Military Review

Crusaders against the Hussites

50
“In the name of all Czechs I swear that the Czechs will terribly avenge the temples in the event of the death of Gus. All this lawlessness will be paid a hundredfold. The world before God and people is broken, and in the blood of the papists the Czech goose washes its wings. He who has ears, let him hear. ”
(Pan from Chlum - performance at the Cathedral of Constance)


It must be said that the attempt of the Roman popes to solve European problems by organizing crusades to the East not only did not solve part of the old problems, but also created new ones that also had to be solved somehow, and these problems were very, very serious. For example, immediately after the start of agitation for the first crusade in several parts of Europe, relations between Jews and Christians deteriorated significantly. If in Spain, Christians, fighting for Christ, began to kill Jews long before the Reconquista and the expulsion of Muslims began in 1063, then in Central Europe, where crusader troops gathered for the first crusade, the persecution of Jews began in the spring of 1096. They were held in Speyer, Worms, Trier and Metz, and then continued in Cologne, Neisse and Xanten. At the same time, not only the crusaders who attacked the Holy Land attacked the Jewish communities, but also the robber gangs of knights who had joined them, who did not gather so far, but went along with the "pilgrims". Thus, about eight hundred people were killed in Worms, and more than a thousand died in Mainz. According to the most careful calculations, the number of dead could be four to five thousand people. In Regensburg, the Crusaders forced the local Jews to be baptized, although, according to church regulations, it was strictly forbidden to do this.

Crusaders against the Hussites

Jan Zizka with his warriors, 1423 Angus McBride

It is clear that there was a very deep abyss between Christians and Jews. However, the crusade against the infidels only aggravated this situation. Now it was worth, for example, in Holy Week someone shouting that the Jews were for the crucifixion of Christ, as Christians immediately rushed to beat the local Jews, because of which bloody clashes broke out in the cities. At the same time, some Christians and especially the Crusaders captured so much of all good that they didn’t go further, believing that God gave them everything they needed, they didn’t want to take part in the march, but tried to return to their homes as soon as possible with the stolen property.


The burning of Jan Hus. Medieval miniature.

Another problem is the problem of finances, which was acute at all times. After all, such a large-scale thing as the organization of military expeditions to the East, required huge financial resources that needed to be obtained somewhere. So, already during the preparation of the first campaign, the participants were advised to take more money with them, since there would be no one to support them in the campaign. In the future, the Crusaders were asked to stock up money for two years. And many knights, going to the Holy Land, sold off all their belongings or borrowed money from usurers, hoping to never give them back!


Popular weapon Hussites and knights-crusaders who fought in the Czech Republic - a battle scourge. Weight 963.9 Germany. Metropolitan Museum, New York.

The kings, accordingly, raised taxes on their subjects (in particular, this is what King Henry II of England did), and even spiritual knightly and monastic orders were exempted from taxes imposed by the pope, and only Cistercians evaded paying them to 1200 of the year.

However, the popes also earned income due to the wide sale of indulgences, which made it possible to get any absolution from them. So, when the English king Henry II ordered the killing of the archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Becket, a large fine was imposed on him, which the church received, and this money also went on another crusade. It was the lack of cash inflows from Aquitaine in the south of France that first of all caused the crusades against the Cathars, who, if they continued to pay church taxes in sufficient amounts, most likely could have avoided the “God's punishment” inflicted on them.


The 1375 Bascinet - 1425 Weight 2268 France. Metropolitan Museum, New York.

Moreover, the tax burden during the Crusades became so heavy that it gave rise to all sorts of jokes directed against the Pope. “Admit it openly,” Minnesinger Walter von der Vogelweide asked as early as 1213, who, speaking the language of modern times, had apparently simply “gotten” all these papal exactions to the crusades, which only his own life had for three. then are you sent by dad to bring him wealth, and cast us, the germans, into poverty and pledge? ”


Minnesinger Walter von der Vogelweide. Thumbnail from the "Code of Manes". Library of Heidelberg University.

