FROM YALTA TO GURZUFA
As of 22 in June 1941, administratively, Yalta was the center of the Yalta region, in borders from Kastel mountain in the east to Baydar in the west, with an area of 348,4 square. km It consisted of the city of Alupka, two urban settlements - Gurzuf and Simeiz - 10 and rural councils: Ai-Vasilsky (now within the city of Yalta), Gasprinskii, Degermenkoysky (Zaprudnoe Alushta City Council), Kiziltashsky (Kranokamenka) Kikeneizsky (landslide) Koreiz, Kurkuletsky (Lavrovoye Alushta City Council), Limensky (Blue Bay), Mukhalatsky, Nikitsky with 53 settlements in the foothill zone.
Our Crimea! Photo © RIA News
Nationally, the population was: Russians - 40,38%, Crimean Tatars - 15,34%, Greeks - 7,70%, Ukrainians - 6,44%, other nationalities - 10,14%. In Yalta, there were 36 thousand inhabitants, and together with visitors - 66,2 thousand
Yalta has always been considered a first-class climate resort. On the eve of World War II, 108 (of them in Yalta itself - 42) sanatoriums and rest houses operated on 13 947 places where annually 120 treated and rested thousands of people acted in the city and region.
In the first days of the war for the Soviet and party authorities of the Crimea, the main task was the evacuation of resort visitors, among whom more than 10 thousand people were subject to mobilization. The fleet on the coast could hardly cope with the export and their mobilized.
From 4 to 9 in November 1941, German troops occupied the South Coast from Alushta to Balaklava.
An eyewitness, director of the Alupka Museum, Stepan G. Shchekoldin, recalled: “For two days - November 4 and November 5 - anarchy. Citizens smashed shops, bases, a pharmacy, rest homes and motels; carried home beds, mattresses, everything that fell under the arm. In Mishor the sanatorium of the Council of People's Commissars “Dulber” burned, in Yalta - the palace of the Emir of Bukhara, in Livadia - the Small Palace of the Romanovs ”.
Shchekoldin does not write who burned. Apparently, this was done by the NKVD officers. In particular, Andrei Artamonov in the book “Gosdachi Crimea. History the creation of government residences and holiday homes in the Crimea: truth and fiction "indicates that the soldiers of the 82 5th Battalion detonated the rest house of the UD SNK Mukhalatka. In the beginning of November they “brought about 1941 – 2 tons of 3-mm high-explosive artillery shells (index GU UF-76), each weighing 353 kg, of full-size vehicles to the building of the Mukhalatka UD recreation center UD-6,2. guns model 1927 year.
The group of bombers evenly distributed shells throughout the building, which was completely empty, because the entire personnel of the nomenclature facility was supposed to leave for Kuybyshev under the evacuation plan. The shells were surrounded by tolovye drafts with electric detonators, and the conductive cable was taken out into the street and disguised. Then, on the orders of the command, a group of miners initiated electric detonators with the help of a blasting machine, and the rest house of the UD SNK Mukhalatka flew up to the sky with fragments of Inkerman stone, brick and reinforcement. There was an explosion no later than November 6 of 1941. ”
In the camp "Artek" at the beginning of November 1941, NKVD officers set fire to the Suuk-Su Palace (formerly the "Casino" kurzal). After the war, the palace was not restored, but rather was demolished to the ground. On its foundation a completely different building was built in 1960.
The use of F-10 radiofuse mines by the Red Army is still classified. These land mines with a capacity of hundreds of kilograms, or even several tons of TNT, were controlled by operators at a distance of up to 600 m.
It is reliably known about the successful use of F-10 landfills in Kiev, Kharkov, the village of Strugi Krasnye, Pskov Region, etc. The Germans and Finns fairly quickly captured several F-10 landfills and learned how to effectively deal with them, including using the "jamming" of their powerful radio transmitters operating at frequencies used in radio-controlled land mines.
Some historians suggest that radio-controlled mines were also installed in the palaces and in the sanatoriums in the South Coast of the Crimea. Alas, all information about this is stored in the archives under the heading "SS OV." Apparently, even our grandchildren do not know the truth.
