Military Review

The myth of the "backward Russia" of Nicholas I

124
Burst out a circular song
About the king in the Russian way.

Our king loves his native Russia,
He is happy to give her soul.

Directly Russian nature;
Russian view and soul,
In the midst of a crowd of people
Above all, he head.

Vasily Zhukovsky, Song of Russian Soldiers


Russia during the reign of Nikolai Pavlovich is considered to be "backward". They say that the Eastern (Crimean) war showed all the rottenness and weakness of the regime, which “missed” the industrial revolution that occurred in the West. However, this is a hoax. The war with the coalition of the advanced Western powers just showed the strength of the Russian empire, which withstood small losses in the fight against the whole of the West and continued to develop. And the government of Nicholas, on the contrary, actively developed the industry, introduced various innovations, such as railways, carried out large-scale construction. In the field of culture, the reign of Nicholas became the Golden Age of Russian literature and Russian art.

Myth "about the victory of obscurantism"

No matter what they write and say about the emperor Nicholas I, his enemies, no one can cross out the fact that his reign was the golden age of Russian literature and Russian art. Such prominent representatives of Russian culture as A. Pushkin, V. A. Zhukovsky, F. I. Tyutchev, F. M. Dostoevsky, Leo Tolstoy, A. S. Griboedov, lived and created or spiritually formed in the Nicholas era. I. A. Krylov, N. Ya. Yazykov, M. Zagoskin, M. Yu. Lermontov, I. Kirievsky, S. T. Aksakov, K. K. Aksakov, Iv. Aksakov, A. S. Khomyakov, Yu. F. Samarin, I. A. Goncharov, I. S. Turgenev, A. F. Pisemsky, A. Fet, N. Leskov, A. K. Tolstoy, A. Ostrovsky; the brilliant mathematician N. I. Lobachevsky, the biologist K. Ber, the chemist Zinin, who discovered aniline; the great artists A. A. Ivanov, K. P. Bryullov, P. Fedotov, F. Bruni, sculptor P. K. Klodt; composers M. I. Glinka, A. S. Dargomyzhsky; historians S. M. Solov'ev, K. D. Kavelin; famous linguists F. Buslaev, A. Kh. Vostokov; remarkable thinkers N. Ya. Danilevsky and K. Leontyev and many other prominent figures of Russian culture. The reign of Nicholas I - this is the very flourishing of Russian culture, never at the same time lived such a large number of prominent figures of Russian culture, either before Nikolai Pavlovich or after him.

In 1827, the Society of Natural Sciences was founded. In 1839, the construction of the Pulkovo Observatory was completed. In 1846, the Archaeological Society arose, an Archaeological Expedition was established, the members of which saved many ancient documents that were doomed to destruction, as they were stored somehow. Russian national literature, Russian national music, Russian ballet, Russian painting and Russian science are developing rapidly in the strongly defamed Nikolay era. And not in spite of, but with the support of the Russian emperor.


Portrait of Nicholas. Painter N. Sverchkov

"Backward Nikolaev Russia"

Economy. In the first third of the XIX century, the economy of the Russian Empire began to lag more and more behind the leading powers in its development. Alexander Pavlovich left behind a heavy legacy, both in industry and finance. The state of affairs in industry at the beginning of the reign of Nicholas I was the worst in all history Russian Empire. There was virtually no industry capable of competing with the advanced Western powers, where the Industrial Revolution was already coming to an end. The export of Russia was completely dominated by raw materials, almost all types of industrial goods needed by the country were acquired abroad.

By the end of the reign of Tsar Nicholas I, the situation has changed dramatically. For the first time in the history of the Russian Empire, a technically advanced and competitive industry, in particular, a light one, began to form in the country. The textile and sugar industries developed rapidly, the production of metal products, clothing, wood, glass, porcelain, leather and other products developed, and our own machines, tools and locomotives began to be produced. Intensively built highways with hard surface. So, from 7700 miles of highways built in Russia by 1893, 5300 miles (about 70%) was built in the period 1825 — 1860. The construction of railways was also started, and the 1000 versts of railways were built, which gave an impetus to the development of our own engineering industry.

According to economic historians, this was facilitated by the protectionist policy pursued throughout the reign of Nicholas I. Thanks to the protectionist industrial policy pursued by Nikolai, the further development of Russia followed a path different from most countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America (colonies and semi-colonies of the West), namely the path of industrial development, which guaranteed the independence of Russian civilization. It should be noted that one of the main goals of England in the Eastern (Crimean) War was the elimination of protectionist economic policies in Russia. And the British got their way; under Alexander II, liberal politics prevailed, which led to serious problems of the national economy.

According to academician S. G. Strumilin, it was precisely in the reign of Nicholas I that an industrial revolution took place in Russia, similar to that which began in England in the second half of the 18th century (Strumilin S. G. Essays on the economic history of Russia. M. 1960). As a result of the intensive introduction of machines (mechanical weaving machines, steam engines, etc.), labor productivity has increased dramatically: from 1825 to 1863, the annual output of Russian industry products per worker increased 3 times, while in the previous period it did not only did not grow, but even decreased. From 1819 to 1859, Russia's cotton output has increased almost 30 times; the volume of engineering products from 1830 to 1860 increased by 33 times.

The era of serf labor came to an end. Serf labor in industry was quickly crowded out by free labor, to which the Nikolaev government made considerable efforts. In 1840, the State Council decided, approved by Nikolai, to close all the sessional factories that used serf labor, after which only during the period 1840 — 1850, at the initiative of the government, more than 100 of such factories were closed. By 1851, the number of sessional farmers decreased to 12-13 thousand, while at the end of the XVIII - beginning of the XIX centuries. their number exceeded 300 thousand people.

The rapid development of industry has led to a sharp increase in urban population and urban growth. The share of the urban population over the Nicholas period increased by more than 2 times - from 4,5% in 1825 to 9,2% in 1858.

A similar picture was observed in the field of finance. At the beginning of the 1820s, the traces of the Patriotic War of the 1812 and subsequent wars were still very noticeable, as were the mistakes of the government of Alexander in finance. The population of many provinces was ravaged, the debts of the government to private individuals were paid carelessly; external debt was huge, as was the budget deficit. The normalization of the financial sector is associated with the name of EF Kankrin. The emperor said to him: “You know that there are two of us who cannot leave our posts while we are alive: you and me.”

The basis of Kankrin’s policy, who served as Minister of Finance from 1823 to 1844, is a policy of protectionism, the restoration of metal circulation, and the improvement of state reporting and bookkeeping. In the customs policy, Kankrin strictly adhered to protectionism. After the 1819 tariff of the year, which, according to Kankrin, killed factory production in Russia, the government found it compelled to resort to the 1822 tariff of the year drawn up with the participation of Kankrin. During his administration of the finance ministry, private salary increases of the tariff were completed, ending in 1841 with a general revision. In protecting customs duties, Kankrin saw not only a means of protecting Russian industry, but also a way to generate income from privileged persons free from direct taxes (the rich were consumers of luxury goods imported from the West). Realizing that it was precisely under the protectionism system that raising general technical education was especially important, Kankrin founded the Technological Institute in St. Petersburg. As a result of the monetary reform 1839-1843. in Russia, a fairly stable system of money circulation was created, in which paper money was exchanged for silver and gold.

Large-scale imperial projects. In 1828, the construction of the General Staff Building in St. Petersburg was completed (it was built from 1819). In addition to the General Staff itself, the huge building housed the War Ministry, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Finance. The main headquarters and its triumphal arch with a chariot in honor of the victory over Napoleon are among the main architectural symbols of St. Petersburg and Russia. The building has the longest classic facade in the world, 580 m.

The Bolshoi Theater in Warsaw is a grandiose building in the style of classicism, built since 1825 and was inaugurated on February 24, 1833. In 1834, the construction of the combined building of the Senate and the Synod was completed. 1843 the construction of the Kiev Imperial University of St. Vladimir. In 1839, simultaneously with the beginning of the construction of the Cathedral of Christ the Savior in the Moscow Kremlin, the construction of a new palace began, which was supposed to correspond to the partially revived capital functions of the city. The construction of the Grand Kremlin Palace was generally completed in 1849, although some parts, in particular, the building, which moved Armory the chamber from the old building of the times of Alexander I, was completed in 1851.

The development of communications. In 1824-1826 Simferopol-Alushta highway was built. In 1833-1834 The Moskovskoye Highway was put into operation - the first non-urban road in central Russia with a hard (by the gravel) surface. Construction began in 1817. By the end of the reign of Alexander I, the first line of the highway from St. Petersburg to Novgorod was commissioned with a branch to Gatchina. In 1830-1840 Dinaburgskoye shosse was built - a gravel road, stone bridges and stone post stations between St. Petersburg and Dinaburg fortress (later Dvinsk, now Daugavpils), which stood on the banks of the Zapadnaya Dvina. In fact, it was the first part of the Petersburg-Warsaw highway. In 1837, a highway between Alushta and Yalta was opened on the southern coast of the Crimea. The road continued the previously built Simferopol-Alushta highway.

In 1849, the largest hard-surface road in the country (about 1 thousand miles) was commissioned at that time, passing from Moscow past the Bobruisk fortress to the Brest-Litovsk fortress, where it was connected to the previously built Warsaw highway. In 1839-1845 built the Moscow-Nizhny Novgorod highway (380 versts). In 1845, the Yaroslavl highway (from Moscow to Yaroslavl) was commissioned. In 1837-1848, the Alushta-Yalta highway was extended to Sevastopol. South of Novgorod, the two main roads from St. Petersburg to the center of the country — Moskovskoye Highway and Dinaburgskoye Highway — finally diverged, so it was decided to connect both highways with another highway from Novgorod to the outskirts of Pskov. Novgorod-Pskov Highway was built to 1849. At that, approximately from the middle of this highway, the Shimsk - Staraya Russa branch (Starorusskoe Highway) was commissioned in 1843.

In 1825-1828, the duke Alexander Wurttemberg canal was built, it connected the Mariinsky water system (now the Volga-Baltic waterway) with the Northern Dvina basin. The channel is named after the head of the Russian Railways Authority, Alexander, Duke of Württemberg, who organized it. By 1833, a radical reconstruction of the Obvodny Canal in St. Petersburg was carried out. The channel became the actual boundary of the city, and later served as a place of industrial attraction, as a convenient transportation route. In 1846, the Belozersky canal was a length of 63 versts. In 1851, the Onega Canal was erected. In 1837-1848 was a radical reconstruction of the Dnieper-Bug waterway.

In 1837, the Tsarskoye Selo railway was put into operation - the first in Russia and the sixth in the world railway of general use with a length of 25 versts. In 1845-1848 The first major railway on the territory of the empire, the Warsaw-Vienna Railway (308 versts long) was put into operation. In 1843-1851 built the first railway with a gauge 1524 mm - double-track Petersburg-Moscow railway (604 versts). In 1852-1853 The first phase of the Petersburg-Warsaw railway (the St. Petersburg-Gatchina section) was erected. Further construction of roads slowed down the Crimean War and its consequences.

In the Nikolaev period, large bridges were built. In 1851, the largest in Europe at that time was the Verebyinsky Bridge, 53 m in height and with a total length of 590 m. The bridge passed through a deep ravine and the Verebye River on the route of the Nikolaev Railway. In 1843-1850 the Blagoveshchensky Bridge over the Neva River in St. Petersburg was erected according to the project of engineer S. Kurbedz. The bridge with a length of 300 m had 8 spans, on it for the first time in Russia was produced the turning system of the adjustable span. In 1853, the Nikolaev chain bridge across the Dnieper River in Kiev was put into operation one of the largest in the world for its time.

The largest fortress. Nicholas himself, like Peter I, did not disdain to personally participate in the design and construction, focusing on the fortresses, which later literally saved the country from much more sad consequences during the Eastern (Crimean) War. Fortresses in the west and north-west covered the central regions of the Russian empire, and did not allow the enemy to strike a more serious blow to Russia.

During the reign of Nicholas, construction continued (it began to be built in 1810) and the improvement of the Dinaburg fortress. Officially, the fortress was put into operation in 1833. In 1832, General I. Den, at the confluence of the Vistula and Narev, began the construction of a new grand citadel - the New George Fortress. It was the largest and strongest fortification of its time in the world. The construction was completed in 1841. According to Totleben, Novogeorgiyevsk was the only fully completed and responding fortress in the country. In the future, the fortress was not just modernized. Shocking pace in 1832-1834. The Alexander Citadel was built. A large brick fortress in Warsaw was built after the suppression of the Polish uprising, both to defend the country and to control the situation in the Kingdom of Poland. During his visit to the city, Nikolay directly said to the residents of the city who had violated their loyalty to the Russian throne, that the next time the fortress, in which case, would smash the Polish capital into rubble, and he would not restore Warsaw after that. In 1832 — 1847 A powerful fortress was built on the bank of the Vistula in the Lublin province - Ivangorod.

In 1833-1842 was built one of the largest fortresses on the western border - the Brest Fortress. The structure of the fortress consisted of four fortifications, located on the partially and fully artificial islands. In the center was built the Citadel with the temple and the annular defensive barracks, 1,8 km long, made of especially strong bricks. The citadel from all sides covered Kobrin (Northern), Terespol (Western) and Volyn (Southern) fortifications. Each fortification was a powerful fortress with echelon defense. Later, the fortress was repeatedly upgraded. The Brest Fortress subsequently covered itself with undying glory during World War II and became one of the national symbols of Russian civilization.

