the following industry organizations:
- Organization of the rocket and space industry - the Aerospace Industry Organization (AIO);
- Organization aviation industry - OAP (Aviation Industry Organization - AIO);
- Organization of the defense industry - OOP (Defense Industry Organization - DIO);
- Organization of the shipbuilding industry - OSB (Marine Industry Organization - MIO);
- Radio Electronics Industry Organization - PIU (Iran Electronics Industries - IEI).
In turn, industry organizations unite individual companies, enterprises or industrial groups (GHGs), which include repair enterprises and research organizations (NIO) along with production ones. On the basis of the latter, in the interests of a particular type of aircraft, research and development activities are being carried out to create new models, modernize existing weapons and master the technology of repairing foreign equipment.
Iran’s rocket and space industry is a leading military industry with significant human and financial resources. Its development is identified as one of the priorities of the CDF in the field of ensuring the country's defense.
The structure of this industry includes a number of enterprises and NIOs, which have launched the production of medium-range ballistic missiles (MRBD), operational-tactical (OTP), tactical missiles, anti-aircraft systems, anti-personnel missiles, anti-tank missiles and anti-nuclear missiles. Its products, as a rule, are copies of Chinese, North Korean or Soviet designs.
At present, all enterprises performing work on rocket topics are united in the Organization of the Rocket and Space Industry of Iran - RPPU. OPU directs and coordinates research organizations and production centers in the development, production and technical support of rocket weapons and space technology. Among the most significant enterprises of the industry should include the industrial group (PG) "Shahid Hemmat" and "Shahid Bagheri".
IG Shahid Hemmat (Shahid Hemmat Industries Group - SHIG) conducts R & D and has started mass production of various types of MRSM and OTP with liquid rocket engines (LRE). The range of its products includes: Shekhab-3 BRSD (Shahab-3) and Shehab-3M / Gadr-1 / -2 (Ghadr-l / -2); OTP "Shehab-1" (Shahab-1), "Shehab-2" (Shahab-2) and "Kiam-1" (Qiam-1).
As an alternative to rocket engine missiles, Iran is actively developing a program to build rockets with solid-propellant rocket engines (TTRD) using mainly Chinese and Russian technologies. The leading in this area is the Shahid Bagheri diversified manufacturing enterprise (Shahid Bagheri Industries Group - SBIG). The production of BRSD and OTP has been launched at its facilities, both under license and in-house development, as well as with the participation of foreign specialists, solid rocket motors are manufactured. The company's main products are Sejil (Sejil), Fateh (Fateh), Nateat (Nazeat) and Zelzal (Opel) type OTP, Khalij-Fars anti-ship ballistic missiles (Khalij-e Fars) and others
The use of a solid-fuel engine instead of a liquid engine indicates significant progress in the field of rocket technology, which allows Iran to significantly increase the armed forces ’readiness by reducing the time required to prepare a rocket for launch, as well as improve the performance of the missile, such as safety and ease of maintenance.
Despite financial difficulties and technological lag in the rocket and space industry, Iran’s WFD managed to create a sufficiently developed scientific infrastructure. In addition to the research organizations that are directly part of industrial groups, the URWU has a large number of independent research and development centers, where new types of missile weapons are being developed.
Two test sites located in the cities of Qom and Semnan are used to conduct test launches of BR and other types of missiles, as well as for firing artillery systems.
In general, Iran managed to develop the country's rocket industry to the level of one of the largest and most modern in the Middle East. Its further development largely depends on the receipt of foreign technologies. In the future, the leadership of the PCU plans to comprehensively solve technical problems associated with the development of new types of missile weapons, by enhancing military-technical cooperation with China, the DPRK and India.
The aviation industry of Iran at the present stage has a sufficiently developed scientific and technical base to maintain the required level of combat effectiveness of the national air force. The industry includes enterprises that specialize mainly in extending the life of aviation equipment (AT), previously supplied by Western manufacturers, and refining it in accordance with the needs of the armed forces.