SALVATION OF CULTURAL VALUES
Director of the Alupka Palace-Museum of SG Shchekoldin managed to save the famous Vorontsov Palace from death. About this he colorfully wrote in the book "What the Lions Are Silent for":
“The Red Army retreated to Sevastopol along all the roads of the Southern Coast of Crimea: along the lower and upper highway. It lasted several days. Gone What will happen to us?
The headquarters of the fighter battalion was located in the Shuvalovsky building of the palace where the rest home of the 10 anniversary of October was located.
One day, a car loaded with a load drove up to the palace, a young soldier came out of the cockpit. He addressed me: “Is there anyone in the museum?” I was anxious: “I will find out now” - and running to the headquarters of the fighter battalion: “Help! They want to blow up! ”A man of five or six ran with me to the car. One of them called himself Pozdnyakov, the commissar of the battalion, the other, the battalion commander Vergasov. The soldier in the cap presented himself as authorized by the NKVD. There was an explosive in the car. The Commissioner stubbornly insisted that he was following the order. The dispute was short. By order of Pozdnyakov, the warriors drove the car out. ”
There are other memories already in the occupation period. They clearly characterize the representatives of the "cultural nation":
“In one of the first days of occupation, three tall officers, passing through the halls, went to the library. Anatoly Grigorievich and Maria Ivanovna Korenev and I followed them. The officers opened the box. There were engravings in it. Maria Ivanovna excitedly said: “It is impossible, it is impossible! You occupied Paris, and did you take everything at Versailles? ”The Nazis did not listen. I saw in the hands of a robber a roll of rolled engravings.
In the halls of the museum was an elderly officer. He spoke a little Russian, identifying himself as captain Ditman, boasted that he was the commander of a train in which V. Lenin drove through Germany to Russia in 1917: “If I knew who was traveling in a train ...” He “had the desire” cut off one of the Feth Ali Shah carpets (by Aga Buzuruk). We indignantly talked about barbarism, about robbery, unworthy officer, etc. He “gave up”, cut only part of the carpet under the legs of the portrait (left, when leaving the lobby), turned into a roll and took it away by car. ”
Soon the Germans created the "Headquarters of the City Administration". By order No. 1 Shchekoldin was appointed the “keeper” of the palace-museum.
“As soon as the commandant’s office began to work and the city administration was organized, I appealed there to allow me to go to Yalta to learn about the fate of the exported museum valuables and issue a document for this,” recalls Schekoldin. - Got both one and the other. On a passing truck arrived in Yalta. In the port, I saw two Russian sailors doing something near the warehouse. I asked them. “Get your boxes out there, take them away before they are taken away!” The steamer “Armenia”, which was supposed to take away the museum’s values, died under the Nazi bombs.
The warehouse was wide open. It was terrible and painful to see: on the floor there were several sheets of engravings trampled down with dirty boots; on one of the opened drawers was a vase ... from Wedgwood porcelain (from the Blue Living Room)! From 43, the boxes removed from the museum, seven were looted completely. ”
Shchekoldin managed to get two trucks from the Germans and return some of the boxes to the museum.
WAS THE Fürer
Shchekoldin claims that in December 1941, the Vorontsov Palace visited ... Adolf Hitler: “In mid-December, while standing in the Blue Lounge, I noticed a group of five to six very tall officers undergoing. They were talking to someone who was shorter in their ring. Stopping, they let him into the Winter Garden. At this time, he turned his face to me, and I saw his whole figure and face from the front. I froze, everything turned cold in me: Hitler! The very fiend of hell! The culprit of all our troubles! I continued to open the box without revealing my excitement. Is he? His portraits hung in different places on the street. When the group, having passed through all the rooms, returned to the lobby, I quickly went there, saw that they got into the cars and drove away to Simeiz, to Sevastopol. “Who was that?” I asked the soldier who was here among the others. “The Führer is incognito,” he replied.