The myth of the "backward Russia" of Nicholas I

Holm Gate of the Citadel of the Brest Fortress

The Kronstadt fortress, badly damaged by the 1824 flood, was undergoing a major reconstruction at that time. The grandiose construction, as well as the combat training, was actually carried out under the direct supervision of the king, who personally designed its fortifications and visited the fortress during this period on average 8 once a year, often without warning. Reconstruction of the central fortress of Kronstadt in stone (1825-1840) was carried out. The earthen sea fort “Citadel” (“Emperor Peter I”), which was heavily damaged by the 1824 flood of the year, was reconstructed; it was decided to rebuild it in stone (1827-1834). The sea fort "Emperor Alexander I" (1838-1845) was built. In 1850, the Prince Menshikov battery was commissioned. The battery was built in the form of a three-story building with a battle platform at the top of highly durable bricks, fully lined with granite. The battery received the 44 three-pod bombs, which were the most serious naval guns of the time. In 1845-1849 built the first stage of the largest and strongest fort of the Kronstadt fortress - the fort "Emperor Paul I". The walls of the fort on 2 / 3 consisted of granite, which made them almost invulnerable to the artillery of that time. The fort was ready to take part in hostilities by the beginning of the Crimean War, although its construction was completed only later. It should be noted that since the beginning of the Crimean War in 1854, an unplanned major emergency reinforcement of the Kronstadt fortress began. Thus, the capital of the Russian Empire was reliably protected from the sea and the Anglo-French fleet did not dare to attack Petersburg during the Eastern war.


Fort "Emperor Alexander I"

Since 1834, a radical reconstruction of the sea fortress of Sevastopol began. At this stage, the focus was on strengthening defense from the sea, which is not surprising, given that the Russian Empire had the strongest army in the world, but the fleet was inferior to the advanced powers (England and France). By the 1843, large Alexandrovskaya and Konstantinovskaya casemate coastal batteries (forts) were commissioned. Modernization of the fortress continued until the beginning of the Crimean War. Seaside fortifications were fully completed, so the enemy during the war did not dare to attack Sevastopol from the sea. However, land fortifications began to actively build only with 1850, and did not have time to complete. They were completed by the forces of soldiers, sailors and citizens already during the siege of the Allied army.

Thus, it is obvious that Nicholas I was branded as “a despot and tyrant”, “Nikolai Palkin”, because he most actively defended Russia's national interests, was a real knight who did everything in his power to make the empire flourish and be a mighty power.

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Articles from this series:
“Black Myths” about the Russian Emperor Nicholas I
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  1. venaya
    venaya 8 July 2016 07: 09
    +20
    it is obvious that Nicholas I is branded “despot and tyrant,” “Nikolai Palkin,” since he most actively defended Russia's national interests

    Nicholas I branded "despot and tyrant" is not casual!
    It was the media at that time in the form of only newspapers and magazines that fully support their NLP activities in the interests of the main owners of these same newspapers and created the difficultly changing myth of the "despot and tyrant" Nicholas I. To dispel this myth, it’s not just as easy, but justice and today’s the difficult conditions in which our country is located, it requires this is not slow.
    1. Pavel1
      Pavel1 8 July 2016 10: 08
      +1
      for whom were the railways built under nicholas? The first road between St. Petersburg and Tsarskoye Selo i.e. for courtiers and nobles. And the second is so generally between Warsaw and Vienna of Anglican breadth, for whom was it built and why? Instead of developing their production and encouraging their manufacturers, Cherepanovy locomotives began to buy everywhere abroad, developing the English industry, which then came around during the war. There is another fact, the Russian engineer Jacobi, the one who invented the first light bulb prepared a telegraph apparatus for the first railway, but I didn’t need it in Nikolaev Russia, and we bought telegraph devices in Germany from Siemens. All these facts can be said so, it was the beginning of the state raw materials economy to sell raw materials o return to the west to buy machinery and equipment.
      1. oking
        oking 8 July 2016 10: 45
        +4
        Quote: Paul1
        to encourage their producers Cherepanovs

        Do not fantasize.
        Quote: Paul1
        Russian engineer Jacobi, the one who came up with the first light bulb

        He also raised a pink elephant. In vitro.
        What does Jacobi have to do with an incandescent lamp in general?
        Quote: Paul1
        I prepared a telegraph apparatus for the first railway, but I didn’t need it in Nikolaev Russia, and I bought telegraph equipment in Germany from Siemens.

        Design in the garage and master the production, these are 2 big differences. Since garage items in single quantities were not needed, goods were purchased abroad. And what do you want without TLG at all. devices cost? Pigeon mail?
        Quote: Paul1
        it was the beginning of the state raw materials economy to sell raw materials in exchange for the purchase of machinery and equipment in the west.

        So what to do? Give examples of successful competitive products manufactured in the USSR and the Russian Federation? She certainly was and is. But the whole country will not be able to feed such products. So there is a trade in raw materials. In order not to swell from hunger.
        1. Pavel1
          Pavel1 8 July 2016 10: 59
          +3
          Quote: oking
          Do not fantasize.


          hear about the Cherepanovs for the first time?
          Quote: oking
          What does Jacobi have to do with an incandescent lamp in general?

          fool and who said that "incandescent lamp"? Jacobi invented the first electric light source based on an electric arc ...

          Quote: oking
          Design in the garage and master the production, these are 2 big differences.


          don’t you invent it, in those days Siemens had no industrial production and all its products were the same piece production as Jacobi’s ...

          Quote: oking
          So what to do? Give examples of successful competitive products manufactured in the USSR and the Russian Federation? She certainly was and is.

          The USSR traded weapons and aircraft, and helicopters, nuclear power plants in the Union was the leader. But then there was an iron curtain, and in the times of the present Russia has ruined all production and lives on gas and oil and if oil prices fall, then the ruble falls, that's the policy .
          1. Pissarro
            Pissarro 8 July 2016 11: 19
            +4
            hear about the Cherepanovs for the first time?


            You will understand the topic. The engine worked on wood. The task of the engine was to replace the horse-drawn carts. The result of the steam engine was the need to pull the carts from all around and deliver firewood to this engine from afar.

            Now put yourself in the position of the director of the Vyisky plant, to which this steam locomotive transported ore from a copper mine for three versts. He refused not specifically from the Russian steam locomotive, but from steam locomotives in general due to negative efficiency and continued to carry ore on horse drawn traction

            It is impossible to imagine this steam locomotive on the Nikolaev railway at all
            1. Pavel1
              Pavel1 9 July 2016 17: 25
              +1
              Quote: Pissarro
              You understand the topic. The engine worked on wood. The task of the engine was to replace the horse-drawn carts. The result of the steam locomotive was the need to pull the carts from all around


              specialist, well, how does the thermodynamics of wood burning differ from coal burning? OR is there some kind of barrier for you? About the fact that the Cherepanov’s car devoured all the forests in the circle, it’s a lie, it didn’t burn anything more than it should. Because ALL RUSSIAN VILLAGES were heated exclusively by firewood, and the forests as they were and remained ...
              Quote: Pissarro
              It is impossible to imagine this steam locomotive on the Nikolaev railway at all

              Well, Russophobia generally hard to imagine something Russian to imagine ...
          2. Felix99
            Felix99 8 July 2016 11: 36
            +3
            What relation do the telegraph and bulb have to Nicholas I?
            Austria at that time was a strategic partner in Europe. She was friends with her against France and Turkey. The presence of a train connection with Vienna is the possibility of a train connection with the Mediterranean Sea.
          3. Bersaglieri
            Bersaglieri 8 July 2016 11: 49
            +9
            The arc "candle" was invented not by Jacobi, but by Yablochkov.
            As for the phenomenon of the electric arc, it was discovered by Petrov (and, independently of him, Davy) at the very beginning of the 19th century.
            1. Beefeater
              Beefeater 8 July 2016 12: 27
              -1
              Quote: Bersaglieri
              The arc "candle" was invented not by Jacobi, but by Yablochkov.
              As for the phenomenon of the electric arc, it was discovered by Petrov (and, independently of him, Davy) at the very beginning of the 19th century.

              These inventions were made at about the same time in different countries, as was the invention of the radio.
            2. Alexey RA
              Alexey RA 8 July 2016 13: 18
              +3
              Quote: Bersaglieri
              The arc "candle" was invented not by Jacobi, but by Yablochkov.

              First was Petrov - with his studies of the electric arc.
              Then Jacobi put into practice the work of Petrov and Davy, creating a working arc lamp with manual adjustment of the electrodes.
              And Yablochkov brought the arc lamp to commercial use, creating a design that anyone with electricity could use.
            3. Pavel1
              Pavel1 9 July 2016 15: 21
              0
              Quote: Bersaglieri
              The arc "candle" was invented not by Jacobi, but by Yablochkov.


              Yes, Yablochkov, the better ...
          4. oking
            oking 8 July 2016 12: 00
            0
            Quote: Paul1
            hear about the Cherepanovs for the first time?

            Why, not the first time. And I hear about the ingenious production of a steam locomotive by the Cherepanovs for the first time. Their "locomotive" today would be called a motorized rail.
            Quote: Paul1
            Jacobi invented the first electric light source based on an electric arc ...

            You should have finished school, to begin with. And then "write amazing things."
            Quote: Paul1
            Don’t you invent it there,

            Do you like to graze pigs? These are your problems, this is not for me.
            Quote: Paul1
            in those days, siemens did not have any industrial production and all its products were the same piece production as jacobi ...

            Give a tooth? Or what is unconventional?
            Quote: Paul1
            The USSR traded weapons and aircraft, and helicopters, nuclear power plants in this Union was the leader.

            You see, buddy. You misunderstand the term "trade". "Trade" is to ship to the recipient for money. And the USSR did not trade, it just shipped. For kisses on the gums of "dear Leonid Ilyich" and the promise of eternal friendship.
            When they refused to take kisses and promises in exchange, it was the volume of trade that became what it is. Moreover, even in Soviet times, he was like that, and even less so. And the rest was ordinary Soviet fiction and squandering of material resources.
            1. Pavel1
              Pavel1 9 July 2016 17: 34
              -2
              Quote: oking
              Why, not the first time. And I hear about the ingenious production of a steam locomotive by the Cherepanovs for the first time. Their "locomotive" today would be called a motorized rail.


              and you blow your head off, maybe Tada, along with the wind, and thoughts will fly ...
              Quote: oking
              You should have finished school, to begin with. And then "write amazing things."


              already bounced off the "incandescent? pot?"

              Quote: oking
              You see, buddy. You misunderstand the term "trade".


              What friend are you to me? you can’t do anything flawed with the study of history, except that you were prescribed in the textbooks; on the top, a random passer-by can only do dirty tricks, but dare ...
              1. oking
                oking 9 July 2016 23: 17
                0
                Quote: Paul1
                and you blow your head off, maybe Tada, along with the wind, and thoughts will fly ...

                Ha, blow it. Even if you try to inject an enema, nothing will get to you. Only something can fall out. Brown matter, for example. Out of the ear.
                Quote: Paul1
                pots?

                Dear friend, if you decide to call me names in Yiddish "imperceptibly, obscenely", then you should not do this.
                Quote: Paul1
                you can’t do anything flawed with the study of history, except that you were prescribed in the textbooks; on the top, a random passer-by can only do dirty tricks, but dare ...

                Yes, really, what kind of friend are you to me? The complete lack of the ability to express their thoughts to my friends is not peculiar. And literacy is limping on both legs. No, we don’t need such friends.
                Quote: Paul1
                burning wood

                Wood-wood. Burn on, literate.
    2. Pavel1
      Pavel1 8 July 2016 10: 25
      0
      Nikolay's foreign policy1 was not only unpatriotic, but simply strange. What goals and objectives did Nikolay1 pursue when suppressing the Hungarian uprising, i.e. Austria's internal affairs absolutely not related to Russia, for which then Austria "thanked" Russia. The Russo-Turkish war of 1828-1829 could put an end to the Russo-Turkish issue and divide Turkey, but Nikolai did not want this, but England and France quickly made peace with Turkey It would have been possible to divide Persia after the Russo-Persian war of 1826-1828, but even then Nikolai did not want to decide anything, but everything has been said about the Crimean war, Russia lost the war before it began with its all-encompassing lag from the West. Nikolai's foreign policy1 was a series of fatal mistakes.
      1. oking
        oking 8 July 2016 10: 55
        0
        Quote: Paul1
        What goals and objectives did Nicholas1 pursue by suppressing the Hungarian uprising, i.e. Austria’s absolutely non-Russian affairs

        Very simple, suppressed in the bud a bourgeois and at the same time national liberation revolution in this country. Rightly fearing for their fate, in case of success of the Hungarians.
        Quote: Paul1
        The Russo-Turkish war of 1828-1829 could put an end to the Russo-Turkish issue and divide Turkey, but Nikolai did not want this

        Or relocate to Greenland.
        Do not fantasize.
        Quote: Paul1
        It would be possible to divide Persia in the after the Russo-Persian war of 1826-1828, but even here Nicholas did not want to decide anything

        What a reluctant one. You also invented. The correct word here is "could not." "Not allowed." And when he decided to sneeze for permission, he got the Crimean War. During which he was put in place.
        Quote: Paul1
        Russia lost the war before it began with its comprehensive lag behind the West.

        And what were the chances of Russia in the war with the whole West? None. There were chances in wars with PART of the West. Moreover, not with a simple, but with its weak part. But not on their own, but only on the strong side.
        1. Kotyara Fat
          Kotyara Fat 8 July 2016 21: 06
          0
          Napoleon is the weak part? Amazing
      2. Pissarro
        Pissarro 8 July 2016 11: 03
        +5
        Nikolai’s foreign policy was exactly the same as Russia’s now, the same as the USSR’s. Its fundamental principle is adherence to international treaties and legitimate players. The Hungarian uprising violated the principles of the Holy Alliance and was therefore crushed.
        Austria, however, stabbed her in the back for which she paid in full. Ignore Russia. When, after a few years, the Italian provinces fell off from Austria and Italy united, everyone did not care about Austria, as did the principles of the Holy Union.
      3. Felix99
        Felix99 8 July 2016 11: 37
        +6
        Fighting with everyone - not enough resources. A series of fatal mistakes is the whole history of all countries.
    3. Revolver
      Revolver 8 July 2016 17: 46
      +2
      Quote: venaya
      Nicholas I branded "despot and tyrant" is not casual!