Such an attitude towards believers from the church naturally pushed away a mass of parishioners from it and led to the emergence of many very different heretical teachings. Neither the Avignon Capture of the Popes, which took place in 1307 - 1377, nor the Great Schism, or the split of the Catholic Church 1378 - 1417, added to the church of authority, when two and then three popes were at the head of the church !

Begin to degenerate and the crusading movement itself. At first, this degeneration manifested itself in the crusade of the French and Germanic 1212 children of the year, quite convinced by the words that adult crusaders are greedy and bad people, which is why God does not give them victory, and only they, immaculate children, will be able to arms to conquer Jerusalem. Then they were followed by two “crusades”, the so-called “shepherds” of 1251 and 1320, during which the poor of the Southern Netherlands and Northern France seemed to go on a crusade, and themselves began once again to attack the Jews and ruin everything in its path. As a result, Pope John XXII came out against the shepherds with a sermon, and the King of France, Philip V, sent troops against them, who cracked down on them, as with the most ordinary rebels.


1420 Knight of the year fights against the Hussites. Fig. Angus McBride

Therefore, it is hardly surprising that, for example, in the same Czech Republic at that time, under the influence of the reformist ideas of Jan Hus, the departure from the traditional Catholic teachings also began, and the movement of the “Hussites” - that is, his followers, eventually turned into a real folk war for the independence of the Czech lands. The Pope, of course, could not afford to lose the Czech Republic, because the state was economically developed and brought a lot of money to the papal treasury, because he 1 March 1420 declared the Hussites heretics and called on to start a crusade against them. But the main organizer of the campaign was not the then Pope Martin V, he was his ideological inspirer, but the king of the Czech Republic, Hungary and Germany, as well as the future Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund, who also needed the Czech Republic. So he immediately began to assemble in Silesia the troops of the Crusaders from the German, Hungarian and Polish knights, from the infantry, which the Silesian cities had set for him, and also from the Italian mercenaries.


"Military hat" - a popular helmet of the Hussites. Weight 1264 Friborg. Metropolitan Museum, New York.

However, the first clashes between the crusaders and the army of the Hussites showed that the time of the knight’s own army, the main striking force of which was the heavily armed knightly cavalry, had already passed. The first campaign was followed by four more, organized respectively in 1421, 1425, 1427, 1431, but never brought much success to the crusaders. In turn, the Hussites took several trips to the lands of neighboring states and even besieged Vienna, although they failed to take it.


Fighting guusits. Reconstruction.


Fighting cart on the go.


Fighting with a combat cart. Angus McBride.

The Hussites skillfully defended themselves from attacks of knightly cavalry, building mobile field fortifications from special combat vehicles, shot riders from crossbows and the first samples of handguns that received the name “Pishtala” in the Czech Republic, and used threshing arms directly in the melee, which, being sharp, stuck nails, turned, thus, into a combat morganstern.


Crossbow of Matthias Corvinus, King of Hungary (reigned in 1458 - 1490). Metropolitan Museum, New York.

The talented organizer of the Hussite army was a poor knight and an experienced warrior Jan ижižka. Being wounded in the head, he went blind, but continued to command his troops, and did so so professionally that he did not suffer a single defeat in the battles with the Crusaders. Especially skillfully, Jan Zizka used mobile fortifications, which were assembled from ordinary peasant carts with which his army enclosed against their cavalry. True, the Hussites have altered them a bit: they supplied them with thick walls of boards with loopholes and chains to firmly connect them. On each cart there was a kind of “calculation”: a thresher with a flail, a halberd with a halberd and a hook, crossbowmen and arrows from a simple firearm. These mobile fortresses have never been crushed. In addition, it was the Hussites who first began to install small cannons on wagons and shoot them at knights when they tried to attack their fortifications. As a result, it came to the point that the knights happened to begin to retreat, they barely heard the battle songs of the Hussites and the creak of their carts!