There is no other confirmation of Hitler’s visit to Alupka. But, in my opinion, Shchekoldin is most likely right. The Fuhrer attached great importance to the Crimea. Well, his main goal was not visiting the palaces, but the inspection of Manstein's 11 Army, which was stuck near Sevastopol.
The information about Shchekoldin about the panic that engulfed the Germans in the Crimea in connection with the Red Army landing on the Kerch Peninsula is extremely important: “On the morning of 2 or 3 in January 1942, the city woke up - there is not a single German in Alupka, there is no commandant! And they were not three days! Returned.
A very interesting episode is described further by Schekoldin.
- Somehow Count Keller (a familiar surname in Moscow: the owner of a famous pharmacy on Nikolskaya Street) said that he was here on a mission: to find a better holiday for Romanian officers (this was not possible for the Romanians, the Germans did not allow). Keller introduced me to his wife and said that she had a request to me. She asked to speak with her in private. Very surprised, I invited her into the room (between the Blue living room and the Winter Garden), which was my workplace.
“I would like to purchase a picture of Aivazovsky,” ““ This is not a store, but a museum, ”I immediately interrupted it. “Excuse me, please, I know that you are starving, and I could in exchange give a keg of butter in 20 kg.” Outraged by such a proposal, I was boiling: “Is that all you wanted to talk to me about?” - “Sorry, another bag of sugar,” she said, worrying. "Sorry, madam, I am not a dealer in museum property," he got up, bowed, and opened the door. The woman, blushing, went out. "
Here Schekoldin or confused, but most likely deliberately does not tell the truth. He met not with a pharmacist, but with Count Pavel Fedorovich Keller, captain of the 1st rank of the tsar’s fleet. In 1919-1922, Keller served in the Wrangel Maritime Intelligence "OK", and then, perhaps, in the Civil War he began to work for Romanian intelligence. In 1936, he was already a colonel in the Romanian army. In 1941-1944, Keller was the head of the Romanian counterintelligence in Crimea. In 1944, he was captured by the Red Army and sent to a concentration camp. In 1955 he was released, returned to Romania, and then left for Germany. He died on June 17, 1970 in the city of Oytin.
His father, Count Keller, Fedor Avgustovich, a general of the Russian army, a convinced monarchist, nevertheless went into the army of the “Ukrainian State” to the hetman Skoropadsky and was killed by Petliurists in Kiev on 8 of the year December.
It is strange that with such a pedigree, the head of the Romanian counterintelligence, in whose hands was the blood of at least hundreds of Soviet citizens, served just 10 years. And, judging by the longevity (97 years), not particularly bother in the camp. Here either the Soviet Themis was too soft, or something happened ... Apparently, Schekoldin had reason to keep back on Keller.
VISIT OF THE HEAD OF THE SS
Visited during the occupation of the palace in the Crimea and many other "prominent" figures. Shchekoldin also mentions them in his book.
“In the summer of 1943, there were especially many visitors at the Palace Museum. Immediately, Himmler burst into the lobby as if with long strides. "Communist?" - He turned to me. “No, not a communist” - “All of you are communists, but now not? Take the palace. ” And the same steps rushed into the blue living room. Almost in a state of shock, I could barely keep up with him, the names of exhibits could hardly be babbled. Quickly walked to the billiard room and back. A.G. Minakova pointed to the Calico room. "I have no time," Himmler quickly uttered and jumped out the door. Just sat down, the car fell off, rushed to Simeiz. "
Vorontsov Museum was also visited by the Minister of Railway Transport Dorululler, the Minister of War of Romania, General Pantazy.
Once I was walking from lunch, a Romanian soldier with a machine gun stopped me: the palace is surrounded by Romanians. I showed a piece of paper, the soldier, seeing the seal with fascist symbols, missed. In the lobby was a Romanian captain, the head of security: Mihai, the king of Romania, was riding. The captain told us about Michael, about his father and stepmother. 15 cars left the square, the first machine to rule was Mihai, a young man, as they wrote in the newspaper, 24 years. Entering the lobby, he took off his glove and, greeting me, said in Russian: "Hello." I said that I know German, Mihai asked to speak German.