The basis of the aviation industry is the Organization of the aviation industry - OAP, which includes a number of companies, individual enterprises and research centers. The leading companies in the structure of the OAP are:
- "Iran Aircraft Manufacturing Industries" (Iran Aircraft Manufacturing Industries - LAMI, an abbreviation of Farsi - HESA);
- "Iran Helicopter Support & Renewal Company" (Iran Helicopter Support & Renewal Company - IHSRC, abbreviation in Farsi - PANHA);
- "Iran Aircraft Industries" (Iran Aircraft Industries - LAO, abbreviation in Farsi - SAHA).
"Iran Aircraft Manufacturing Industries" is the country's largest manufacturer of AT. Currently, its production facilities are equipped with the production of training aircraft (TCB), UAVs and aircraft engines. In addition, the company has modernized part of the existing F-5E / F "Tiger-2" American-made fighter jets, which were called Azarahsh. The aircraft features a new tail assembly, Russian-made engines, a new radar, and an increased fuselage length.
The result of the further modernization of the F-SE / A was the conversion of several machines into variants called Saje. At the same time, Iranian specialists are positioning these aircraft models as samples of their own production, although there is no information on the release of just such machines.
Also, “Iran Aircraft Manufacturing Industries” is actively developing the production of multi-purpose UAVs of the Ababil family and the Karrah drums (Karrar).
Along with the development and production of airplanes, UAV pays close attention to the development of helicopters. The main specialized company is "Iran Helicopter Support and Marketing Company", which performs maintenance and repair of more than ten types of foreign-made helicopters, which are in service with the Armed Forces of Iran. It has workshops for servicing engines, transmissions, radio-electronic equipment, navigation equipment and gyroscopes, as well as assembling helicopter bodies.
In addition to repairing helicopter equipment, the company's specialists make considerable efforts to modernize it on the basis of the existing AT fleet of foreign production. So, the Panha 2091 (PANHA 2091) helicopter was created based on the American Bell AN-1 Super Cobra. Bell helicopters 205 and 206 are taken as the basis for creating two modifications - Panha Shabaviz 2-75 (PANHA Shabaviz 2-75) and Panha Shabaviz 2061 (PANHA Shabaviz 2061), respectively.
Iran Aircraft Industries accounts for the largest amount of repairs, upgrades and maintenance of aircraft and helicopters performed in the aviation industry, including the F-5 Tiger-2, F-4 Fantom, F-14 fighters Tomkat, as well as military transport aircraft F-27 and C-130.
Thus, despite the measures taken to develop the aviation industry, it is currently not able to fully meet the needs of the national armed forces and is limited mainly to re-equipment, modernization and repair of the existing foreign AT. Creating your own samples, which involves the alteration of existing foreign aircraft, is difficult due to the inability to ensure the full production cycle.
On this basis, measures are being taken to modernize and re-equip enterprises, to increase the scientific potential of specialized NIOs through the active involvement of foreign specialists, and the acquisition abroad of military and dual-use technologies, modern equipment, and high-quality raw materials.
The armored industry is represented by enterprises that are part of the Organization of the Defense Industry and are mainly engaged in re-equipment, modernization and repair of armored vehicles. Manufactured products of own production is mainly analogous to Chinese, Soviet or British samples.
The main enterprises specializing in this field are part of the Wickle and Equipment Industrial Group. At the initial stage of development of this industry, the main task of the group was to create the necessary capacities for repairing foreign models of armored vehicles in service with the national armed forces. Subsequently, a number of industrial enterprises and NIOs entered the GHGs, which greatly expanded the capabilities of the armored industry. Currently, GHG enterprises have capabilities for licensed production of some samples, upgrades, and also for the production of armored vehicle components.