Hussites - plastic figures.

The results of the crusaders' campaigns against the Hussites turned out to be so deplorable that the Pope and King Sigismund were forced to use the Czechs themselves in the fight against them, only from a more moderate wing. As was usually done and done in such cases, they were attracted by promises, as a result of which a fierce internecine struggle began on the territory of the Czech Republic, which ultimately led to the defeat of the Hussite movement.


Barbute 1460. Weight 3285, Germany. Metropolitan Museum, New York.

Nevertheless, the Catholic Church in the Czech Republic was not able to reclaim all the lost land and restore the monasteries destroyed by the Hussites, and therefore to regain its former influence. As a result, the outcome of the war was influenced by the compromise of the moderate part of the Hussites with the empire and the Catholic Church. This brought her to an end, and she, in fact, did not bring any great benefits to any of the parties involved, but thoroughly devastated Central Europe and showed the ability to successfully smash knights with peasant infantry forces armed with spiked chains and firearms.


Another illustration of Angus McBride with the image of the Hussites.

Interestingly, the legendary ... Jeanne d'Arc, who marched 23 in March 1430, dictated a letter in which she called on the crusading army to oppose the Hussites and fight with them until they returned to the Catholic faith. Two months later, it was captured by the Burgundians and the British, and then, you see, she would have gone to war in the Czech Republic and would have joined the ranks of the local crusaders!
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  1. V.ic
    V.ic 26 July 2016 06: 56
    +12
    As long as the Czechs were united, they won. As soon as there was a split between the "taborites" / schismatics / and "chasniks" / moderate /, then "the snake bit its tail." By the way, it seems that Jan Zizka took part in the Battle of Grunwald in his youth.
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 26 July 2016 07: 43
    +8
    Prince Vitovt sent the Lithuanian-Russian army to help the Hussites, which helped the Hussites repel four crusades ...
  3. Rastas
    Rastas 26 July 2016 08: 24
    +8
    Jan Hus is a great man. I read in childhood his biography from the ZhZL series. And the Hussites and Jan ижižka are the most heroic and beautiful that was in the history of the Czech people. Eternal memory to them for resistance to the crusaders.
  4. pimen
    pimen 26 July 2016 08: 57
    0
    it is characteristic that the papacy, in contrast to Orthodoxy, participating, and not moving away, more and more
  5. Trapperxnumx
    Trapperxnumx 26 July 2016 09: 21
    +7
    Yes, there were Czechs at one time, not like the current tribe ...
  6. cth; fyn
    cth; fyn 26 July 2016 09: 36
    +1
    And the tomb of the Lord about ... clicked.
  7. Fei_Wong
    Fei_Wong 26 July 2016 09: 51
    +2
    By the way, Maitre Sapkowski, by the way, very brightly and informatively highlighted this period of Czech history in his three-volume "Saga of Reinevan" (if we discard any mysticism and alternative plot, of course). Well, what, but in the subject matter and the material part, he understands perfectly.
  8. Riv
    Riv 26 July 2016 09: 52
    +1
    Yeah ... Zhanna didn't have enough sense to tell the inquisitors: "Let me go to the Czech Republic and put things in order there for the glory of faith!" After all, those then would have thought a hundred times whether to burn it. Jeanne's authority was great, many talented military leaders would follow her, including even the British and Burgundians. The crusade is a cross, a matter of everyday life. Today we cut, tomorrow we cut the heretics together.
    Could ride.
    1. ver_
      ver_ 26 July 2016 16: 10
      -5
      Jeanne was not burned, she belonged to the royal family .. They burned another mute woman ... So many historians and scholars believe ...
  9. kit_bellew
    kit_bellew 26 July 2016 09: 58
    +6
    The Holy Sepulcher is, excuse me, a carrot for donkeys, a kind of democracy today. The crusade entertainers knew very well what they were going to the East for - the dough.
    1. ver_
      ver_ 27 July 2016 13: 40
      -2
      They fought for the throne of the Emperor — whom they overthrew and crucified.
  10. Turkir
    Turkir 26 July 2016 10: 26
    +5
    It is a pity that there are no Hussites left in modern Czechia and the ashes of Jan Hus "do not strike them in the heart."
    --
    As for the Crusades: they were paid by the Venetian and Lombard bankers.
    Many bankers became, after failed campaigns, noble barons.
    "Crusaders" extinguished their debts, after unsuccessful campaigns, by selling them their ancestral estates and titles.
    1. dumpy15
      dumpy15 26 July 2016 11: 05
      +3
      In Venice, you can still see ancient relics taken by looters from Constantinople defeated by the crusaders in 1204.
      1. ver_
        ver_ 26 July 2016 16: 22
        -7
        ... Constantinople was founded after 1380 ..
        1. Imperialkolorad
          Imperialkolorad 26 July 2016 18: 33
          0
          Quote: ver_
          ... Constantinople was founded after 1380 ..