Italian fleet transferred to Crimea
several ultra small submarines.
Photos of the Federal Archives of Germany
I remembered the words of the guide of our museum, Ivan Kuzmich Borisov, with whom I had friendly relations: "I do not care who to lead in the tour, even the Pope." Behind me and Mihai, Romanian and German generals, including Antonescu, walked in pairs. Having seen an antique sculpture in the Winter Garden, Mihai asked where she was from? I said about Cape Ai-Todor, the former estates of the grand dukes of the Romanovs, about the remains of ancient excavations there. Mihai asked me to show the excavations on this cape. "The coast is mined, it is dangerous!"
MUSEUMS OF CRIMEA
In the summer of 1941, the Yalta Museum of Local History, the Alupka Household Museum of Art and History, the AS Museum-House acted as one of the 26 museums of the Crimea on the South Coast of the Crimea. Pushkin in Gurzuf, a branch of the Simferopol Anti-Religious Museum and the Agricultural Museum in Yalta. All of them were under the authority of the People's Commissariat of Education of the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, with the exception of the house-museum of A.P. Chekhov in Yalta, which before the war was supervised by the People's Commissariat of Education of the RSFSR.
As Irina Timofeyeva points out in the materials entitled “How the treasures of the Crimean museums and palaces were saved during the war and occupation”, on one of the core sites: “In the bold calculation of the authorities that the Red Army will quickly stop the advancing enemy, often evacuation of museum exhibits was carried out in areas near the rear. So, for example, 18 of October 1941 of the year evacuated to Armavir, killed during the fighting in the North Caucasus, the most valuable collections of the Central Regional Museum of Crimea: archaeological, cartographic, ethnographic.
The fate of the Yalta museum of local history is not completely clear. In the state archive of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea in the Crimean regional department of propaganda and agitation there are documents that “... the most valuable antique collections, collections of carpets, porcelain, ivory, bronze, artistic embroideries and fabrics ... were being prepared for evacuation. Part of the evacuated property was sent to Stalingrad. ”
“Information about the collection of the Pushkin Museum in Gurzuf is very contradictory in sources,” Irina Timofeeva points out further. - According to archival information, the exhibits in seven boxes, handed over by the director Gorbunova, were loaded onto the 31 October 1941 steamer of the year and sent via Novorossiysk to Stalingrad. However, the director of the Alupka Palace-Museum of SG Shchekoldin in the “Report on the plundering of the values of Alupka's historical-everyday and art palace-museum by the fascist invaders” from 2 in May 1944 of the year indicated that he personally transported the boxes of the Gurzuf house-museum of A.S. Pushkin from the Yalta port to the warehouse of the Yalta city government, from where they were later taken by the Germans to Simferopol. ”
“Residents of Sevastopol remember the feat of the director of the Sevastopol Picture Gallery - M.P. Kroshitsky - read on. - Covering paintings from shelling and bombing where possible, he managed to save all the main collections of the museum in the ruined city. On the night of December 19, 1941, under heavy fire, the gallery was loaded onto a warship, the leader of the Tashkent destroyers. Pursued by the fascist aviation, the ship went to sea. After 2 days with serious damage, under a large bank, "Tashkent" reached the port of Batumi. "
With reference to the Alexander Polkanov Foundation, which is kept in the ARC GA, Irina Timofeeva quotes from the diary of V.S. Malkova, authorized by the Committee on Arts of the USSR, who led the evacuation of the Crimean museums. Here is just one of the notes that gives an idea of that tragedy: “October October Polkanov received an order to bring all 18 boxes of packaged collections to the Yalta port, where the cargo ship“ Chaika ”from Sevastopol with the collections of the Sevastopol Art Gallery had to go. However, the gallery did not have time: the transportation of the wounded, the movement of military units increased through Sevastopol, which disrupted all the evacuation periods. Only the 144 box was transported to the Yalta port from Alupka, while the 43 remained in the palace. October 101 from Kerch to Alupka came the tragic news that the art gallery of Simferopol, loaded onto a ship ready for shipment, was completely destroyed during a raid by fascist aviation. ”
