apply Aviation in Russian cities Dudaev did not have time. In the photo - the result of a preventive airstrike at one of the Dudaev airfields. Reuters Photos
The war in Chechnya left a deep scar in the memory of our compatriots - Russians and Chechens, fellow citizens of other nationalities, all Russians. Over time, passionless researchers will discover new secrets, present at historical the stage of “heroes” - hunters of political capital and not only that they tried to earn money for a long time from Russia's misfortune. That was until a different time came in Russia and other leaders in Russia and Chechnya came.
Today, Russia is another country that has stepped onto the path of rebirth and is gaining its weight and its weighty word on planet Earth. And clearly expressing loyalty to traditional universal values and respect for traditional religions of a multinational country, the principles of an irreconcilable fight against violence and terror and international injustice. But this is precisely the reason for the new plans to bomb Russia at X. If earlier these plans were aimed at “finishing off” a weak Russia, now they have a goal not to allow a fully revived and developed - by sanctions and compression, as a stranglehold, a huge country with a tight hoop of military bases and rocket centers along the borders.
And in this regard, we must not forget, we must remember the lessons of the past, pages of history, in which there are already examples for serious and fundamental lessons and conclusions. In the past - sprouts of the present and future.
Betrayal in the top
In the second half of May, 1995, strange commands and instructions began to arrive at the headquarters of the commander of the combined group of federal troops in Chechnya, Colonel-General Anatoly Kulikov, who were outside the logic of the events.
Separatist units were pushed into the mountains, blocked. Dudayev residents were deprived of the opportunity to replenish ammunition, remained on a hard “ration” without food, the number of participants in illegal armed groups was sharply reduced. The chief of the headquarters of the armed forces of the self-proclaimed Ichkeria, Aslan Maskhadov, with desperation offered to start negotiations. And in an interview with one of the intelligence officers of the federal troops he expressed only one request: in the case of his capture, not to arrange a public court, but to shoot him as an officer right away.
Soldiers, officers, generals and the population of Chechnya had expectations of a quick outcome, the final of the hostilities and the victory of the federal troops. They were already talking about orders for trains to send units and subunits to places of permanent deployment in the territory of other regions of Russia. But at that time, strange commands and instructions took shape in a strict demand: to stop using artillery and aircraft in the mountains. Moreover, the requirement was set forth by a high official from Boris Yeltsin’s entourage. The militants stopped bombing, they found themselves in fundamentally different conditions, and the losses of personnel of army units and employees of the Interior Ministry and other security agencies increased sharply when they attacked the positions and defense points of the separatists in the mountains.
The commander of the Kulikov grouping, who was wholeheartedly respected by all the commanders and commanders of the federal forces in Chechnya, thoughtful and balanced decisions, sometimes tough, but always smooth, without self-infatuation, described Moscow’s demand to stop using aviation and artillery as a mean backstroke by the federal troops. So in the united grouping all the officers and generals considered.
The X hour came when the question was resolved: whether the fighting would end with a quick victory for the "feds" or the war would take a long, protracted character, with the spread of separatism throughout the North Caucasus. But the command to resume the support of the federal troops by aviation did not follow. Events began to evolve in a completely different, long and bloody scenario, in which representatives of a uniting Europe were in a hurry.
Certainly, the USA did not stand aside either. Even during the Cold War, Chechnya attracted the close attention of the US intelligence services, as well as other Western countries. In 1979, one of the CIA reports was leaked to the open press. In this report, Checheno-Ingushetia was called the most promising territory for activities to destabilize the USSR.
At x-hour, as if on cue, Russia was “bombarded” with the political, diplomatic, and informational pressure of this uniting Europe itself. Official representatives of a dozen countries, foreign journalists who openly hush up crimes and arbitrariness, murder and robbery, all the misfortunes of Russians and Chechens in anarchy and uncontrollability in Chechnya under Dudayev, have now fallen upon the grouping of federal troops.