      Well, of course! I shot the rebels on Senatskaya from cannons! He hanged the main Decembrists, "honor and conscience" of that era, and those who did not hang, he sent them to hard labor in Siberia en masse! Thousands! No, not enough, tens, hundreds of thousands! I set up duels for Pushkin and Lermontov! Shevchenko, this voice of the reviving Ukrainian national identity, spread rot! He drove Gogol to madness! In the army, I imposed stick discipline!
      That is why it is hated by liberals, as well as communists.
  2. Vladimirets
    Vladimirets 8 July 2016 07: 32
    +5
    "was a real knight who did everything in his power to make the empire prosperous and a mighty power."

    I would not rush from one extreme to another. To the author + for his vision of the issue, but I would not be in a hurry to call Nicholas 1 a "real knight". request
    1. Reddragon
      Reddragon 8 July 2016 08: 03
      +6
      The author wrote in the style of the site "made by us": there are many points, but the summary statistics and results are not at all so happy. Yes, Russian culture was going through a golden age, there were social shifts. But efficiency ... The same liberation from serfdom was not brought to the end, although part of the population was freed from it.

      In general, the reign of Nicholas 1 was positive than bad.
      1. xan
        xan 8 July 2016 10: 47
        +2
        Quote: RedDragoN
        In general, the reign of Nicholas 1 was positive than bad.

        it is you based on the results of the reign ascertained?
    2. sherp2015
      sherp2015 8 July 2016 09: 40
      +5
      Quote: Vladimirets
      I would not rush from one extreme to another. To the author + for his vision of the issue, but I would not be in a hurry to call Nicholas 1 a "real knight".

      Weaknesses were and are under any rule, but Russia developed this fact
      1. xan
        xan 8 July 2016 10: 50
        +1
        Quote: sherp2015
        Weaknesses were and are under any rule, but Russia developed this fact

        Indisputable fact. But there is a nuance. Other countries developed much faster, and Russia's lag became simply critical, which resulted in defeat in the Crimean War. This is also an indisputable fact.
        1. Heimdall47
          Heimdall47 8 July 2016 11: 05
          +6
          Quote: xan
          Other countries developed much faster, and Russia's lag became simply critical

          Where did they evolve?
          Record smelting of pig iron and steel is not the essence of development.
          As the most humane person said - "Better less is more." This phrase can be attributed to the development of Russia. Where are all these French and British empires and their development now? Where are their colonies and resources? Everything was lowered cleanly a hundred years after the Crimean War, one stub remained.
          But Russia is still the same - well, of course, they also profiled a lot, but the essence remains.
          1. oking
            oking 8 July 2016 11: 17
            -6
            Quote: Heimdall47
            Record smelting of pig iron and steel is not the essence of development.

            Far from being the point. The essence of development is the release of competitive products. Smelting by itself means nothing. It is quite possible to squander it on all sorts of garbage, getting a "zilch" at the exit from one hole. The example of the USSR in this regard is more than typical.
            Quote: Heimdall47
            Where are all these French and British empires with their development now? Where are their colonies and resources? They completely cleaned everything up a hundred years after the Crimean War, one piece remained.

            They are all in place, don't worry. Or almost everything. And you need to study such a phenomenon as "neo-imperialism".
            Quote: Heimdall47
            But Russia is the same

            Yes, 100 years of the development of civilization, thanks to the Bolsheviks, a downhill dog. Everything must be started anew.
            1. Heimdall47
              Heimdall47 8 July 2016 11: 35
              +3
              Quote: oking
              They are all in place, don't worry. Or almost everything. And you need to study such a phenomenon as "neo-imperialism".

              There is no one there. Everyone descended to the level of second-rate countries on a global scale.

              In my understanding, the development of the state is when it successfully captures new territories and has a sufficient birth rate of its own titular population for the development of these territories, with the goal of their strong retention.
              It is thorough and reliable. Development requires a good army and relatively developed industry. Nicholas had all this.
              The production of "competitive products" - iron pans and steamers - is certainly great, but a little different.
              France, with its development, began to have problems with the reproduction of its own population at the end of the 19th century.
              What kind of development is it when women do not give birth?
              Yes, 100 years of the development of civilization, thanks to the Bolsheviks, a downhill dog. Everything must be started anew.

              Maybe. But as fast as France and Britain, we were not blown away. We are still fumbling.
              1. oking
                oking 8 July 2016 12: 16
                0
                Quote: Heimdall47
                Everyone descended to the level of second-rate countries on a global scale.

                Well, the French have never been in the lead. And the fact that the British gave way to the Yankees, yes. But this is not a second-rate level, it is simply the deprivation of the position of the absolute leader. The overwhelming majority of countries in the world can only envy such a "second-rate".
                Quote: Heimdall47
                In my understanding, the development of the state is when it successfully captures new territories and has a sufficient birth rate of its own titular population for the development of these territories, with the goal of their strong retention.

                You should have been born 100-200 years ago. Then such views were very popular. Actually what you write is imperialism. In Western Europe, it finally collapsed 100 years ago, during WW1. But outside it, in less developed countries (in feudal OEF), it is still sometimes found.
                Quote: Heimdall47
                France, with its development, began to have problems with the reproduction of its own population at the end of the 19th century.
                What kind of development is it when women do not give birth?

                They know better, what for. They will sort it out themselves somehow.
                Quote: Heimdall47
                But as fast as France and Britain we were not blown away

                Another would be to understand where and how France and Britain were blown away. Especially Britain, France has always been far from leadership. For example, in terms of accumulated wealth per capita, the average person in Britain is in third place, behind the Swiss and the American. I don’t even want to write about where we are. But you can guess easily.
                1. Beefeater
                  Beefeater 8 July 2016 12: 37
                  +3
                  France has played a leading role in Europe for a very long period.
                  Since the advent of the French state, this was primarily due to the country's advantageous position and the lack of competition from Germany. The significance of France somewhat subsided only after the collapse of Napoleon.
                  1. oking
                    oking 8 July 2016 12: 56
                    -1
                    Quote: Beefeater
                    France has played a leading role in Europe for a very long period.

                    And Spain played. And Portugal played. But all this was already a very long time ago. And there is no sense in recalling these times. The world has long been owned by the Anglo-Saxons. According to the results of 2MB, only internal castling occurred, the Yankees replaced the Britons as absolute leaders.
                    Quote: Beefeater
                    and the lack of competition from Germany.

                    But Germany has never been a leading state. First of all, because it is a young state. And all her wars for a place in the sun ended in defeats. And even a cunning idea with the EU will probably end in failure. Too many "friends" want for their services. And, above all, France, which is covering the EU with a nuclear umbrella.
                    Here is a good example of what it means to linger a bit in the evolution of statehood.
                2. Heimdall47
                  Heimdall47 8 July 2016 13: 31
                  +3
                  Quote: oking
                  You should have been born 100-200 years ago. Then such views were very popular. Actually what you write is imperialism. In Western Europe, it finally collapsed 100 years ago, during WW1. But outside it, in less developed countries (in feudal OEF), it is still sometimes found.

                  There is no imperialism - there are reasonable eternal values. Due to the fact that our ancestors were, as you put it, "imperialists", i.e. we seized a huge territory with fire and sword, we subsequently defeated powerful Western enemies and at the moment we have a sickly deposit of minerals with which we now live.
                  So we will not build girls out of ourselves, shuffle our feet and use indecent words.
                  For example, in terms of accumulated wealth per capita, the average resident of Britain is in third place, followed by Swiss and American

                  Wealth per capita of the population is a zilch on vegetable oil. We are not talking here about the comfort of a citizen of the British Commonwealth, but about the greatness of the British Empire, over which the sun did not set and, which, with its irrepressible "development", sprayed its entire population and lowered all the greatness to the devil's grandmother.
                  Still to understand where and how France and Britain were blown away.

                  They were blown away that they had half of Paris and London - blacks with Arabs. Well, we also have problems with this - there is a lot of ballast.
                  There that Scotland is separated. And Algeria colonizes France.
                  Once again - I'm not talking about the number of cars per capita. I am talking about the greatness of the state. And cars are God with them, you can walk on foot wonderful.
                  1. oking
                    oking 8 July 2016 13: 50
                    -2
                    Quote: Heimdall47
                    There is no imperialism - there are reasonable eternal values.

                    Study the question of which values ​​are called eternal and which are coming.
                    Quote: Heimdall47
                    Due to the fact that our ancestors were, as you put it, "imperialists"

                    That it was done on time, i.e. then, when imperialism was in progress, it does not seem to bother you. And today it’s easy to get for him and a hat.
                    Quote: Heimdall47
                    We are not talking here about the comfort of a citizen of the British Commonwealth, but about the greatness of the British Empire

                    I do not know what you mean by this term. By the term "greatness of the empire" (or state) I mean the comfort and wealth of its inhabitants.
                    Quote: Heimdall47
                    and sent all the greatness to the damn grandmother.

                    But where did they let it down? Everything with them, as in the old days. Yes, the Yankees jumped on a lame mare. But no one else managed to do this. The Swiss do not count, it is a small state with a special status. And the average Frenchman is almost half the poorer than the average British.
                    Quote: Heimdall47
                    They were blown away that they had half of Paris and London - blacks with Arabs.

                    So they can afford it.
                    Quote: Heimdall47
                    Once again - I'm not talking about the number of cars per capita. I am talking about the greatness of the state.

                    And I tell you that this is the greatness of the state. And you do not litter your feudal ideas here. 21 century in the yard. The amount of land owned and slaves on it has long ceased to be capital. Civilization has gone ahead, and you, my dear, it would be nice to somehow move the pistons behind her.
                    1. Heimdall47
                      Heimdall47 8 July 2016 14: 10
                      +1
                      Quote: oking
                      Study the question of which values ​​are called eternal and which are coming.

                      The strong and smart takes away from the weak and stupid material values ​​and puts him in a dependent position.
                      This phenomenon has always existed and will exist forever, no matter how it is varnished by different ideas. This happens all the time and right before our eyes now.
                      By the term "greatness of the empire" (or state) I mean the comfort and wealth of its inhabitants

                      Excessive comfort and wealth of residents inexorably leads to the emergence of a consumer society, the decline of spiritual forces, a decrease in the birth rate, the general degradation of the people and, as a result, entails the decline of the state.
                      For the sake of the belly, a dog lives.
                      This does not mean that the average person should be poor and hungry - it means that the necessary balance must be maintained.
                      But where did they let it down? Everything with them, as in the old days

                      What kind of nonsense? Is England still pumping values ​​from India? Tie Papuans to the vents of guns? Well, then I missed something.
                      So they can afford it.

                      laughing Well, yes - but we can afford Ramzan Kadyrov, a tribute to Chechnya and a crowd of Tajiks - Gaster on the streets. And Russia in the 13th century could afford tribute to the Horde.
                      1. oking
                        oking 8 July 2016 15: 06
                        0
                        Quote: Heimdall47
                        The strong and smart takes away from the weak and stupid material values ​​and puts him in a dependent position.

                        And where does the captured territory? They need to be maintained. But to get wealth from them, yes. Preferably cheap.
                        In addition, people live in the occupied territories. They need to be maintained. As before, selling on the slave market will fail. But suck talented and successful from there, yes.
                        This is neo-imperialism. And what you write with is cave imperialism. This is now rarely seen, but it is punishable.
                        Quote: Heimdall47
                        Excessive comfort and wealth of residents inexorably leads to the emergence of a consumer society, the decline of spiritual forces, a decrease in the birth rate, the general degradation of the people and, as a result, entails the decline of the state.

                        Well written. Handsomely. Only untruth.
                        Quote: Heimdall47
                        For the sake of the belly, a dog lives.

                        Everyone lives for the sake of the belly. From the bug to the whale. The man, at the same time, is somewhere in between. In size. And according to needs, a few whales for the belt shut up.
                        Quote: Heimdall47
                        This does not mean that the average person should be poor and hungry - it means that the necessary balance must be maintained.

                        Will you appoint a balance? Look, do not overdo it. And do not save. The slaves will rest.
                        Where did you get such dense feudalism?
                        Quote: Heimdall47
                        Is England still pumping values ​​from India?

                        And not only from India. It is full of other places from where it pumps out values.
                        Quote: Heimdall47
                        Tie Papuans to the vents of guns?

                        Are you a sadist? Why do normal people need this?
                        Moreover, nothing prevents the neo-imperialists from convincingly asking one local resident to attach another to such a cannon. And to be at the same time as if absolutely nothing to do with.
                      2. Heimdall47
                        Heimdall47 8 July 2016 15: 52
                        +2
                        And where does the captured territory?

                        Despite the fact that the earth is the same material value.
                        And what you write with is cave imperialism. This is now rarely seen, but it is punishable.

                        We recently squeezed Crimea away from Ukraine. Recently, the "world community" squeezed Kosovo from Serbia. Only the weak are punished.
                        Well written. Handsomely. Only untruth.

                        What is not true?
                        You look at the statistics on fertility and natural population growth - in the first places Niger and Uganda. Switzerland is at 180th place, France - 171, Denmark -199. When the citizens of the titular nation of the state cease to multiply, the state slowly and steadily begins to bend. Regardless of the comfort of living in it. If Cortes or Ermak and his comrades initially had three horse teams and a room with gold, Russia would have had horseradish in Siberia, and Spain had South American resources.
                        Everyone lives for the sake of the belly. From the bug to the whale. The man, at the same time, is somewhere in between. In size. And according to needs, a few whales for the belt shut up.