After the occupation of the Crimea by the German army, the notorious headquarters of Rosenberg "Ainsatzshtab", which was engaged in exporting cultural and historical values to Germany, began to operate here. Irina Timofeyeva also cites data on the damage caused by the invaders to the museums of the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic during the occupation:
“After the liberation of the Crimea, Yan Birzgal compiled acts of damage to the museums of the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic during the occupation period for the State Emergency Commission. In a memo addressed to Academician Grabar - Chairman of the All-Union Commission for the Protection of Monuments of Art and Antiquities - he points out that the working group of the Crimean Einsatzstab headed by Schmidt and his deputy Weisser systematically looted the Vorontsov Palace collection. Evaluation of the exhibits by Ya.P. Birzgal held in gold rubles in prices up to 1914 of the year. According to his memorandum, the Alupka Museum does not count 327 paintings worth 555 337 rubles. gold; engravings - in the amount of 152 154 pcs. in the amount of 2 573 gold rubles .; art and earthenware porcelain - 345 pcs. in the amount of 11 425 rub. gold; silver, bronze, objects of historical value - 34 pcs. for the sum - 21 141 rub. in gold. The total cost of the looted 622 943 rub. in gold. Among the stolen paintings are the original works of Giordano, Caravaggio, Maratti, Lawrence, Dow, Bryullov, Shishkin, Kuindzhi, Grekov.
ORDER STALIN SCARTS COMFLOT
Speaking of the South Coast in the 1941 – 1944 years, one cannot avoid the theme of attacks by its Soviet ships and bomber aircraft. By arbitrarily manipulating the facts, Russophobic historians come to the allegations of "meaningless and barbaric" destruction of coastal cities. In fact, both ship shelling and aerial bombardment were carried out on invaders' military targets.
There is still no declassified data on the bombing of the South Coast of Kazakhstan by Soviet aviation. Therefore, I turned to the “Chronicle of the Great Patriotic War of the Soviet Union at the Black Sea Theater”, from which it follows that from the beginning of 1942, the Germans used Yalta as a base for torpedo boats, anti-submarine and other ships. The port of Yalta had an important strategic importance on the communications of Constanta - Anapa, through which supplies were provided to the German and Romanian troops in the Crimea and the Caucasus. 15 September 1942 of the year in 18 h. 44 min. two bomber DB-3 bombarded from the clouds Yalta port. Hereinafter, I note that officially, only military targets were the targets of our bombardments. However, even to a layman it is clear that in the clouds, and without it, the accuracy of the bombing from the horizontal flight of the bombers was extremely low. The width of the Yalta port about 300 m. Accordingly, most of the bombs fell into the city or into the sea.
20 September 1942 of the year in 14 h. 31 min. five DB-3 bombed the Yalta port. Bomb explosions were observed in the port and in the city. One FAB-100 got into transport. On the night of September 29, two DB-3 aircraft searched for enemy transports on the communications off the Southern Coast of Crimea, but did not detect them, and therefore one aircraft dropped a torpedo at Anapa port (did not see the explosion), and the other - at Yalta port (saw the explosion torpedoes at the port). In the afternoon of October 5, two DB-3 aircraft searched for enemy ships at sea, but did not detect them, and one aircraft dropped a torpedo along the pier in Yalta, and the second returned to the airfield with a torpedo. In the afternoon of October 6, three DB-3 bombarded the city and the port of Yalta. There is a fire in the city. One aircraft did not return to its aerodrome.
October 3 1942 of the year to attack Yalta came destroyers "Boyky" and "savvy". The task of the campaign - the destruction of boats and port facilities. According to intelligence data, Italian ultra-small submarines and torpedo boats were based on Yalta. Shooting was carried out on the area, without adjustment. In fact, it was about simultaneous firing at the approved single source data. The fire opened in 23 h. 22 min. at the speed of 12 nodes at a distance of 116,5 cable (21,3 km). Within 13 minutes, “Savvy” released the 203 projectile, and “Boky” - 97. According to the “Chronicles ...”, “several fires occurred in the port. And according to undercover information, the Italian super-small submarine was sunk. ” The latter, apparently, dreamed of our agents.