From Japan, where Foreign Minister Yohei Konno expressed concern about the situation in the Chechen Republic, to marginal movements such as the UNA-UNSO in Ukraine all joined in the action of direct and indirect support for the Dudayev regime. Respectable right-wing parliamentary factions not only in Estonia, but also in Lithuania and Latvia, in very, very harsh terms, expressed their attitude towards the entry of Russian troops into Chechnya. Under the leadership of the right-wing radical Estonian party of progress, all Western embassies were picketing with the slogan "Mr. Clinton, the blood of the Chechens is on your hands!"
Only in June, 1995 years, even before the bloody raid Basayev in Budyonnovsk, arrived and were eager to defend human rights in Chechnya Lopez Henares and solea Tour of Spain, Plata Allard, Bidingen Rudolph and Tanya Klyaynzorge from Germany, Gelderbrom Hanneke from The Netherlands and Kolumberg Dumene Switzerland . They were joined together by Severin Adrian, Bardozhsky from the more recent allies during the Soviet era on the European politics of Romania and Poland. Human rights were excited and Ms. Jaani Karil from Estonia, where the national minority, which became the Russian-speaking population, was quite rigidly put "in its place".
Just at that time, very interesting documents came to light in one of the captured Dudayev headquarters, revealing some secrets of Dudayev’s preparation for war with Russia and support of his regime by enterprising business people and officials, foreign banks of the West.
“BARBAROSSA” BY DUDAYEVSKY
In the spring of 1994, Dudayev completed a full program of preparation for war with Russia. The chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, Aslan Maskhadov, prepared a plan of action for the armed forces during the period of danger and with the situation getting worse. The plan was approved by Dudayev and agreed with the head of the State Security Department of the CRI Geliskhanov. The colonel of the Soviet Armed Forces Maskhadov showed that he was a conscientious listener to the military artillery order of Lenin of the Red Banner Academy named after M.I. Kalinin, a skillful commander, highly skilled artilleryman, and not by chance, was awarded two orders "For Service to the Homeland in the Armed Forces of the USSR" as a military professional.
The economy of Chechnya was in a deep decline and a state of devastation. In one of the reports addressed to the President of Ichkeria, the head of the security department reported that the theft of wires of power lines reached such a level that there was a threat of interruption of the power supply of the whole of Chechnya. But the military department of the self-proclaimed Ichkeria evolved into a well-coordinated, precise combat mechanism, at a high military professional level. In all of Russia, human rights organizations did a lot to thwart the call for military service, and in Chechnya all mobilization resources, all persons with military service experience, all military equipment and civilian vehicles who also had military use were put on record. The “Abkhazian battalion” was staffed by volunteers who took part in the hostilities in Abkhazia, and the “Afghan battalion” - by the combatants in Afghanistan. The mountain infantry battalion was deployed to the mountain infantry brigade and was intended to carry out partisan Federal forces are entering Chechnya. December 1994 of the year.
Photo by Vladimir Svartsevich (NG-photo)
operations in the highland zone. Then, in the spring of 1994, tactical exercises "Spring-94" were planned. Dudayev signed preliminary combat orders on readiness for combat operations of tankers, gunners, special forces. The commander of the special forces regiment, Lieutenant Colonel Gelayev, was ordered to set up a group of interrogation of prisoners in advance.
According to intelligence data, Johar Dudayev had at his disposal more than 250 airplanes of various classes and purposes, which could be used as bomber aircraft.
As a former commander of the aviation division and high-class pilot, General Dudayev understood that air strikes against Russia could undoubtedly have great psychological and factual significance. He remembered what the situation in the Soviet leadership and the whole country was created by the landing of a small-engine Rust plane near the walls of the Kremlin. One can imagine what a political catastrophe and loss of military authority could have been caused by the bombing of Moscow or one of the cities of Russia.
The head of the Aviation School of Pilots and Technicians of the CRI Air Force 24 March received a preliminary combat order to prepare for the combat missions flight crews, two L-29 aircraft. At the aerodrome Kalinovskaya, combat duty was organized, the plant for processing petroleum products received instructions to deliver fuel and lubricants without interruption. Information about the readiness of flight crews, technical personnel and aircraft for combat operations was submitted to the main headquarters of the CRI AF to 10.00 26 in March 1994.