                        No - I do not live. And many do not live.
                        Will you appoint a balance? Look, do not overdo it. And do not save.

                        This issue is generally unregulated, but this does not mean that it is not necessary to understand that luxury is evil. Anytime and anywhere. This was understood in ancient Rome and appointed censors.
                        And not only from India.

                        Well, tell us how much Britain has pumped free of charge from India over the past year.
                        Are you a sadist? Why do normal people need this?

                        I have nothing to do with it. England practiced these methods to pacify the natives. Well you say -
                        Everything with them, as in the old days
                        And I say - not everything. Not everyone.
                      3. oking
                        oking 8 July 2016 16: 13
                        -2
                        Quote: Heimdall47
                        Despite the fact that the earth is the same material value.

                        The earth itself has no material value. Its subsoil and crop value. Neo-imperialists get all this on the cheap without any annexations. Therefore, they are not currently in use.
                        And slave markets are not in use right now. Therefore, no one captures people, on the contrary, they put barriers to emigrants.
                        Quote: Heimdall47
                        When the citizens of the titular nation of the state cease to multiply, the state slowly and steadily begins to bend.

                        Learn basic biology. Populations are more visible, to breed to it or to be reduced. And the state that you care about so much is generally secondary. Not people for the state, but the state for people.
                        Quote: Heimdall47
                        If Cortes or Ermak

                        Yes sneeze at them. They lived before historical materialism and we are not interested in their experience.
                        Quote: Heimdall47
                        No - I do not live. And many do not live.

                        However, you and many lie. Trust me.
                        Quote: Heimdall47
                        that it’s not necessary to understand that luxury is evil. Anytime and anywhere. This was understood in ancient Rome and appointed censors.

                        Maybe in ancient Rome they understood this. But for some reason he ended badly. But in Britain they don’t understand this, I guess. But for many centuries, its citizens have been feeling fine.
                        Quote: Heimdall47
                        Well, tell me how much Britain pumped from India over the past year.

                        Recently, I recently threw up the process of monitoring the pumping of Britain’s pumping out of India a matglag from India. Yes, I gave such a slack, I repent. But just in case, I’ll inform you that the average Briton in terms of accumulated wealth in 2014. was richer than the average Indian by 93,6 (!!!) times. At the same time, for the year (2014), the Briton got rich by 35,8%. And the Indian is 23,1%. And these are both excellent indicators, as on average, the world population got rich by 15,2% that year.
                        Quote: Heimdall47
                        And I say - not everything. Not everyone.

                        Now it is not necessary, there is a native administration. Besides, I already wrote in the same place about "convincingly ask."
                      4. Heimdall47
                        Heimdall47 8 July 2016 16: 27
                        +2
                        Quote: oking
                        Learn basic biology. Populations are more visible, to breed to it or to be reduced. And the state that you care about so much is generally secondary. Not people for the state, but the state for people.

                        All clear. The familiar principle of life -
                        "Eat, drink, be merry, because tomorrow you will die."
                        However, you and many lie. Trust me.

                        You know everything for everyone and decide everything.
                      5. oking
                        oking 8 July 2016 17: 03
                        -4
                        Quote: Heimdall47
                        "Eat, drink, be merry, because tomorrow you will die."

                        I don’t know how to die from overeating. But from malnutrition, this very much happens.
                        Quote: Heimdall47
                        You know everything for everyone and decide everything.

                        No, I haven’t decided. Just a man, this is exactly the same living entity as the rest of the living creatures on this planet. Therefore, the needs are approximately the same.
    3. kotvov
      kotvov 8 July 2016 20: 08
      +1
      Yes, 100 years of the development of civilization, thanks to the Bolsheviks, a downhill dog. Everything needs to be started anew. ,,
      and then, industrialization, electrification, Hitler
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. oking
        oking 8 July 2016 20: 20
        -2
        Dexterously you get it. You write the answer, but the text has already changed.
      3. Mordvin 3
        Mordvin 3 8 July 2016 20: 32
        +2
        Quote: kotvov
        kotvov

        Stick, please minus the big king. I'm tired of it. And I can’t, because he put me in an emergency. crying
  3. Felix99
    Felix99 8 July 2016 11: 52
    0
    I agree! Do not try to bite off more than you can absorb. The result of the subsequent Russo-Turkish Wars was the transfer to the German crown of power over Bulgaria and Romania at the cost of Russian blood. Siberia is the main conquest of Russia!
  • oking
    oking 8 July 2016 11: 10
    -3
    Quote: xan
    and Russia's lag was simply critical, which resulted in defeat in the Crimean War. This is also an indisputable fact.

    I’m embarrassed to ask which one INDEPENDENT war of the Republic of Ingushetia or the USSR ended in victory? Except Turkey in the 19th century and Finland.
    1. Pissarro
      Pissarro 8 July 2016 11: 23
      +2
      I’m embarrassed to ask, and which of them ended in defeat?
    2. alicante11
      alicante11 8 July 2016 15: 07
      0
      I’m embarrassed to ask, which INDEPENDENT war of the Republic of Ingushetia or the USSR ended in victory? Except Turkey in 19 and Finland.


      Well, for example, Civil, which reflected, incl. and intervention. WWII, that's just not necessary about the fact that the allies fought with the Germans. The USSR bore the brunt of the war, and it also broke the back of fascism. And the "allys" were attached. Thanks to them, except for the stew and trucks, which made it possible to massively motorize the infantry, well, more machines. But after the Wehrmacht turned its muzzle to the West. But in military terms, their "help" was only slightly different from absolute zero. As well as the 1st Patriotic War of 1812, we were conducted militarily alone.
      1. oking
        oking 8 July 2016 15: 37
        -3
        Quote: alicante11
        Well, for example, Civil

        Are there winners in civil wars?
        Quote: alicante11
        And the "allys" were attached.

        They were anointed, not anointed, and Germany was divided into 4 zones of occupation. And the USSR received just one of them. Why? Yes, it was a pity to give him the third part, so France was also included in the number of winners. And the rest of Europe was also divided by the Anglo-Saxons. As a result, the USSR got itself on the neck of all the European inhabitants.
        And I must also thank them, because they could not give anything at all.
        Quote: alicante11
        As well as the 1st Patriotic War of 1812, we conducted it militarily alone.

        Well yes. Only at the British expense, in many respects their ammunition and weapons.
        In exchange, they then took all of Europe to themselves. After more than 100 years, history repeated itself.
        1. alicante11
          alicante11 8 July 2016 16: 02
          0
          Are there winners in civil wars?


          Well, that one was in fact. Well, I talked about the intervention.

          And I must also thank them, because they could not give anything at all.


          The gut was thin.

          Well yes. Only at the British expense, in many respects their ammunition and weapons.


          Well, again it went about "lend-lease". Who fought?

          In exchange, they then took all of Europe to themselves. After more than 100 years, history repeated itself.


          Well, Russia has always been able to win much better than to use the fruits of its victories. But this does not mean that Russia did not gain them.
          1. oking
            oking 8 July 2016 16: 33
            -5
            Quote: alicante11
            Well, I talked about the intervention.

            Was there an intervention? In addition to the Far East? There, by the way, the Bolsheviks surrendered and created the FER.
            Quote: alicante11
            The gut was thin.

            Well why. In the Far East, they threw it quite specifically. In addition to the section of Europe on their patterns.
            Quote: alicante11
            Well, again it went about "lend-lease". Who fought?

            War is not only the supply of cannon fodder. This is a complex multi-factor process.
            Quote: alicante11
            Well, Russia has always been able to win much better than to use the fruits of its victories.

            Who told you that?
            Quote: alicante11
            But this does not mean that Russia did not gain them.

            No one says they didn’t. But INDEPENDENTLY, rarely.
            1. alicante11
              alicante11 9 July 2016 06: 13
              +1
              Was there an intervention? In addition to the Far East? There, by the way, the Bolsheviks surrendered and created the FER.


              M-yes, in the process, the exam is not treated. In the north, Murmansk-Arkhangelsk, the British reached Petrozavodsk, in the south - also the Caucasus, Baku, and even the Poles in the west.

              Well why. In the Far East, they threw it quite specifically. In addition to the section of Europe on their patterns.


              Yes, you sho? And where did the DPRK come from? Did Port Arthur also get amers? Huh? But the Americans themselves did not occupy Japan, if you are about Hokkaido. Teach history already, or something, before you write nonsense.


              War is not only the supply of cannon fodder. This is a complex multi-factor process.

              It is true, only "cannon fodder" wins. And all other factors only affect the price of success.

              Who told you that?


              Yes there is one ... Clio's name is, have you heard?

              No one says they didn’t. But INDEPENDENTLY, extremely rare.


              So VD independently fought extremely rare. Unless with the Papuans.
              1. oking
                oking 9 July 2016 23: 21
                0
                Quote: alicante11
                M-yes, in the process, the exam is not treated.

                Can't heal yourself? And you don’t scratch, maybe it will pass by itself.
                Quote: alicante11
                In the north of Murmansk-Arkhangelsk, the British reached Petrozavodsk

                Write immediately to Zhytomyr. For the greater importance. To invent, so to invent.
                Quote: alicante11
                in the south - also the Caucasus, Baku, and even the Poles in the west.

                What is Baku, what are Poles? Demonstrate your knowledge of geography?
                Quote: alicante11
                Yes, you sho? And where did the DPRK come from? Did Port Arthur also get amers? Huh? But the Americans themselves did not occupy Japan, if you are about Hokkaido.

                Those. you don’t even understand what it is about. My condolences. Pull at least a general level of knowledge. At least knowledge of elementary things.
                Quote: alicante11
                only "cannon fodder" wins

                It doesn't matter who wins whom and for whom. It is important who benefits from this. The main one always wins in all matters. Banquet customer, host, boss. At the same time, NEVER cannon fodder, if at the same time it is not the boss (such cases sometimes happen), do not rule the division of loot. They can also throw some bone to cannon fodder. Like the USSR. And they may not be thrown, like the Chinese Communists. WW2, a very clear example of this.
                By the way, Chiang Kai-shek for his own and Anglo-Saxon interests in Asia (they intersected, as in Dzhugashvili's with the Anglo-Saxons in Europe), laid more than 30 million Chinese. And in return, when the Communists overthrew him, he got Taiwan. And immunity from communist China. Communist China, I repeat, received nothing at all. And the USSR, after Dzhugashvili thought for a moment that he was also a little boss, was also punished very seriously. And the "great and terrible Dzhugashvili" also had to swallow it.
                Therefore, popular prints do not need to be drawn. The world is arranged as it is. And not like someone on his periphery wants it. Or it seems.
                Quote: alicante11
                Clio's name, have you heard?

                Oh, this one could tell you anything. She’s still a dreamer.
                Quote: alicante11
                So VD independently fought extremely rare. Unless with the Papuans.

                I do not know what VD is.
        2. Pissarro
          Pissarro 8 July 2016 16: 02
          +1
          Well yes. Only at the British expense, in many respects their ammunition and weapons.
          In exchange, they then took all of Europe to themselves. More than 100 years later, history repeated itself.


          A typical argument of Westerners. This help is that in the first, in the second Russian war it was secondary and without it, for a couple of months, both wars would have lasted longer, and even that is unlikely. The mattresses and their lackeys are worth the price. Both Victories are ours and only. And they are masters to use our Victory, yes
          1. oking
            oking 8 July 2016 16: 28
            -4
            Quote: Pissarro
            This help is that in the first, in the second Russian war it was secondary and without it, for a couple of months, both wars would have lasted longer, and even that is unlikely

            Learn the materiel. Teach right from the start. And do not carry the blizzard.
            For example, without American food, the war would most likely have ended in 1942. Just on the line Astrakhan-Arkhangelsk along the Volga and the North. Dvina, as the Germans planned at Barbarossa. And even in 1941, with fuel for aircraft in the USSR in 1941. it was very bad.
            Quote: Pissarro
            Both Victories are ours and nothing more.

            On the division of trophies this can not be said.
            1. Pissarro
              Pissarro 8 July 2016 16: 58
              +2
              but don’t need to retell Western history books here. Everything that we received from them was paid in gold. This is not help, it is a purchase. Buying bread in a store you don’t think that the store helped you.
              Yes, and without stew we would still win, do not worry.
              the idiocy of strategists who believe that they will reach a certain line, take a certain city and the Russians give up typical of Europe. Write nonsense that the war will end for some reason on the Astrakhan-Arkhangelsk line could only be European, not Russian. Yes, even in the Urals, even in the Ob, by and large do not care where to stop the enemy and where to drive back
              1. oking
                oking 8 July 2016 17: 12
                -1
                Quote: Pissarro
                Yes, there is no need to retell Western textbooks on history.

                Very necessary.
                Quote: Pissarro
                All that we received from them was paid for in gold.

                Yeah, no need to tell tales.
                Quote: Pissarro
                This is not help, this is a purchase

                There were also purchases. Purchases were paid in gold, as There was no currency in the USSR. Lend-lease supplies are not affected.
                Quote: Pissarro
                Yes, and without stew we would still win, do not worry.

                Very worried. Because Lend-Lease food was fed not only ALL The Red Army, but also partially the population of the USSR. Although Lend-Lease this was not provided.
                Quote: Pissarro
                by and large do not care where to stop the enemy and where to drive back

                Well yes. They would do the bows. Arrow And half-starved would have driven. Though from the Urals, even from the Ob. Do you even think sometimes that you write.
                1. Pissarro
                  Pissarro 8 July 2016 17: 22
                  +1
                  it’s useless to discuss this topic with you, in your head a Western training manual is the essence of which we cannot do anything without the West. And the goal is to spread these nonsense.
                  The Russians defeated the overwhelming majority of Wehrmacht divisions. This is the only true fact. And to consider that the essence of victory is not in the victorious divisions of the Red Army, but in the stew is your right
                2. oking
                  oking 8 July 2016 18: 00
                  -1
                  Quote: Pissarro
                  , in your head a western training manual

                  Does this exist? The Communists were masters in the training of manuals. Here are the ones in your head.
                  Quote: Pissarro
                  The Russians defeated the vast majority of Wehrmacht divisions.