19 December 1942, the ships of the Black Sea Fleet were ordered to make an artillery bombardment of Yalta and Theodosia when illuminating the SAB and adjusting the firing of aircraft. The leader Kharkiv and the destroyer Boiky should have fired 120 – 130-mm projectiles in Yalta, and the destroyer Nezamozhnik and the Shkval CKR to launch 100 and 50 – 100-mm projectiles according to Theodosia. The ships went out to sea at the onset of December 19 darkness. The leader and the destroyer began shelling the port of Yalta on 1. 31 min. from a distance of 112 KB (20,4 km), having a course of 9 nodes. For 9 shooting minutes, “Kharkov” fired 154 shots, and “Boyky” - 168. Despite the fact that flameless charges were used, 10 – 15% of them gave a flash, and the coastal battery fired at the ships. Apparently, these were coastal batteries in Livadia, armed with 155-mm captured French corps guns of the Schneider system's 1918 model. The Germans failed to reach our ships.
23 June 1943, the five Boston bombers (36 air regiment) were to attack the German convoy at Cape Fiolent, but without finding it, in 11 h. 45 min. dropped bombs on a spare target - Yalta. The pilots observed a direct hit on the building of the Naval Station and two fires in the city. Three German anti-aircraft batteries bombarded our aircraft, but they all returned to the airfield.
22 July 1943, six Pe-2 bombers and Boston attacked German vessels in the port of Yalta. The pilots observed a direct hit in the barge with a cargo that caught fire. Damaged boat, destroyed the tip of the pier and the boom. There was a fire in the city.
October 5 The Black Sea Fleet Commander, Vice Admiral Lev Vladimirsky ordered the 1943 Battalion Division destroyers in conjunction with torpedo boats and fleet aircraft on the night of October 1 to raid naval communications of the enemy off the southern coast of Crimea and fire at the ports of Feodosiya and Yalta. On the same day at 6 h. 20 min. the leader "Kharkov" and the destroyers "Merciless" and "Capable" under the command of the captain 30 of the rank Negodi left Tuapse in the Yalta-Feodosiya region. October 2 about one o'clock in the morning "Kharkov" separated from the destroyers and went on the task of firing on Yalta.
In 5 h. 05 min. Kharkiv leader discovered a radar station located on Cape Ai-Todor, 110 hail. 15 km away. Making sure that the target detected is not its own ship, at 6 hour. 03 min. the German command allowed the coastal batteries to open fire on it. At this moment, "Kharkov" began shelling Yalta. In 16 minutes, he fired 104 130-high-explosive fragmentation projectiles without adjusting. Three 76-mm trophy field guns responded to the leader’s fire, followed by six 155-mm guns from Livadia. Unfortunately, the Luftwaffe managed to sink all three Soviet ships involved in the operation.
In this regard, 11 of October 1943 of the year issued a rate order, which said: “1) The Black Sea Fleet Commander must schedule all the planned fleet operations with the commander of the North Caucasus Front and not conduct any operations without his consent; 2) use the main forces of the fleet to support the combat operations of the ground forces. Long-range operations of large surface fleet forces should be carried out only with the permission of the Supreme Command Headquarters; 3) entrust the commander of the North Caucasus Front with the responsibility for the combat use of the Black Sea Fleet. Stalin, Antonov.
The commander of the Black Sea Fleet was so intimidated by this order that no battleship, no cruisers, even destroyers took part in the hostilities. Even during the liberation of the Crimea in April - early May 1944, not a single Soviet ship approached its coast.
The release of the South Coast from Alushta to Alupka took place in the first half of April 1944, without serious fighting. April 10 German units began to leave Yalta, all the buildings on the embankment were empty. 14 April from the square in front of the cinema "Spartak" Tatars left the Yalta - servants of the Germans, they were escorted by their wives.