          Freshly giving ...
        2. andj61
          andj61 26 July 2016 18: 45
          +7
          Quote: ver_
          ... Constantinople was founded after 1380 ..

          I wish the Emperor of the Roman Empire, Constantine the Great, who transferred his capital to Byzantium in 330 and renamed this city to Constantinople, was surprised to learn that in fact Constantinople would be founded only after 1050 years! bully
          1. V.ic
            V.ic 26 July 2016 21: 24
            +3
            Quote: andj61
            Constantine the Greatwho moved his capital to Byzantium in 330 and renamed this city to Constantinople,

            For that and respect him on Moldovanka and Peresyp, and he took the fisherwoman-Sonya as his wife and smoked, by the way, "Kazbek", not "Maryivanovna"! By the way, Mark Bernes himself voiced these things in the film "Two Soldiers".
          2. ver_
            ver_ 28 July 2016 07: 49
            -1
            http://www.libma.ru/istorija/carskii_rim_v_mezhdureche_oki_i_volgi/p11.phphttp:/
            /www.libma.ru/ chapter 7
            Cannons of Dmitry Donskoy and "trumpets with lamps" of the Old Testament Gideon.
          3. ver_
            ver_ 28 July 2016 15: 22
            -4
            For the most stubborn.
            I believe that the most important achievement of Nosovsky and Fomenko was to determine the exact time of the appearance of the Bethlehem Star in the sky. This happened in the year of Christ's birth.
            Without knowledge of mathematics and astronomy this cannot be done.
            THIS is 1152 year ..
            So now is not 2016 from Christmas
            Christ, and 2016-1152 = 964
            This means that the 1152 years of the history of civilization are packed with hell knows what historical nonsense: duplicates of dynasties, events, fantasies and fakes under different sauces ..- "historical rubbish" ..
            1. Warrior2015
              Warrior2015 10 August 2016 09: 26
              0
              Quote: ver_
              I believe that the most important achievement of Nosovsky and Fomenko was to determine the exact time of the appearance of the Bethlehem Star in the sky. This happened in the year of Christ's birth.

              Just for reference - preserved evidence of ancient literature (and this long before the 1152 year) that the Star of Bethlehem was in the sky (apparently it was a flash of a supernova, not a comet).
        3. V.ic
          V.ic 26 July 2016 21: 18
          +2
          Quote: ver_
          .Constantinople was founded after 1380 ..

          Thank you, I didn’t know that Dmitry Ivanovich (Donskoy) hired a Turkish company to build a summer cottage on the Bosporus!
          1. ver_
            ver_ 27 July 2016 13: 55
            -2
            And the fact that they crucified Christ on the Bosporus did not know ..
        4. Aljavad
          Aljavad 27 July 2016 02: 24
          +2
          ver_ (5) RU Yesterday, 16:22 ↑
          ... Constantinople was founded after 1380 ..