                  Divisions of the Wehrmacht were smashed by the Soviet.
                  Quote: Pissarro
                  And to consider that the essence of victory is not in the victorious divisions of the Red Army, but in the stew is your right

                  Without food, it’s not that victorious; in general, there is no action. This is physiology, my friend.
                3. Pissarro
                  Pissarro 8 July 2016 18: 07
                  0
                  Without food, it’s not that victorious; in general, there is no action. This is physiology, my friend


                  This is your whole bourgeois essence - the gastrointestinal tract laughing
                4. oking
                  oking 8 July 2016 18: 44
                  -1
                  Quote: Pissarro
                  This is your whole bourgeois essence - the gastrointestinal tract

                  The bourgeois, it turns out, are eating. And what did the scoops do? Have you read a short course of the CPSU (b)?
                  In the same way they ate. Only any low-quality muck.
                5. Pissarro
                  Pissarro 8 July 2016 18: 54
                  +2
                  Yes, yes, how is it customary for you to cry now, oh, jamon, about Parmesan.
                  Scoops ate to live, and the bourgeois live to eat
                6. oking
                  oking 8 July 2016 18: 57
                  -2
                  Quote: Pissarro
                  Scoops ate to live, and the bourgeois live to eat

                  Do not live, but survive.
                7. Pissarro
                  Pissarro 8 July 2016 19: 22
                  +1
                  you can rub it in your Europe, they will believe there. And we are all from the USSR and we weren’t hungry laughing
                8. oking
                  oking 8 July 2016 19: 53
                  0
                  Quote: Pissarro
                  And we all come from the USSR and there weren’t hungry

                  It is very convenient to tell the millions of people who died in the USSR from starvation. According to quite official data.
                9. The comment was deleted.
                10. Pissarro
                  Pissarro 8 July 2016 19: 54
                  0
                  in your manuals write about ochulyards, read carefully
  • parusnik
    parusnik 8 July 2016 07: 39
    +4
    tools and steam locomotives...In the first half of the XIX century, locomotives were mainly imported from Russia to Russia. Serial production was established only in the 1870s, and before that a small number of locomotives of foreign design were produced. The Cherepanovs' locomotives were not widespread. One of the reasons is opposition from equestrian contractors who did not want to lose their income. But besides this, there were some objective reasons. Firewood was used as fuel in the Cherepanov locomotives. The engine consumed them in such quantities that very soon a problem arose with their transportation. The entire forest in the vicinity of the railway was cut down, and firewood had to be transported from afar. This also greatly influenced the fate of the engine. For example, the first Stephenson steam locomotives worked on the transport of coal from coal mines, which was used as fuel.
    1. Beefeater
      Beefeater 8 July 2016 08: 55
      +2
      The Cherepanovs steam locomotive is a small machine designed for the factory narrow gauge railway. He did not pull on the main locomotive.
  • svskor80
    svskor80 8 July 2016 07: 45
    +4
    Unfortunately, Soviet historiography actively promoted the topic of the rottenness of the regime of Nicholas I, which is only to the advantage of the liberal public.
  • V.ic
    V.ic 8 July 2016 07: 48
    -2
    In relation to protectionism in the economy, this is good, but in relation to the "masters of the minds" not everything went smoothly. They let Herzen go abroad easily, but Dostoevsky was given bars. Oh, if only the opposite!
    1. venaya
      venaya 8 July 2016 08: 02
      +4
      As for Herzen, the question has already been examined in detail: when he was already abroad, Nikolai Pavlovich, after the Russophobic publications of Herzen, tried to take the estate from him, but it was the finance minister who advised him not to do this — for the penny estate of Herzen, RI could lose financially so necessary for Russia loans from fin. empire of Rothschild, who in every way protected Herzen in particular. As for Dostoevsky, he was not a Russophobe, and therefore no one so influential defended him.
    2. bober1982
      bober1982 8 July 2016 08: 09
      +2
      So Dostoevsky was sent to hard labor for business, there was nothing to contact with troublemakers.
      1. sherp2015
        sherp2015 8 July 2016 09: 45
        +2
        Quote: bober1982
        So Dostoevsky was sent to hard labor for business, there was nothing to contact with troublemakers.

        Here's the curious thing: the Zionists very much hate Dostoevsky. I wonder why?
        1. bober1982
          bober1982 8 July 2016 10: 00
          +3
          I don’t know anything about the Zionists, so there’s nothing to say.
          Dostoevsky was hated and hated by liberals of all stripes, he knew all this public well. The communists did not feel sympathy for him either, they hammered his "reactionary" into their heads.
          As for the Zionists, you, in my opinion, are mistaken - why did Fedor Mikhailovich surrender to them, in what way did the Zionists surrender the emotional torment of Sonya Marmeladova.
        2. Pissarro
          Pissarro 8 July 2016 11: 05
          +1
          can you give an example of hatred of at least one Zionist against Fyodor Mikhailovich?
        3. Tambov Wolf
          Tambov Wolf 8 July 2016 12: 38
          +3
          For the novel "Demons", which reminds just the current liberals, who consist of Zionists and those who have joined them.
  • Nehist
    Nehist 8 July 2016 07: 51
    +5
    The main phrase of Nicholas-I Where once the Russian flag is hoisted! It cannot be lowered !!!
    1. Mikhail Matyugin
      Mikhail Matyugin 8 July 2016 15: 54
      0
      Quote: Nehist
      The main phrase of Nicholas-I Where once the Russian flag is hoisted! It cannot be lowered !!!

      You can say anything, it’s difficult to answer for beautiful slogans - but in reality it was with him that the main steps were taken to ditch Russian America.
      1. Pissarro
        Pissarro 8 July 2016 16: 03
        0
        which mistakes?
  • igordok
    igordok 8 July 2016 07: 52
    +3
    Thank you.
    I did not know that the Novgorod-Pskov highway was so ancient. Now only a small section of this highway is used for communication between cities.
    I did not know that the main road from St. Petersburg went to Daugavpils, now it is under-utilized, and now the main road to Kiev was an auxiliary one.

    While I was looking for information on the roads I found a site, just for this article. - http://ruxpert.ru/Large_Russian_projects_(Nikolay_I,_1843-1855)
  • bober1982
    bober1982 8 July 2016 07: 55
    +2
    Russian literature came out of the "Nikolaev overcoat" - there is such a catch phrase, the author N.V. Gogol
    1. alebor
      alebor 8 July 2016 10: 34
      +3
      “We all came out of Gogol's Overcoat,” said F.M. Dostoevsky. Nicholas I has absolutely nothing to do with it.
      1. parusnik
        parusnik 8 July 2016 13: 43
        0
        What is interesting ... Russian literature came out of the "Nikolayev's overcoat" .. these are really the words of N.V. Gogol .. as well as the phrase of F.M.Dostoevsky - We all came out of the "overcoat" by Gogol. sarcasm ... not joy ..
        1. bober1982
          bober1982 8 July 2016 15: 00
          -2
          Gogol was crazy, he won’t understand, where is joy and where is sarcasm, everyone understands in his own way.
          1. sherp2015
            sherp2015 9 July 2016 08: 36
            0
            Quote: bober1982
            Gogol was crazy, he won’t understand, where is joy and where is sarcasm, everyone understands in his own way.

            ))) Here Zionists and Gogol for some reason can not stand ...)
            Have they stepped on an egg?
    2. The comment was deleted.
  • 0895055116
    0895055116 8 July 2016 08: 20
    +4
    Now the fashion has gone for the rehabilitation of the autocrats, in particular Nicholas the first. Is the "game worth the candle"? The reactionaryness and inertia of this emperor is well known. The technical backwardness of Russia, its army and navy is the result of the activities of the emperor and his entourage! - It is worth remembering at least the siege of SEVASTOPOL, the defeat then was ensured primarily by the technical backwardness of the troops! You can talk a lot about this ... But the sharpness invented by St. Petersburgers in relation to the monument to Nicholas the First, standing on the square near St. Isaac's Cathedral, and the "Bronze Horseman" on Senatskaya - "CLEARLY CATCHES, YES ISAAC IS HINDING" can say a lot!
    1. saigon
      saigon 8 July 2016 08: 33
      +1
      Well, in the Crimean War, there are many factors and the boredom of Austria-Hungary and the length of communications (it is necessary to take into account the remoteness of the theater of operations from the center of the country) problems with logistics.
      1. ALEA IACTA EST
        ALEA IACTA EST 8 July 2016 09: 06
        +3
        Quote: saigon
        Austro-Hungarian bitch position

        And who saved Austria with its corrupt kings and smelly absolutism? Who extinguished the flame of the Hungarian revolution with Russian blood?
      2. xan
        xan 8 July 2016 11: 01
        +1
        Quote: saigon
        Well, in the Crimean War, there are many factors and the boredom of Austria-Hungary and the length of communications (it is necessary to take into account the remoteness of the theater of operations from the center of the country) problems with logistics.

        And who does this torment? This is a real policy, and there is no one to complain about. Austria did not have to be rescued, but bent like the last chicken, the expeditionary force in the Crimea had to be crushed as a boring mosquito, and no excuses like logistics here would roll.
        1. Pissarro
          Pissarro 8 July 2016 11: 28
          0
          When Hungary nevertheless fell off from Austria, did Hungary become a state friendly to Russia? Were the Magyars trampled upon at the first opportunity to destroy us? The Reich’s most faithful and last ally with animal Russophobia.
          1. Felix99
            Felix99 8 July 2016 12: 33
            +2
            Romanians possess the same Russophobia, whom we freed from the Turks. Despite Orthodoxy and the Church Slavonic language in which they have church services.
        2. Felix99
          Felix99 8 July 2016 12: 28
          +3
          An excuse about the impossibility of transporting military units and military equipment for 3 thousand kilometers on foot (logistics) is not suitable? yes you are a gourmet, my friend! One-piece army general! And please take a box of two zinc, and a pawn from St. Petersburg to Sevastopol, under the scorching sun, in two left boots, go along with a song about the Tsar-Father.
        3. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 8 July 2016 14: 00
          +2
          Quote: xan
          the expeditionary force in the Crimea had to be crushed as a boring mosquito, and no excuses like logistics here would roll.

          Did you serve in the Imperial Japanese Army for an hour? They have it "training issues were not considered". smile

          "An excuse for the type of logistics" in the Crimean War is the delivery of ammunition to the Crimea by oxen along the route Lugansk-Perekop-Simferopol-Sevastopol. Against British and French ships.
    2. Felix99
      Felix99 8 July 2016 12: 21
      +2
      The technical backwardness of Russia at all times is the result of the activities of government oligarchs and the inertia of the system. Time goes by, nothing changes.
      In a dispute between physicists and lyricists, we have always won lyrics. At what now some of the lyrics are called patriots, others liberals.
      "You need to work, my friend!" IN AND. Lenin (C)
    3. Beefeater
      Beefeater 8 July 2016 12: 43
      +2
      Quote: 0895055116
      Now the fashion has gone for the rehabilitation of the autocrats, in particular Nicholas the first. Is the "game worth the candle"? The reactionaryness and inertia of this emperor is well known. The technical backwardness of Russia, its army and navy is the result of the activities of the emperor and his entourage!

      This thesis requires proof.
      What does "well-known" mean? The article convincingly proves the opposite.
    4. alicante11
      alicante11 8 July 2016 15: 19
      +4
      It is worth recalling even the Siege of SEVASTOPOL, the defeat then was ensured primarily by the technical backwardness of the troops!


      Yes, nonsense. There was no particular backwardness. What we didn’t have threaded fittings? Yes, not everyone was armed with them, but we and the army had a little more English command. And not the fact that everyone needed to be armed with rifled ones. Still, melee rate is more important than accuracy. And long-distance shooters also worked well. The French also had rifled guns no larger than ours. What we did not have armadillos? And no one had them. The French dragged a few armored batteries, which they themselves were barely moving in tow. Ochakov they nobly rolled out. But they did not dare to poke their head in Sevastopol, they knew that they would not survive the return. According to the battleships, it’s not too scary either, the creators of everything had three, in my opinion, steam locomotives at the World Cup, with only one really maneuvering in pairs.
      What else was Russia backward? The only problem of Russia in the Crimean War is the lack of a railway connection between the Empire and the Crimea. Which did not allow to deploy and supply an army that would surpass the enemy in strength and decide in our favor the outcome of the war. The same problem was in the REV. But you look at the distances! Where were SUCH long railways then?
  • EvilLion
    EvilLion 8 July 2016 08: 26
    0
    The interests of Russia, as they understood them, were defended by all Russian tsars. But the Crimean War was purged and this is a fact from which you can’t get anywhere. War is the most serious test for the state.
    1. Pissarro
      Pissarro 8 July 2016 09: 34
      +1
      this "fact" was invented by the liberals. What was the defeat? They lost half the city, took a bunch of Caucasian cities. The heir got tired of fighting and he agreed to a draw, that's all defeat

      who does not know the conditions of the world

      On February 13 (25), 1856, the Paris Congress began, and on March 18 (30), a peace treaty was signed.