So, at the enterprise "Shahid Kolahduz" (Shahid Kolah-Dooz Industrial Complex) production of the main combat tanks "Zulfikar" (Zulfiqar), developed in the late 1990s on the basis of the Soviet T-72S and American M48 and M60. In addition, light tanks “Tusan”, BMP “Borag” (Boragh) and BTR “Rakhsh” (Rakhsh) are produced there.
Research and development in the field of armored vehicles (BTT) is carried out by specialists from the Research Institute (IWI) at the Wickle Equipment Equipment Industrial Group. The modern scientific and technical base of the institute allows the development of models of armored vehicles and various systems, in particular, fire control systems.
At the present stage, the armored industry is not able to meet the needs of the Iranian Armed Forces in full and is represented mainly by enterprises for the repair and modernization of existing models of armored vehicles. The nomenclature of samples of its own production is extremely limited and includes mainly adapted versions of foreign developments.
Further development in the development and production of our own armored vehicles is possible only with the active use of foreign technologies, the availability of the necessary qualified personnel and the building-up of a scientific and technical base.
The artillery and rifle industry is represented by a number of enterprises for the production of MLRS launchers, self-propelled and towed guns of field and anti-aircraft artillery, mortars, grenade launchers and other small arms that are part of the Defense Industry Organization.
The largest producers of artillery and small arms are the enterprises of the Hadid industrial group (HADID Industrial Complex), which have shops for conventional and high-precision casting, heat treatment and heavy billet processing. At its facilities, the production of large, medium and small caliber guns, self-propelled artillery, mortars and small arms.
The Fajr industrial group (Fajr) is engaged in the production of hand-held and machine-mounted anti-tank grenade launchers Saegheh, Nader (Nader) and Nafez, developed on the basis of Soviet designs.
The production of artillery and rifle industry meets modern requirements and fully meets the needs of the Armed Forces of Iran in the main types of small arms. In the future, it is planned to master the production of the latest types of artillery weapons.
The ammunition industry is represented by a number of manufacturing enterprises that are part of the PLO. The leading positions in it are occupied by Ammunition & Metallurgy Industries Group (AMIG), which includes more than ten enterprises.
So, at the factories of the Shahid Sajad Shirazi company and the ammunition manufacturing complex, artillery shells and small arms ammunition are manufactured. In addition, several production lines were built for the production of 324- and 533-mm torpedoes and sea mines.
Another large enterprise of the same profile is the PG-Chin-6 PG (Parchin-b), which is engaged in the production of its own developed ammunition for RDG-type grenade launchers. At its own capacities, the production of various types of powders, explosives, and electric detonators was adjusted.
Specialists of the Isfahan Chemical Industries (Isfahan Chemical Industries) are actively involved in the ammunition equipment.
In general, this industry is able to meet the needs of the armed forces of the country. In the future, it is planned to expand the range of products manufactured by it and to ensure the production of ammunition for all existing weapons and weapons that are accepted for service.
Iran's shipbuilding industry for a long time was not among the priority sectors of the military-industrial complex. However, in recent years, the country's leadership has been forced to pay special attention to the modernization and development of the naval component of the national armed forces. This is primarily due to the increased importance of ensuring the protection of territorial waters and the sea coast in the waters of the Caspian Sea, the Persian and Oman gulfs, as well as control over navigation in the Strait of Hormuz.
The industry is based on the Organization of the Shipbuilding Industry (CAP), which includes a number of GHGs and research centers that produce samples of naval technology, as well as repairs and upgrades of surface and submarines already in service. Among the most important enterprises operating under the leadership of the PSP are Shahid Darvishi, Shahid Julai and Shahid Tamjidi.
The IG Shahid Darvishi (Shahid Darvishi) enterprises specialize in the design and manufacture of ultra-small, small and medium-sized diesel submarines, as well as repair and upgrade Russian 877EKM submarines of the Iranian Navy. In the process of creating submarines, the experts of the group widely use foreign experience and technologies, as well as the necessary production equipment and materials.