          Really .... TURKS ????? !!!! belay
    2. The comment was deleted.
  11. Fei_Wong
    Fei_Wong 26 July 2016 10: 39
    0
    Quote: Riv
    Yeah ... Zhanna didn't have enough sense to tell the inquisitors: "Let me go to the Czech Republic and put things in order there for the glory of faith!" After all, those then would have thought a hundred times whether to burn it. Jeanne's authority was great, many talented military leaders would follow her, including even the British and Burgundians. The crusade is a cross, a matter of everyday life. Today we cut, tomorrow we cut the heretics together.
    Could ride.

    The end for her, even in this case, would be exactly the same. Only a year or two later.
  12. dumpy15
    dumpy15 26 July 2016 10: 40
    +3
    There is an excellent series of Czech feature films from 1950-60 devoted to the history of the Hussite movement, from the activities of Jan Hus to the last battles of the taborites.
  13. Taoist
    Taoist 26 July 2016 10: 49
    +1
    Yes, the times were "spiritual" they cut out half of Europe ... then churches were decorated with such decorations.
  14. ver_
    ver_ 26 July 2016 15: 59
    -5
    .. again a discrepancy in dates .. Richard the Lionheart was born in 1157 - he was a participant in campaigns for the "Holy Sepulcher" - for power in the Empire after the crucifixion of Christ .. At that time there was no Christianity, there was paganism.
    There was also no Pope Institute .. The Pope appeared in the 13th century, which is confirmed by the bronze She-Wolf cast in the 13-14 centuries ..
    1. V.ic
      V.ic 26 July 2016 21: 29
      +1
      Quote: ver_
      1157 - he was a participant in campaigns for the "Holy Sepulcher" - for power in the Empire after the crucifixion of Christ .. At that time there was no Christianity, there was paganism.

      Google about the Qumran finds in a cave near the Dead Sea. Read about the Essenes sect ...
      1. ver_
        ver_ 27 July 2016 13: 35
        -2
        ..I have enough of the new chronology ..
        1. Navigator Basov
          Navigator Basov 5 August 2016 23: 20
          +1
          Ah, well, everything is clear: Fomenkovsky sectarian.
  15. ver_
    ver_ 26 July 2016 17: 59
    -3
    Islam is the youngest religion - originated in the 15th century.
    1. V.ic
      V.ic 26 July 2016 21: 31
      +1
      Quote: ver_
      Islam is the youngest religion - originated in the 15th century.