      Russia returned the city of Kars with a fortress to the Ottomans, receiving in exchange Sevastopol, Balaklava and other Crimean cities seized from it.
      The Black Sea was declared neutral (that is, open to commercial and closed to military courts in peacetime), with the prohibition of Russia and the Ottoman Empire to have military fleets and arsenals there.
      Navigation along the Danube was declared free, for which the Russian borders were moved away from the river, and part of Russian Bessarabia with the mouth of the Danube was annexed to Moldova.
      Russia was deprived of the protectorate over Moldavia and Wallachia and the exclusive patronage of Russia over the Christian subjects of the Ottoman Empire, granted to it by the Kuchuk-Kainardzhiyskoy world 1774 year.
      Russia pledged not to erect fortifications on the Åland Islands.
      1. oking
        oking 8 July 2016 11: 32
        +2
        Quote: Pissarro
        this "fact" was invented by the liberals. What was the defeat? They lost half the city, took a bunch of Caucasian cities. The heir got tired of fighting and he agreed to a draw, that's all defeat

        1. Russia lost Kars with a fortress.
        2. Russia lost the Black Sea fleet and fortresses on the shores of the Black Sea.
        3. Russia lost access to the Danube and part of Bessarabia.
        4. Russia lost its leverage over the Ottoman Empire.
        5. Russia demilitarized the Aland Islands.
        Nifiga yourself a draw.
        1. Pissarro
          Pissarro 8 July 2016 11: 39
          0
          1. Russia changed captured Kars to captured Sevostopol
          2. The Black Sea fleets and fortresses lost both Russia and Turkey
          3.Russia did not lose access to the Danube, and the Danube opened for general use, the border was pushed to the minuscule for this reason. Nobody forbade Russia to walk along the Danube.
          and most importantly, they erased this treaty a few years later, simply notifying foreign capitals and all.
          Where is the defeat, a draw. Officially, Russia from Turkey suffered only one defeat in all wars, the Prut campaign.
          1. oking
            oking 8 July 2016 11: 49
            +2
            Quote: Pissarro
            3.Russia did not lose access to the Danube, and the Danube opened for general use, the border was pushed to the minuscule for this reason. Nobody forbade Russia to walk along the Danube.

            1. Explore geography. In particular, what exactly is southern Bessarabia.
            2. Learn Russian. In particular, the meaning of the term "lose exit".
            Quote: Pissarro
            and most importantly, they erased this treaty a few years later, simply notifying foreign capitals and all.

            Resurrected all the dead and cured all the crippled?
            Kars taken back?
            Took back southern Bessarabia?
            Got back an official protectorate over the Orthodox countries of the Ottoman Empire?
            Just like that, only flies will be born.
            1. Pissarro
              Pissarro 8 July 2016 11: 55
              0
              Our opponents resurrected the dead and repaired the crippled?
              Kars was taken in battle from the Turks, it was not ours, it was changed to Sevastopol.
              This is a draw, and not how liberals like to sing, a catastrophic defeat due to hatred specifically for Nicholas I.
              1. oking
                oking 8 July 2016 12: 22
                -1
                Quote: Pissarro
                Our opponents resurrected the dead and repaired the crippled?

                These are their problems. We are not concerned. And we should look after our own.
                Quote: Pissarro
                Kars was taken in battle from the Turks, it was not ours, it was changed to Sevastopol.

                Who cares? Was he lost? Lost What further talk?
                Quote: Pissarro
                It's a draw

                Of course. Some categories do not have lesions. Either a draw or a victory.
                1. Pissarro
                  Pissarro 8 July 2016 12: 24
                  +2
                  Defeat is a red flag over Berlin and unconditional surrender.

                  And you have a cool polemic method.
                  -we lost because we have crippled
                  -but let the enemy also have crippled and killed
                  is their problem, let's just talk about ours
                  laughing

                  I saw this in NTV reports about the first Chechen war in 1995. A familiar approach wassat
                  1. oking
                    oking 8 July 2016 12: 41
                    -1
                    Quote: Pissarro
                    Defeat is a red flag over Berlin and unconditional surrender.

                    Was it a defeat for you? Well, cry in a rag.
                    Quote: Pissarro
                    -but let the enemy also have crippled and killed

                    I repeat, finish with this. Our losses are our problems. That’s why you should be interested in your problems.
                    And then, when two assholes inflict irreparable losses on each other, a third will come and quickly pinch the tail of both. Such examples are very close.
                    Quote: Pissarro
                    I saw this in NTV reports about the first Chechen war in 1995. A familiar approach

                    And these are your problems. What are you there and where have you seen. And what are you there and how did you understand.
                    1. Cat
                      Cat 8 July 2016 21: 06
                      +1
                      I will add that the human losses of the allies, including non-combat ones, were by far greater than in the Russian army.
          2. Alexey RA
            Alexey RA 8 July 2016 14: 12
            -1
            Quote: Pissarro
            2. The Black Sea fleets and fortresses lost both Russia and Turkey

            But the Turks still had the Mediterranean fleet, which before the Black Sea was a couple of straits. And we have the closest fleet near the Black Sea in the Baltic.

            The loss by Russia of the fleet and bases at the World Cup came back to haunt us in the next Russian-Turkish, when at first we had to improvise with mine boats and armed steamers, and build "round freaks" of Admiral Popov (this is not me, this is the heir to the throne, the future Alexander III). And then I had to look back at Hornby's squadron, which there was nothing to resist at all.
          3. Mikhail Matyugin
            Mikhail Matyugin 8 July 2016 15: 54
            +2
            Quote: Pissarro
            Where is the defeat, a draw. Officially, Russia from Turkey suffered only one defeat in all wars, the Prut campaign.

            Sorry, but you don’t know military history.
            1. Pissarro
              Pissarro 8 July 2016 15: 57
              +1
              Sorry, but your assessment of my knowledge is parallel to me. If you have something to say, then argue
        2. Beefeater
          Beefeater 8 July 2016 12: 48
          +3
          The fleet very soon found another base in the city of Nice, which became a resort precisely because of the appearance of the Russian aristocracy.
          Russia and without the Kars fortress now feel great. Well, about the loss of leverage over Turkey, already 20 years after the events described, the Cossacks snooped around Istanbul.
          1. oking
            oking 8 July 2016 13: 00
            0
            Quote: Beefeater
            The fleet very soon found another base in the city of Nice

            Surfaced from under the water? There was no Black Sea Fleet for very long. Yes, and Nice was never the base of the fleet.
            Quote: Beefeater
            As early as 20 years after the events described, the Cossacks snooped around Istanbul.

            Snooping around. But they did not enter Istanbul. Britain forbade. I had to obey.
            1. Beefeater
              Beefeater 8 July 2016 16: 38
              +1
              Quote: oking
              Quote: Beefeater
              The fleet very soon found another base in the city of Nice

              Surfaced from under the water? There was no Black Sea Fleet for very long. Yes, and Nice was never the base of the fleet.
              .

              In 1857, the Duke of Savoy granted the right of permanent entry into Villefranche Bay, and in 1860 Napoleon lll confirmed this right by providing the opportunity to establish a military base there. 250 families lived there permanently and a consulate worked. So Nice appeared ..
              And on the enemy English and German shipyards the most modern ships of the royal fleet were built.
              1. oking
                oking 8 July 2016 17: 19
                +1
                Quote: Beefeater
                and in 1860, Napoleon lll confirmed this right by providing the opportunity to establish a military base there.

                And who needed her there?
                Quote: Beefeater
                And on the enemy English and German shipyards the most modern ships of the royal fleet were built.

                Well, as it were, no.
                In Britain, nothing was built at all, before the REV.
                And in Germany, several cruisers were built (Novik, Bogatyr, Askold). The successful one was the Bogatyr. And conditionally successful Novik.
                1. Beefeater
                  Beefeater 8 July 2016 18: 44
                  +1
                  Quote: oking
                  Quote: Beefeater
                  and in 1860, Napoleon lll confirmed this right by providing the opportunity to establish a military base there.

                  And who needed her there?
                  Quote: Beefeater
                  And on the enemy English and German shipyards the most modern ships of the royal fleet were built.

                  Well, as it were, no.
                  In Britain, nothing was built at all, before the REV.
                  And in Germany, several cruisers were built (Novik, Bogatyr, Askold). The successful one was the Bogatyr. And conditionally successful Novik.

                  The base in Nice is certainly not Sevastopol, but it could well keep the coast of Turkey and the Balkans at gunpoint, serve as a good school for sailors.
                  As for Germany, for example, all German industry rose on Russian orders during the Crimean War and the subsequent rearmament of the Russian army and navy. You can see Shirokorad’s famous book on this subject. Rails, steam locomotives, artillery, electrical engineering are Germans everywhere.
                  1. oking
                    oking 8 July 2016 18: 50
                    0
                    Quote: Beefeater
                    but it could well keep the coast of Turkey and the Balkans at gunpoint, serve as a good school for sailors.

                    If the Frenchmen suddenly did not need to turn it into a grave for sailors.
                    Quote: Beefeater
                    You can see Shirokorad’s famous book on this subject. Rails, steam locomotives, artillery, electrical engineering are Germans everywhere.

                    I don't know what time period you mean. Yes, there were German ships in the RIF, but not many. I can remember only 12 "guns on Navarino (as many as 4, and even then, licensed). Maybe on steam locomotives and so on, here I am not aware.
  • bober1982
    bober1982 8 July 2016 08: 31
    +1
    The reactionary and inertness of this emperor is well known
    When Herzen, the most famous liberal and hater of everything Russian, learned about the death of Nicholas I, he staggered around London like a drunkard, with happiness. Beyond himself, there were those about whom Dostoevsky would talk about in his novel The Demons.
    The liberal public experienced fierce hatred and malice towards Nicholas I.
  • Gray brother
    Gray brother 8 July 2016 08: 33
    +3
    Yeah, "advanced industry has formed", of course. Isn't this the kind of industry that in the first world could not provide the army with ammunition? Isn't this the industry that caused the search for rifles all over the world?
    1. Beefeater
      Beefeater 8 July 2016 09: 02
      +2
      Quote: Gray Brother
      Yeah, "advanced industry has formed", of course. Isn't this the kind of industry that in the first world could not provide the army with ammunition? Isn't this the industry that caused the search for rifles all over the world?

      The situation with ammunition at the beginning of the war was difficult for all the warring parties.
      By the end of the 15th year, the supply was adjusted.
      The number of shells produced for the field three-inch was such that they were enough not only for the Civil but also for the Great Patriotic War and still remained.
    2. Pissarro
      Pissarro 8 July 2016 09: 36
      +1
      it’s not that industry. Before that there was another 70 years, during this time even the most advanced industry will become obsolete a couple of times
  • Aleksander
    Aleksander 8 July 2016 08: 50
    +4
    Another important achievement of Nicholas that is still valid today is not mentioned: for the first time, the legislation of the Republic of Ingushetia was streamlined, all the Acts, Laws of the Empire were collected and streamlined and published "The Code of Laws of the Russian Empire" in 15 volumes. After that, all the newly issued laws published annually in the sequels of the Code. (what is being done today)
    The "Code" was sent to all the government offices of the empire and went on sale,
    so from now on everyone could use the Code of Laws in their affairs
    1. bober1982
      bober1982 8 July 2016 08: 57
      +5
      You can add another important achievement of the reign of Nicholas I - the creation of the Gendarmerie Corps, they worked very efficiently. By 1917, the gendarmerie had no such necessary professionalism.
      1. saigon
        saigon 9 July 2016 04: 49
        0
        Read the tasks of the gendarme corps, be very surprised. There is also the care of retired soldiers and about babies and a lot of things, but the political investigation in the last places
  • The comment was deleted.
  • X Y Z
    X Y Z 8 July 2016 10: 15
    +6
    And I would not consider this article as falling into the opposite extreme. It's just that now it has become possible to publish historical facts that, for one reason or another, could not have been published earlier. In addition, one must understand that real historical persons were sons of their time and cannot be assessed by the standards of the present time, and even more so, be assessed only with a plus or minus sign. Even the greatest and most famous of our ancestors sometimes did not very worthy and moral deeds. Yes, they were also people with their passions and vices. This is confirmed by the TV channel "Spas", which told about the fate of Admiral Chichagov, in which our great commander Kutuzov played a purely negative role, which does not make him look at all. The important thing is that history cannot be edited for the sake of individuals and the political situation, which can have major negative consequences.
  • Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 8 July 2016 10: 17
    +6
    Thank you very much for the continuation of the topic!
    Forts of Kronstadt --- amazing structures! I was there on an excursion. Just a huge respect, reverence for the unknown builders. With the development of technology. It happens that the phrase occurs: Petersburg stands on the bones. But what then can be said about the forts of Kronstadt ???

    Brest Fortress.

    This is where Russia stands !!!!!
  • voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 8 July 2016 10: 19
    -3
    The Crimean War was a real test of all his "achievements".
    The huge sailing fleet was flooded in front of Sevastopol in view of the complete
    uselessness when military steamboats approached him.
    A small Anglo-French expeditionary force took the largest base
    on the Black Sea, and the entire army of the Russian Empire could not
    to prevent this.
    A stark contrast to the time of the defeat of the Napoleonic army?
    40 years without reform - the result ...
    1. V.ic
      V.ic 8 July 2016 10: 52
      +3
      Quote: voyaka uh
      and the entire army of the Russian Empire could not prevent this.

      Disingenuous! "Grateful" Austria kept its troops on the borders of the Republic of Ingushetia, so Russia did not have the opportunity to transfer troops to the Crimea.
    2. alebor
      alebor 8 July 2016 10: 57
      +3
      I do not want to at all justify Nicholas I, but in fairness I must say that on the Black Sea the Russian sailing fleet was intended to confront the Turkish sailing fleet, so the absence of a steam fleet can be justified by the lack of need for it.
      By the time Russia had steam ships in the Baltic, by that time.
    3. The comment was deleted.
    4. Bersaglieri
      Bersaglieri 8 July 2016 11: 55
      +1
      Not "warships", but "armored warships". This moment is critical.
      1. Pissarro
        Pissarro 8 July 2016 12: 03
        -1
        from a military point of view, yes, but from a technological point of view. The principle was understandable and mastered, the first Russian ship went between Peter and Kranstadt already in 1815.
        In general, this issue is given too much importance in the Eastern War. Did a dozen steamers somehow change the situation against the huge fleet of allies? Definitely not.
        But coal needed to be transported to the steamers. Therefore, the logistics issue had to be solved first, roads to the ports of the Black Sea Fleet were laid and coal was transported, and only then the ships were to be transferred
        1. King, just king
          King, just king 8 July 2016 13: 33
          +1
          About the fleet.