Back in 1992, Dudayev planned to form a combat, training, transport squadron. But by 1994, only one combat squadron was formed on the L-29 and L-39 aircraft. The flight crew of the squadron included 14 pilots. According to analysts, the air force fleet of the Air Force had 120 – 150 aircraft, which were formerly part of the training regiment of the Armavir flight school. Combat training aircraft L-29 "Dolphin" and L-39 "Albatross" are capable of carrying 32 unguided missiles or two 100-kilogram bombs. Earlier, the MiG-15 and MiG-17 training fighters were assigned to the Grozny DOSAAF Aeroclub, there were several An-2 transport aircraft and Mi-8 helicopters.
Late in the evening of December 14 1994, the Russian air force launched a bombing and assault attack on three airfields of the Chechen Republic: Kalinovskaya, Grozny-Severny and Khankala. But before the defeat of these airfields, a sudden air strike on the territory of Russia was possible and was capable of causing a deafening all-Russian and international effect. And theoretically, but still, the bombing of Moscow could be a very convenient excuse for serious movements and decisions in NATO. Including in the expansion of NATO to the East.
The Bonn newspaper Bild, when the troops entered Chechnya, said: “The entry of Russian troops into Chechnya in fact proves that Russia again presents a danger to neighboring countries. Soothing measures, like the provision of loans, can hardly help here. Russia's neighbors, especially in the Baltic region, need to be provided with effective protection. Therefore, NATO and the EU must meet the request of the Eastern European countries for admission to these organizations. ” The Helsinki "Kansan Uutisttet" also stated that the events in Chechnya were "a warning to Russia against NATO expansion to the East." Berlin "Welt" stated that "the vital interest of Western and Central Europe is to fill the security vacuum between the Oder and the Bug."
HAZARDOUS SOVEREIGNTY GAMES
In the West, politicians really feared Russia at that very hour, X, when it became close to the abyss on the verge of collapse with its nuclear missile potential. Although these Western politicians themselves have done a lot for this hour X. Russia in Chechnya choked on its sovereignty, which the “gifted” Yeltsin proposed to take to each republic “how much it will swallow”. One seventh of the inhabited territory of the planet has gone mad from an overdose of self-flagellation and dirt, poured on its own history. For many citizens of Chechnya, as well as all of Russia, all authorities have disappeared. In the correspondence of two young people - Chechens, captured in the same Dudayev headquarters, there were sufficient revelations about this: “That we are Russia, they have the whole story - shit! Lenin is a syphilitic, Stalin is all in our blood, and Gorbachev is a talker, we have nothing to eat and this is his entire restructuring! It’s time to get down to business ... ”And the young people took up automatic rifles, robbed trains, raided and plundered civilians.
Russia's political and journalistic writing elite was flirting with Dudayev with might and main, many of them wanted something new, rated, something others did not have. One of the deputies of the State Duma from Dagestan, and not only him, wrote approving and supporting letters to Dudayev: “I always follow the reports and situation in the republic of Ichkeria with attention. I hope those political events that will take place in Dagestan will soon facilitate the situation in Ichkeria. If there is a need for support at the level of the State Duma, I am at your service. ”
The friendly support of the well-wishers of the President of Ichkeria to the peoples of Dagestan cost dearly. A few years later, the bloody marks on the land of Dagestan will mark the path to “common goals” by gangs of Shamil Basayev and the Wahhabis. On the eve of the commencement of the introduction of troops, they were looking for something new in Ichkeria and, as they probably seemed, in the large-scale figure of Dudayev, famous and talented “vglyadovtsy”, programs and reports of which were watched by all Russian audiences with delight. In one of the reports from Grozny, the “gazers” showed Dudayev’s comprehensiveness, his fascination with wrestling and hand-to-hand fighting. Around the same time after their reporting, the story went on television about how a crowd of fanatics in Grozny was dragged along by a KGB officer, a Chechen, who called for help and shouted that he served the whole country. It is unlikely that these two stories served to strengthen the morale and belief in the necessity of their work for the employees of the Russian special services - the Chechens.