      Ask what year the Hijra is ...
  16. Chisayna
    Chisayna 26 July 2016 18: 41
    +6
    Again ver (k) and ignites
  17. jurikberlin
    jurikberlin 26 July 2016 19: 08
    +1
    but we studied it at school. 6th grade, like not in such detail, but nevertheless.
    1. parusnik
      parusnik 26 July 2016 19: 53
      0
      Sixth grade .. but there was also a textbook on the history of the Middle Ages for the 6th grade .. there were a lot of additional materials .. such a rather thick book .. three times thicker than the textbook, a solid thing ..
  18. flc9800
    flc9800 26 July 2016 20: 26
    +2
    In early childhood, I often reread the book "For the Motherland" by Sergei Tsarevich. I recommend! good By the way, there is also a description of the battle of Grunwald in 1410. It is very easy to read, a lot of very interesting characters, including Jan ижižka!
  19. Olena
    Olena 27 July 2016 07: 55
    +1
    -What a pity that all these crusaders, Hussites, Taborites, chasniks wasted their strength and fought with each other .., destroyed and weakened each other ... -And they would have thrown all their forces into the Muslim East, in another crusade .. -Surely, success would be ensured ... -And the world would be further rid of the vilest Ottoman Empire ... -It would simply be crushed in the bud ... -Young Spaniards and Portuguese ... -they spent their time reconquista and saved the whole peninsula (literally saved Europe) from the Muslim Moors ... -And what would Spain and Portugal be like today ... - "next" Algeria or Morocco ... -It's just scary to think ...
    1. ver_
      ver_ 27 July 2016 14: 26
      -4
      Muslim east is relatively recent. In the beginning it was the Ataman Empire, and only then it became the Ottoman Empire. In the 15th century, Russia was split for religious reasons ...
      As a result of the baptism of pagan Russia, the army did not accept the new faith and, under the leadership of Prince Tversky, crossed the Volga before the ice drift. They founded Kazan (the Kingdom of Kazan and then moved to Constantinople.
      The Ataman Empire was founded there. Islam is a perverted paganism ...
      Yaroslav the Wise uprooted the sprouts of Christianity in Russia by the most cruel means - he didn’t even regret Andrei’s son .. Nevsky executed him (his brother) .. Yaroslav knew how the adoption of another’s faith might end ..
      1. Oleg Monarchist
        Oleg Monarchist 28 July 2016 10: 21
        +3
        Quote: ver_
        Muslim east is relatively recent. In the beginning it was the Ataman Empire, and only then it became the Ottoman Empire. In the 15th century, Russia was split for religious reasons ...
        As a result of the baptism of pagan Russia, the army did not accept the new faith and, under the leadership of Prince Tversky, crossed the Volga before the ice drift. They founded Kazan (the Kingdom of Kazan and then moved to Constantinople.
        The Ataman Empire was founded there. Islam is a perverted paganism ...
        Yaroslav the Wise uprooted the sprouts of Christianity in Russia by the most cruel means - he didn’t even regret Andrei’s son .. Nevsky executed him (his brother) .. Yaroslav knew how the adoption of another’s faith might end ..



        To what extent did one have to revel in order to write such nonsense?
      2. Navigator Basov
        Navigator Basov 5 August 2016 23: 17
        0
        How curious you are alternatively knowledgeable. The Ottoman Empire was named for the Ottoman dynasty, which came from Ottoman I Gazi. In 1299, Osman I took the title of Sultan and founded an empire, thereby giving rise to a dynasty. All this was at once, in one fell swoop, these events are historically and virtually indivisible. In Europe, the empire was called the Ottoman Empire, and now the name Ottoman Empire is preserved in the English language. So maybe this is some German Otto von Some founded Kazan and the empire of the Turks 150 years after it was founded by the Turks themselves?
    2. Warrior2015
      Warrior2015 10 August 2016 09: 23
      0
      Quote: olena
      . -And they would throw all their strength into the Muslim East, in the next crusade ... -Surely success would be ensured ... -And the world would be further saved from the rotten Ottoman Empire ...

      They tried - twice as much - ended in Nikopol and Varna defeats (although the Ottoman Port was already in power).


      And so the main culprits in the creation of Turkey as a European-Asian empire are ... the Byzantines. They shamefully "merged" two decisive battles - at Manzikert and at Miriokefalon - against the Turks who came from Central Asia through Iran and Kurdistan, allowing them to form into a large and strong state.
  20. ver_
    ver_ 27 July 2016 13: 30
    -2
    Islam is the youngest religion - originated in the 15th century.
    Quote: V.ic
    Quote: ver_
    .Constantinople was founded after 1380 ..

    Thank you, I didn’t know that Dmitry Ivanovich (Donskoy) hired a Turkish company to build a summer cottage on the Bosporus!

    I believe that Dmitry is the name given at birth and Konstantin is the name given at baptism, you also don’t know .. Dmitry Donskoy and Konstantin the Great are one and the same person ..
    He strove for the place where his ancestor, Khan John Rurik Varyag the Troyan, had come to rule from Russia .. Troy was completely destroyed and he founded the new city of Constantinople = Tsargrad ..
    1. Oleg Monarchist
      Oleg Monarchist 28 July 2016 10: 27
      +3
      Vera, aren't you an Svidomo crest for an hour?