          Exit or absenteeism of the Black Sea Fleet to the battle, this was a big question. And it is still unknown who would win. Experts are still arguing.
          Sailing battleships, with sides a meter thick - 100-200 cores each, or iron "cardboard boxes" that bomb guns would blow apart. The whole question was in maneuverability, and options with boats for turns, etc., were proposed. The point of view that it was impossible to fight won out. Kornilov was in favor of the battle, while Menshikov and Nakhimov were against.
          But if the fleet had left after the storm on November 14, perhaps Sevastopol would be extolled, like a great victory for Russian weapons ....
          Nobody had armored ships except French floating batteries at Kinburn.

          About Nicholas I.
          Here, either cowards, or a cross, definitely. No 10-20 articles "for or against" on "VO" will prove nothing. It is necessary to write a monograph, with statistics, with docs, with links to archives. Go check the author if he doesn't give a single link to the archives. Pulled numbers and voila. Either "Nikolai Palkin", or almost a reformer. Yes, about some "military settlements" you can write a library. That means suffocating censorship, then the flourishing of Russian literature.

          By the way, Nicholas was called "the last knight of Europe" for his addiction to knightly armor. Thank you for the knightly hall of the Hermitage.
      2. alicante11
        alicante11 8 July 2016 15: 38
        +2
        Not "warships", but "armored warships". This moment is critical.


        Come on, dear. These "armored steamers" were only capable of fighting BB. there the car was weak, and they could not sail at all. And they went in tow. So, as a combat unit, they were no better than our armored rafts. Is that the base is larger and accuracy, respectively.
    5. Moore
      Moore 8 July 2016 12: 53
      +6
      Quote: voyaka uh
      A small Anglo-French expeditionary force took the largest Black Sea bazaar,

      160 thousand only those who died from wounds and diseases are небольшой,Yes?
      This is the one, "small", which was going to pinch the Azov and Odessa in addition to the Crimea, but received tinsel from the territorial defense troops and returned back in a reduced composition, having managed to screw up a few ships even in the absence of those from the enemy?
      1. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 9 July 2016 00: 12
        0
        The cholera epidemic accounted for 3/4 loss.
        In battle, the British lost a total of 2100 people killed,
        no more than in one of the usual colonial expeditions.
    6. alicante11
      alicante11 8 July 2016 15: 36
      +1
      The huge sailing fleet was flooded in front of Sevastopol in view of the complete
      uselessness when military steamboats approached him.


      Are you okay? But there wasn’t such that there were only 3pcs of steamboats (I mean LC), but there were quite a lot of sailing LCs. And we had enough of all steamboat-frigates and steamboat-corvettes.

      A small Anglo-French expeditionary force took the largest base
      on the Black Sea, and the entire army of the Russian Empire could not
      to prevent this.


      It’s clear, because this army either fought on the Danube / Caucasus, or stood against Austria. And the main problem was the supply on a remote theater.
  • oking
    oking 8 July 2016 10: 29
    -2
    Quote: Samsonov Alexander
    However, this is a hoax. The war with a coalition of advanced Western powers just showed the strength of the Russian Empire, which survived with small losses in the struggle against the whole West and continued its development.

    Apparently, soon we will all "firmly know" about Russia's victory in the Crimean War. With the help of the "science of history" it is not difficult to do this.
    1. V.ic
      V.ic 8 July 2016 10: 56
      +3
      Quote: oking
      Apparently, soon we will all "firmly know" about Russia's victory in the Crimean War.

      Duck without any war Crimea is attached. Here is the sadness to all under the arms of 3,14!
      1. oking
        oking 8 July 2016 11: 37
        0
        Quote: V.ic
        without any war, Crimea is attached.

        During the Crimean War (19th century, if that), no one joined Crimea anywhere. Teach materiel, ignoramus.
    2. alicante11
      alicante11 8 July 2016 15: 39
      0
      Apparently, soon we will all "firmly know" about Russia's victory in the Crimean War. With the help of the "science of history" it is not difficult to do this.


      Not a victory, but a defeat "on points". As in RYAV.
      1. oking
        oking 8 July 2016 15: 53
        0
        Quote: alicante11
        Not a victory, but a defeat "on points". As in RYAV.

        Already progress. And then there were already calls to consider the Crimean War a draw.
  • pigkiller
    pigkiller 8 July 2016 10: 32
    +3
    Quote: voyaka uh
    A small Anglo-French expeditionary force took the largest bazaar of the Black Sea

    You are joking? The expeditionary coalition army (NATO of the 19th century), reinforced by the troops of Turkey, Italy (Sardinia) three times stormed the city, protected from land by earthen fortifications, and were able to occupy only part of it. You forgot that the bulk of the Russian army blocked Austria-Hungary, defended St. Petersburg, and successfully defeated Turkey on the Danube and the Caucasus. And the sinking of the fleet, which defeated the Turks in Sinope, was a difficult and correct decision of the Russian command.
  • RoTTor
    RoTTor 8 July 2016 10: 37
    +4
    Actually, Nikolai Pavlovich is one of the best, far-sighted and fair rulers of Russia, and indeed throughout world history.
    In addition, a worthy person.

    Cruel and unfairly slandered.

    Like his father.
  • Alex1977RUS
    Alex1977RUS 8 July 2016 10: 39
    +4
    Quote: parusnik
    tools and steam locomotives...In the first half of the XIX century, steam locomotives were mainly imported from Russia ...

    Well, yes, how I love these lovers of the "French bread" and "Madame Clicquot" from the throat in the morning ...
    They made one spoon per hour, bought a press from an Englishwoman, and with it began to make thirty.
    For the whole of Russia ... And immediately got the statistical growth of industrial production 30 times ...
    But as soon as you ask to bring volumes of production growth not in absolute units, percent, and other figures,
    and specific tons of molten iron and steel,
    rifle trunks, primuses with axes and saws, as it turns out right away ...
    Do you want the numbers?
    In 1905, out of every 1000 deaths of both sexes in 50 provinces of European Russia, 5 dead were children. Out of every 606,5 deceased men, 1000 were children in the same year, 5 out of every 625,9 women who died, girls were under 1000 years old.
    ON THE. Rubakin “Russia in Figures” (St. Petersburg, 1912 edition)
    For 10000 people 1 doctor. This is not a typo.
    FOR TEN THOUSANDS ONE DOCTOR. (sic)
    One bed per thousand people.
    And this bed place is naturally not for slaves and cattle, whose lot is "noble"
    the best part of the Russian people, and the nobles and the intelligentsia ...
    These are the figures of their statistical yearbook of the Russian Empire ...
    Every second soldier tried meat for the first time in his life only in the army,
    and white bread 90% of the peasants growing it have never been tasted at all NEVER ... For all their life.
    Hunger is not when the bread has not been deformed. Hunger is when the quinoa has not taken place ...
    This is from there, from the happy Tsarist Russia ...
    Well-fed and satisfied peasants composed, of which ten were born
    five babies were buried, and consider yourself lucky ...
    Yes, it has developed rapidly ..
    1. bober1982
      bober1982 8 July 2016 10: 44
      +1
      Herzen would have clapped your hands, he was broadcasting the same thing from London.
    2. Pissarro
      Pissarro 8 July 2016 11: 11
      +1
      I also don’t like bulk-crunching, but the transition from the level of industrial development to hunger and child mortality is called in the elderberry garden, and in Kiev the uncle
    3. pafegosoff
      pafegosoff 8 July 2016 11: 57
      +3
      Well, you can read about the Holodomors in those days at Leskov's. Lean years in the journal "Science and Life" about forty years ago were described. There are fewer crops than hungry. In 1911, everything in Siberia burned out in our country, even there was no grass. Grandfather Nikita and his fellow villagers went somewhere for seed grain for a thousand kilometers ... It was a famine in Siberia! And in Russia life was generally hard. And, it seems, not only because of the emperors. I covered the cellar with food ... and in the spring there was a flood. There is gas, but I don't break the stove. You have to buy an automatic machine from your pension. And to stock up a ton of gasoline. Anything can happen.
  • pigkiller
    pigkiller 8 July 2016 10: 46
    0
    Quote: oking
    Apparently, soon we will all "firmly know" about Russia's victory in the Crimean War.

    We "already firmly know about the USSR attack on Germany and Ukraine." Better take care of yourself, Mr. Ukrainian Nazi.
    1. oking
      oking 8 July 2016 11: 41
      0
      Quote: pigkiller
      We "already firmly know about the USSR attack on Germany and Ukraine."

      I don’t know that. Where do you get such "revelations"?
      Quote: pigkiller
      Take care of yourself better, Mr. Ukrainian Nazi.

      Why are you giving yourself written instructions? Type, memo, afraid to forget?
      PS. The Crimean War occurred in the 19th century, if you are not in the know. You need to know such and such things.
  • uskrabut
    uskrabut 8 July 2016 11: 06
    +3
    There were people! Big + author! For that time, Nicholas 1 was a progressive ruler, the right person in the right place. Why isn’t it happening now? The campaign worked negative selection in managerial personnel, a lot of scum went into the management of the country.
  • pafegosoff
    pafegosoff 8 July 2016 11: 39
    0
    "Whatever his enemies write and say about Emperor Nicholas I,"
    It seems to me that the two equestrian monuments on opposite sides of St. Isaac's Cathedral speak volumes. Firstly, Stalin highly appreciated (although he admitted attacks by "Svanidze" on the muffler of the Decembrists, etc. However, only Ivan the Fourth, Peter the Great and Nicholas the First created state security institutions, and even the Crimean defeat did not detract from the greatness of this statesman. they were sick, and not about children, like Nika's2.
    The sovereign in our history of little value.
  • Bersaglieri
    Bersaglieri 8 July 2016 11: 52
    +2
    Not a tyrant or despot, but ...
    Here are the main miscalculations of Nicholas I:
    1) Suppression of the Hungarian uprising
    2) Neglect of Overseas Territories and RAC
    3) Distrust of technical innovations in the military field
    4) Nesselrode and Kleinmichel ... their dismissal ..
    1. Pissarro
      Pissarro 8 July 2016 12: 13
      +2
      the third point is especially funny for the tsar engineer who built a technological institute, a bunch of modern fortresses, railways and paved highways, all kinds of observatories and shipyards to the heap. What was the distrust?
      1. Bersaglieri
        Bersaglieri 8 July 2016 16: 29
        -2
        It does not interfere.
        Distrust not of technology, but of new ones, which turned out to be critical.
  • Alex1977RUS
    Alex1977RUS 8 July 2016 12: 52
    +3
    Quote: Pissarro
    I also don’t like bulk-crunching, but the transition from the level of industrial development to hunger and child mortality is called in the elderberry garden, and in Kiev the uncle

    Child mortality and medical care are a key indicator
    scientific, technical and social level of the state.
    Training of medical specialists is one of the longest, most complex and time-consuming.
    This is the general level of education in the country, the ability to train complex specialists in the right quantities,
    both technical, the availability of specialized educational institutions, and their financing and demand.
    The ability to provide these professionals with the necessary equipment, tools, medicines,
    construction and maintenance of hospitals - technological level. Conventional stainless steel surgical scalpel
    repeated in the amount of a million pieces - this is a whole industry for the extraction of rare-earth and alloying elements, the smelting and processing of high-quality steels and so on ...
    Medicines are chemistry, organic chemistry, biology and biochemistry, and so on and so forth ...
    And child mortality is a complex social program in its purest form.
    Provision of food, medicine, clothing, the attitude of the state towards labor resources,
    and so on further on ...
    Want to find out what is really in the country - see what happens with medicine and child mortality ...
  • nnz226
    nnz226 8 July 2016 13: 03
    +1
    The afftor's claim about Russia, "which withstood with small losses in the fight against the entire West," is amazing! Let him somehow come to Sevastopol, move to the North side, visit the Bratskoe cemetery, and go up to the Nikolsky Cathedral. On the walls of the cathedral, there are regiments that defended Sevastopol in 1 defense and the number of casualties during this time. Some regiments completely renewed their composition 4-5 times !!! Fine?! This is the minimum loss ?! And the prosperous embezzlement during this war ?! How many soldiers died of diseases in the rotten Crimean winter, freezing in rotten greatcoats and boots that were creeping out from the water ?! Schliemann, what did he open for Troy, how did he make money ?! So there is no need for praise! And then Nikolai 1 is a genius and a patriot, his great-grandson Nikolai 2 is a good family man ... But how did it all end ?!
  • King, just king
    King, just king 8 July 2016 13: 52
    +3
    Dear, but someone knows for sure why under the Soviet regime the monument to Nikolai at the St. Isaac's Cathedral survived? How much I searched, all some fragmentary information. This is really interesting to me.
    1. Pissarro
      Pissarro 8 July 2016 14: 47
      +1
      because it is recognized as a masterpiece of engineering, although ideologically incorrect
      21 tons of metal stands on two horse legs
      1. King, just king
        King, just king 8 July 2016 15: 49
        0
        Yeah, a masterpiece. Well, who did it stop when to demolish? I’m wondering - exactly, with the docks.
  • Cosmonaut
    Cosmonaut 8 July 2016 15: 09
    +6
    Quote: venaya
    it is obvious that Nicholas I is branded “despot and tyrant,” “Nikolai Palkin,” since he most actively defended Russia's national interests

    Nicholas I branded "despot and tyrant" is not casual!
    It was the media at that time in the form of only newspapers and magazines that fully support their NLP activities in the interests of the main owners of these same newspapers and created the difficultly changing myth of the "despot and tyrant" Nicholas I. To dispel this myth, it’s not just as easy, but justice and today’s the difficult conditions in which our country is located, it requires this is not slow.