Chechnya and Ingushetia were practically deprived of Moscow’s budgetary and organizational support. Maskhadov was an active participant in the events in Vilnius, the head of the rocket forces and artillery of the 107 Motorized Rifle Division, and the secretary of the party management organization of the division was dismissed without any prospects on the eve of the August 19 putsch. Moscow leaders proposed to Dudayev to return from military service to his homeland for large and important matters. But affairs did not follow, as did not follow also financing, organizational support. The landmark general in the early 1991-s that appeared in the North Caucasus was simply forgotten in Moscow. But numerous appeals and assurances in support of separatism from abroad, the admiration of the citizens of the self-proclaimed republic, whom he promised to make Chechnya "new Kuwait", turned his head. The so-called "help" Chechnya received from abroad in huge sums of money, which received the Wahhabis and all the mercenaries. But once, in a moment of enlightenment, as one of the leaders of the Chechen Interior Ministry’s Inalov told after the death of Dudayev, Dudayev sadly, prophetically, in a low voice said: “That’s why they will destroy me ...” Dudayev understood that sooner or later the federal center will try to suppress separatism and criminal rampant in Chechnya at any cost. And he began to prepare for a confrontation with Moscow.
In September 1994, the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Ichkeria, he is President Dudayev, issued an order “On the implementation of the Lasso plan,” which indicated:
“1. The headquarters of the Armed Forces of the ChRI will develop a schedule of the distribution of the enemy’s strategic facilities for strikes by the attack air forces of the ChRI, indicating the carriers of weapons, means of destruction, the execution of combat missions and the alert signals of the flight crews.
2. To bring formalized cases to specified enemy targets and to exercise constant control over their daily activities.
3. According to my signal to the Chief of the Headquarters of the CRI, to ensure the immediate delivery of the Dagger and Ozone packages to me, the files of the objects and the officials indicated by me for receiving the tasks after completing the combat orders.
The deadline for the development of the necessary formalized documents for the Lasso plan is by the end of 20 in September of 1994. ”
In aviation, Dudayev federal aviation delivered a preemptive strike. But it was still possible for Dudayev to organize air strikes across Russia at X. In one of the cities of Russia, Grozny, Russians and Chechens died from air bombs, together they hid with their children in Grozny’s basements.
OIL AND WEAKENING OF RUSSIA
The seizure and analysis of documents from one of the militant headquarters that had already been noted revealed the secrets of the widespread assistance of the European representatives to the Dudayev regime. And not only Europe, but more on that later.
Correspondence in English and French with enterprising business people in Europe, banks, links to officials, including the President of France, Dudayev’s appeals to the Sultan of Oman Qabus, Prince of Kuwait Mubarak al-Salah, military attachés, the appointment of an extraordinary and plenipotentiary ambassador to the Maghreb countries (Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia, Mauritania) and many other things testify and testifies to active interference in the internal affairs of Russia. The range of relations with the Dudaev regime: recognition of Chechnya’s independence, the release of a special currency, passports, proposals for the acquisition of Osmium-187 isotopes. And loans, loans and more loans. The main purpose of lending is to support the Dudayev regime even by the names themselves: a loan to the state budget of Chechnya. By appointment, one of the credits that was to be transferred from Paris by SOFMA-SA was directed: 50 million dollars "for maintenance and support", 50 million dollars for salaries and pensions, 135 million dollars to the National Bank of Chechnya at its free discretion, and 50 million - for the purchase of special strategic equipment.
How the money was spent “at discretion” is testified by the receipt of the “prefect” of the Gudermes region S. Raduev “On receipt of funds for the encouragement of personnel”: “By me, the prefect of Gudermes region, December 27 1995 for material incentives for the personnel of the ChRI Defense Forces, distinguished himself in the course of the military operation to liberate Gudermes in December of this year, received money from the representative of the General Staff in the amount of 1,5 (one and a half) million dollars. ” And in January, 1996, this “material aid” was implemented in the bloody seizure of the Dagestan city of Kizlyar, in the tragedy of Pervomaisky, and other raids by Raduyev, who dreamed of becoming the second Basayev for Chechnya.
But the main, main question is oil and gas. Dudayev appeals to the leaders of the Middle East in the name of Islamic solidarity to assist in the development of the oil and gas industry, offers participation in projects and Europeans.