      Is Dmiry Donskoy and Constantine the Great the same person? But what if these people lived with a difference of 1000 years? Constantine the Great (Flavius ​​Valery Aurelius Constantine) 272-337 BC and Dmitry Donskoy - 1350-1389 AD
      1. Navigator Basov
        Navigator Basov 5 August 2016 23: 28
        +1
        Oleg, yes they have all the historical figures there - one person. I would not be surprised if, according to the teachings of Fomenko and Nosovsky, actually Fomenko and Nosovsky are one person. One person with Alexander the Great, Christ, Genghis Khan and Stalin.
  21. ver_
    ver_ 27 July 2016 15: 06
    -2
    Quote: Aljavad
    ver_ (5) RU Yesterday, 16:22 ↑
    ... Constantinople was founded after 1380 ..


    Really .... TURKS ????? !!!! belay

    ..with their relatives a palace coup ..
  22. ver_
    ver_ 29 July 2016 14: 58
    -2
    Quote: Oleg Monarchist
    Vera, aren't you an Svidomo crest for an hour?

    Is Dmiry Donskoy and Constantine the Great the same person? But what if these people lived with a difference of 1000 years? Constantine the Great (Flavius ​​Valery Aurelius Constantine) 272-337 BC and Dmitry Donskoy - 1350-1389 AD

    For the gifted: The star of Bethlehem, which the church chronicles refer to, "lit up" in 1152 .. This was unambiguously established by mathematical and astronomical methods .. For those who are very interested - read the book "The King of the Slavs" - everything is laid out there .. Christ was born in 1152 year ..
    This means that 1152 years are attributed to the reckoning. That's all with all the fake royal dynasties and events ....
  23. Navigator Basov
    Navigator Basov 5 August 2016 22: 48
    0
    Nothing changes over time: the eastern ideological militias, as usual, pinch the western punitive mercenaries drinks
  24. Warrior2015
    Warrior2015 10 August 2016 09: 14
    0
    Quote: Vyacheslav Shpakovsky
    The Roman pope, of course, could not allow himself to lose the Czech Republic, because this state was economically developed and brought a lot of money to the papal treasury, because on March 1 of 1420 he declared the Hussites heretics and called for a crusade against them.
    I will open the topic from a somewhat unexpected side - the silver mines and industry of the Czech Republic were created and were largely in the hands of the Germans, so that the Holy German Empire of the German nation didn’t lose anything financially if the Czech Republic left its composition (since the owners did not change )

    The reason for the war was primarily religious, because Hussites really were a bunch of diverse sects, partly even reviving the ancient Gnostic and Manichaean-Mazdakite teachings.
  25. kara61
    kara61 16 August 2016 19: 11
    0
    All this massacre was due to money, church wealth and monastic lands. As soon as the Czech nobility got all this and agreed with Rome, they dealt with the Hussites and other rebels. And they went to brew beer and slaughtered pigs for sausage.
  26. Molot1979
    Molot1979 11 October 2016 11: 22
    +1
    How much is provided by Fomenkovtsev-nose-carriers. Well, I’ll throw a couple of sensible thoughts to your Chronolozhsky idols. Moscow, Ke5merovskaya Oblast and China are one and the same territory. Checked. In China, China, in Moscow, Kitay Gorod, and in the Kemerovo Region, the Kitat River. It is clear that all this is one and the same as Austria and Australia. And George W. Bush and his son George W. Bush are exactly the same person. After all, we will not seriously argue that in America there could be such a coincidence as two namesake presidents who both fought with Iraq. It is clear that Bush was alone and there was one war with Iraq. And then there’s some kind of nonsense: it’s not enough that the two Bushs are almost in a row, has Iraq won every time? But why was the second Bush to fight if the first has already won? So one Bush and one war. The chroniclers were mistaken.