Thus, the North Korean super small submarine (SMPL) of the Iugo project (Yugo), in the design and construction of which technical support was provided by North Korean specialists, served as the basis for creating the Gadir SMPL series (Al-Ghadir).
Along with the construction of submarines, the Islamic Republic of Iran pays considerable attention to the production of other technologically complex samples of naval equipment. For example, the shipyards of PG Shahid Tamjidi (Shahid Tamjidi Industries) and Shahid Julai (Shahid Julaei Industries) are building frigates with guided missile weapons (URO) of the Moudge type with the assistance of Chinese and Indian specialists.
Shahid Julai’s production facilities are also implementing projects for the construction of combat boats, the most significant of which is the Sina type missile boat. The GHG includes a research and design institute that conducts R & D in the field of modern surface and submarine ships.
Currently, Iran’s shipbuilding industry is in the process of formation and can partially satisfy the needs of the country's naval forces. Most of the naval equipment produced at the enterprises is copies of foreign samples. At the same time, the construction of such ships as frigates of URO and DEPL testifies to positive trends in the industry and corresponds to the plans of the Party of People's Republic of Belarus. However, its further development is directly dependent on the receipt of foreign technologies and timely financing.
The radio-electronic industry is represented by the Organization of the Radio-Electronic Industry (PIU), which is focused on the development and production of military communication systems, electronic weapons control systems, security systems, information systems, and other radio-electronic equipment.
The industry includes more than 20 companies. Among the most significant are enterprises of the companies Iran Communications Industries and Shiraz Electronics Industries.
Iran Communications Industries (Iran Communications Industries - ICI) is a leading manufacturer of equipment for communication systems. At the enterprise, about 100 production lines are involved, more than 80 items of military products are produced. The nomenclature of military installations includes portable radio stations of the HF, VHF and microwave ranges, telecommunication systems and information collection and processing systems. The development of new types of technology and the issues of scientific and technical support of production is carried out by its own research and development center.
Shiraz Electronic Industries (Shiraz Electronic Industries - SEI) specializes in the design and manufacture of electronic equipment for military and civilian use. The company has 50 production lines equipped with modern equipment. Capacities of the enterprise allow to develop and manufacture on-board systems "friend - foe", navigation tools, electronic warfare and radar, control and automation, electronic weapon control systems, night vision devices, radar and other radio-electronic equipment.
In the framework of the PIU, special attention is paid to the continuous improvement of the quality level of R & D in the interests of introducing advanced technologies into the production process in accordance with current international standards. The bulk of the work is entrusted to research organizations, the largest of which is the Iran Electronics Research Center (Iran Electronics Research Center - IERC). The capabilities of the center allow the use of modern technologies for the development and creation of communication systems, radar, microprocessors, optoelectronics, antennas and other radio-electronic equipment.
The organization of the radio-electronic industry almost completely meets the needs of the country in communications and telecommunications. At the same time, in the process of developing military hardware, the focus is on creating reliable communications capable in the conditions of a rapidly changing environment and the massive use of electronic suppression by the enemy to ensure successful solution of the tasks of operational and mobilization deployment of the Armed Forces, as well as sustainable command and control of troops. action.
At the present stage, the Iranian military industry is able to meet the needs of the national armed forces in artillery and small arms, ammunition, explosives, radio-electronic equipment, as well as in some types of naval equipment. Active work is underway in the field of rocket production and aircraft construction, the production of armored vehicles is being mastered, and almost all types of weapons and military equipment in service with the national armed forces are being repaired and modernized.
In the foreseeable future, the pace of development of the Iranian military industry will directly depend on the scale of funding for the development and production of weapons and military equipment, determined by the level of the country's economy, as well as opportunities to gain access to foreign technologies.
Material prepared: Dekabrist
Foreign military review. 2016, No. 8, p. 28-35
Foreign military review. 2016, No. 10, p. 8-17
The military potential of Iran. Manachinsky A.Y. M .: Publisher Vorobev A.V. Xnumx