Correspondence, telefaxes that came to our attention in Chechnya, of course, were only part of the messages, proposals and the entire system of relations designed for weak Russia and its further weakening that were formed at that time. They “bombed” Russia according to its political and economic interests in the conditions of its instability, the threat of disintegration and dismemberment in the hour of X.
The main link in the relationship and the initiator of all the correspondence, the organizer of visits to Chechnya of officials and unofficial persons was one Michel Fradin. In a letter to the Sultan of Oman Qabus, Johar Dudayev shows the role of Michel Fradin and calls him a strange post: economic adviser to the German imperial prince Michel von Prussin. Which, according to Dudayev, in June 1993 of the year organized his trip for contacts with the authorities.
From the leadership of the self-proclaimed Ichkeria, one of the closest associates of Dudayev, Usman Imaev, was a regular contactee. Under other circumstances, Imaev, as a highly trained professional who knew several foreign languages, worked abroad, could undoubtedly bring significant benefits to Russia and Chechnya. But it absorbed and seized by its uncertainty and temptations, like many in the Soviet Union, and then in Russia, the troubled times of Gorbachev, and then Yeltsin.
The correspondence between Fradin and Imaev, who had considerable experience in international communication during the Soviet era and who knew several languages, was systemic and spoke of many things. First of all, significant and impressive forces were involved in the orbit of the activities of separatist Chechnya against Russia. And these forces had two aspects of interests, let's say this again: oil and the weakening of Russia's economic interests.
In one of his letters to 5 in December 1993, Michel Fradin informs Imaev, the president of the National Bank of Chechnya, that the main condition for obtaining two alternative loans is to guarantee the rapid creation of an oil pipeline independent of Russia.
He, Michel Fradin, was a link of rebellious Chechnya with Colombian "friends" on the issue of financing Chechnya. He informed Imaeva about this as follows: “With the consent of my Colombian friends and in view of the fact that there are still unexplained problems between us, I decided to take a trip to Bogota, which I will do until January 1994. I will go with you to Bogota to see the president of SAMPER, once again find out everything between us. ”
The correspondence of Fradin with the leadership of Ichkeria confirms that specialists in the construction of the pipeline, the establishment of radio and television, specialists from several Western countries were sent to Chechnya, in particular, a joint French-Canadian group of specialists was sent.
The respite that the militants received in May - early June 1995, dramatically changed the situation in Chechnya. Communication and organization of illegal armed groups of Dudayev was restored. Basayev made his daring raid on Budenovsk, and Russia was at the negotiating table with the separatists. The delegation of Ichkeria at the talks was headed by Imaev, but no longer as president of the National Bank of the self-proclaimed Chechen Republic, but as a prosecutor — Minister of Justice of Ichkeria. Although it was more logical for the delegation from the self-proclaimed Ichkeria to be led by someone from its government or the vice-president of Ichkeria at the talks.
But apparently, there were other reasons for appointing Imaev as the main delegation, and this has its own intrigue. During the period of negotiations in the OSCE, representatives of France, Canada, Switzerland, Hungary, Poland and other countries were and provided negotiations. It is of interest that Imaev was in constant contact with them throughout all the negotiations: OSCE representatives almost every day communicated with Imaev and other Chechen leaders, as they accompanied the motorcade of fighters - negotiators from Grozny to the location of their headquarters. Evil tongues used to say that on these trips the necessary briefings took place, the directions of assistance and financing for Dudaev were determined.
“Bombing” Russia according to its political and economic interests was then very fashionable and traditional. But I really want to believe that in our time this tradition will disappear as unconstructive and not gentlemen’s in all respects. Although the events of the last two years and what is happening in Europe are alarming and feeling that behind the whole pre-storm situation is a very experienced and sophisticated conductor who wants to be forever the main and only one in the whole world. Even if the whole world will again be threatened by the worldwide flood and the disappearance of the entire centuries-old civilization.
But the germs of the approval of new views, the demand of a considerable part of the elite and citizens of Western Europe to put an end to sanctions against Russia, which have no meaning and harm both their authors, and new challenges for the whole world from international terrorism strengthen confidence that changes for the better will be . Must be!