    +!
    Ivan the Terrible - a tyrant and paranoid!
    Peter the Great - a sadist and a tyrant!
    Elizabeth, a prostitute!
    Catherine the Great - a prostitute!
    Potemkin Grigory, - a corrupt official, and so on!
    Nicholas 1 (bloody) - one nickname, what it costs!
    Not all examples cited!
    This is ALL OFFICIAL (STATE HISTORY) !!!
    Academics, doctors, etc. etc. on this grub !!!
    Now, no less interesting, who RINGED in the "Bell" !?

    "In July 1849, Nicholas I arrested all the property of Herzen and his mother. After that, the arrested property was pledged to the banker Rothschild, and he, negotiating a loan to Russia, achieved the lifting of the imperial ban. [7]
    "After a series of family tragedies that befell Herzen in Nice (betrayal of his wife with Herweg, the death of a mother and son in a shipwreck, the death of his wife and newborn child), Herzen moved to London, where he founded the Free Russian Printing House for printing banned publications and since 1857 published a weekly the newspaper "Bell". [8] "(c)
    Doesn’t resemble anything ??? request
  • Cosmonaut
    Cosmonaut 8 July 2016 15: 20
    +2
    Quote: Pissarro
    from a military point of view, yes, but from a technological point of view. The principle was understandable and mastered, the first Russian ship went between Peter and Kranstadt already in 1815.
    In general, this issue is given too much importance in the Eastern War. Did a dozen steamers somehow change the situation against the huge fleet of allies? Definitely not.
    But coal needed to be transported to the steamers. Therefore, the logistics issue had to be solved first, roads to the ports of the Black Sea Fleet were laid and coal was transported, and only then the ships were to be transferred


    "The Donetsk coal basin was discovered in the 1720s in the area of ​​the present city of Lisichansk, Luhansk region. On December 7, 1722, Peter I issued a decree" On the search for coal and ores on the Don and in the Voronezh province "
    Very close !!!
    PS. and yes, not Kranstadt! No, such a fortress and city! request
  • Cosmonaut
    Cosmonaut 8 July 2016 15: 26
    +1
    Quote: oking
    Quote: pigkiller
    We "already firmly know about the USSR attack on Germany and Ukraine."

    I don’t know that. Where do you get such "revelations"?
    Quote: pigkiller
    Take care of yourself better, Mr. Ukrainian Nazi.

    Why are you giving yourself written instructions? Type, memo, afraid to forget?
    PS. The Crimean War occurred in the 19th century, if you are not in the know. You need to know such and such things.

    If you do not believe the Muscovites, then read The Flood by G. Senkevich (he is not a Muscovite)! wassat
  • Cosmonaut
    Cosmonaut 8 July 2016 15: 35
    +1
    Quote: Bersaglieri
    Not a tyrant or despot, but ...
    Here are the main miscalculations of Nicholas I:
    1) Suppression of the Hungarian uprising
    2) Neglect of Overseas Territories and RAC
    3) Distrust of technical innovations in the military field
    4) Nesselrode and Kleinmichel ... their dismissal ..

    Yoshkin cat, which are all smart !!! Select the Kings! wink
    Everything, except for the 4th point (which we know little about) is an official story that I don’t believe a penny !!! (IMHO).
    1. Pissarro
      Pissarro 8 July 2016 16: 18
      0
      Do you not believe that Nicholas I suppressed the Hungarian uprising? wassat
    2. Bersaglieri
      Bersaglieri 8 July 2016 16: 37
      0
      Uh-huh, "pros ..." of possessions in Orengon, California, etc. is so, virtuality :)
  • Cosmonaut
    Cosmonaut 8 July 2016 16: 38
    +2
    Quote: Pissarro
    Do you not believe that Nicholas I suppressed the Hungarian uprising? wassat

    Is that a subtle trolling ??? belay
    There were a great many revolts in the history of mankind !!! And, as a rule, someone suppressed them !!!
    But, why few people remember that Nicholas 1 answered the request of the Austrian emperor (shnoy Habsburg), who later betrayed him !!!
    "The Russian God is great! The French are groaning, the Caesars are pacified!" (C) Suvorov (Generalissimo of the Russian land and sea forces, Field Marshal of the Holy Roman Empire, Grand Marshal of the Piedmontese troops).
  • Lyubopyatov
    Lyubopyatov 8 July 2016 16: 59
    +1
    Both Tsars Nicholas were slandered, along with Pavel Ι and Ivan the Terrible. Nikolai Ι and Nikolai ΙΙ were forced to unexpectedly, in an extraordinary manner, become autocrats: the first did not prepare for this field at all, and the second was not yet ready, because father (Alexander ΙΙΙ) was poisoned before he bit the American "mole" Witte - and he went to the heir. It took a long time for Nikolai Никол to get rid of the traitor.
    1. King, just king
      King, just king 8 July 2016 17: 32
      0
      Why write nonsense? Nicholas I knew perfectly well about the abdication of Constantine, did not prepare ...

      About Nicholas II, yeah, uncle of great age, the heir to the Tsarevich - not ready, but when ready? Witte is the mole. What do you prove with words?
  • smaug78
    smaug78 8 July 2016 17: 48
    +1
    Again, the author is trying to write on the patterns of the Soviet agitation industry. Inflating the cheeks insists how much has been done. But no one argues with this, but how much has been done in comparison with other countries is silent. What about coal mining and smelting, what is the pace of railway construction compared with England, how are things with steamers, how are things with primary and secondary education? The overall development of industry, where are the comparisons?
  • andrew42
    andrew42 8 July 2016 19: 21
    +2
    Nicholas I, being only the heir to the throne of the 2nd order (after Constantine) did not allow the spread of the libral infection in Russia, "charged" by numerous Masonic circles in the West. This is me about the suppression of the uprising of the Decembrists, whose "naivety" or naivety (for whom how) would lead Russia to the version of "the eternally dying Rzeczpospolita." For this alone, Nicholas I, who became emperor in those terrible days, is already worthy of a monument for all time. Otherwise, in concrete steps and measures, he can be both praised and criticized. And the intermediate result of his rule speaks for itself: ALL Western civilization of that time, plus Turkey (a very serious adversary), went to war against Russia, and Russia escaped with just a "Crimean bite", which was later completely neutralized in 15 years. It costs a lot. The economy did not collapse, unrest did not begin, there were no crushing military defeats and territorial losses. Yes, technologies were lagging behind, but are we now far ahead? Why is the criticism of "backwardness" not directed at Aleksandr Pavlovich, who, forgive me, on the issue of the same work order, "boobs crumpled" with all sorts of projects after 1815? Why exclusively addressed to Nicholas I? - Not fair. The lag in technology needs to be discussed in concrete terms. Steamer frigates? - Yes, we lagged behind quantitatively. Railway roads? - Lagged behind. But their applied application then in the vastness of Russia, except as a point one, could not be. Until now, completely cover the territory with a railway network (and there were Turksib, GULAG, and BAM ..) - ideally and completely has not yet been covered in the east. To plow also to plow. And already the time for bullet trains has come. And we have the same story as the Tsarskoye Selo railway. Threaded fittings? - so even the British had them only in the elite units, not to mention the Turks and the French. What else? - And practically that's all. Technologies are introduced only when (even if they exist) when it becomes economically profitable and "there is no way to go without them." While the water-fighting machines and serf labor withstood the competition, our bar used it. They ceased to withstand, began to stir with steam engines. Just a funny picture is drawn: the emperor comes out onto the balcony, stretches out his hand, and .. "Tovaggischi! Everyone to the steam engines! It is essential and paramount!" A massive question will follow: And on ...? The times of manipulation of mass consciousness have not yet arrived, especially in Russia.
    1. solaris15
      solaris15 8 July 2016 20: 34
      +3
      I agree that it is necessary to erect a monument to Emperor Nicholas I. And yet, if you call him "stickin", then how do you call Stalin?
  • Lex.
    Lex. 8 July 2016 19: 41
    +1
    For 20 years, the Bolsheviks did industrialization and prepared the country for war. It is unlikely that the tsarist regime would have done the same if the Ottoman Empire had set an example
    1. oking
      oking 8 July 2016 20: 04
      -1
      Quote: Lex.
      For 20 years the Bolsheviks did industrialization and prepared the country for war

      Perfectly prepared. Already 29.09.41g. capitulated before entered into a coalition with the Anglo-Saxons. And then they had to drag chestnuts out of the fire with their bare hands.
      At the same time, Germany was preparing for this war for only 8 years.
    2. Logos
      Logos 10 July 2016 03: 08
      0
      If the Bolsheviks had not come to power, then there would have been no Hitler. Fascists to power in continental Europe brought to power big business, afraid of the communist revolutions in their countries and the invasion of the USSR. There was something to be afraid of - the USSR quite openly contained the Comintern, which was created to stir up the world revolution, and the world revolution (and the participation of the USSR in it) was the core of the pre-war ideology and politics of the USSR.
      Suffice it to recall even the invasion of Poland in 1920. Under what slogans was it carried out? "Through the corpse of white Poland to the world revolution!" But the invasion did not work out and the aid of the world revolution had to be postponed for a while and began to prepare better, incl. and carry out industrialization, concentrated primarily in the military-industrial sector
      What I wrote above is not at all a conspiracy theory or a hypothesis; this is the actual state of affairs in the USSR until 1941. The inevitability of the world revolution and world war and the victory of the USSR in it was reflected even in the Stalin Constitution (the mention of the World Soviet Republic in the very first section).
      1. Pissarro
        Pissarro 10 July 2016 13: 53
        0
        In fact, the Nazis exploited the idea of ​​revenge, betrayal (November criminals) in the war and the revision of the unjust Versailles Treaty. It was this treaty that humiliated both the country as a whole and the army, and big business in particular. It was Hitler's fad that revised Versailles. And the Communists in this only an annoying hindrance and competitors in the struggle for the sympathy of the German proletariat. And only after they trampled Versailles, crushed France, and removed the same car for signing surrender, they began to fight against Bolshevism, which nd was only a screen for the seizure of Russian lands and plunder
  • Kotyara Fat
    Kotyara Fat 8 July 2016 21: 28
    0
    The defeat in the Crimean War is the result of numerous systemic errors. This is a distrust of the steam fleet. And the cloning of linear caravans beautiful, but not meeting the requirements of the time. And the lack of rifled artillery. Only lazy people did not talk about rifles from rifles from the time of Napoleon.
    Although ... We must pay tribute to the Russian Army lost so that you can not call a loss. The Turks were tacked by the number one by one, the coalition did not advance further than the South Coast. In the north and in the Far East, in general, it grabbed it off by tinsel.
    The overall development of RI, in my opinion, was the cause of the failure. The generals were stuck at the level of the beginning of the century, and the admirals did not go far from them. Marsoflot and twenty years later in the Navy ruled the ball.
    There was a contradictory reign ...
    1. Pissarro
      Pissarro 8 July 2016 21: 59
      +1
      Bravo, all the patterns were repeated. We are waiting for the next speaker about steamboats, rifles, mediocre generals and general backwardness laughing
  • Logos
    Logos 10 July 2016 02: 41
    -1
    If Nikolaev Russia was so advanced, why in the 1854 war the Russian army was forced to go smooth-bore against the fittings of the western coalition, and the Russian admirals flooded their fleet in the Sevastopol raid, rightly fearing to go sailing in battle against the ships?
    And the goals of the war, the main participant in the coalition - England, were fully achieved. England in the 19-20 century pursued a policy of balance of power in Europe, as soon as a country began to upset this balance, they immediately gave it to the horns with the filing of England. In 1805-15 it was France, in 1854 - Russia, in 1905 - again Russia (Japan’s hands on the Far East), then it was Germany’s turn in two world wars, but the Anglo-Saxons from across the ocean had already been replaced by the USSR
    1. Pissarro
      Pissarro 10 July 2016 13: 58
      0
      And the goals of the war, the main participant in the coalition - England were fully achieved


      But the Prime Minister of England, Lord Palmerston, who started this war disagrees with you

      Goals of the War for Lord Palmerston

      Åland and Finland return to Sweden; Baltic region departs to Prussia; the Kingdom of Poland should be restored as a barrier between Russia and Germany (not Prussia, but Germany); Moldova and Wallachia and the entire mouth of the Danube depart to Austria, and Lombardy and Venice from Austria to the Sardinian kingdom; Crimea and the Caucasus are taken from Russia and withdrawn to Turkey, and in the Caucasus, Cherkessia forms a separate state, in vassal relations with Turkey


      It's a shame, right? Bummer with full plans

      Here in warlike excitement
      Governor Palmerston
      It affects Russia on the map
      Forefinger. laughing
  • Omsk
    Omsk 11 November 2016 15: 17
    0
    Quote: oking
    Quote: Paul1
    to encourage their producers Cherepanovs

    Do not fantasize.
    Quote: Paul1
    Russian engineer Jacobi, the one who came up with the first light bulb

    He also raised a pink elephant. In vitro.
    What does Jacobi have to do with an incandescent lamp in general?
    Quote: Paul1
    I prepared a telegraph apparatus for the first railway, but I didn’t need it in Nikolaev Russia, and I bought telegraph equipment in Germany from Siemens.

    Design in the garage and master the production, these are 2 big differences. Since garage items in single quantities were not needed, goods were purchased abroad. And what do you want without TLG at all. devices cost? Pigeon mail?
    Quote: Paul1
    it was the beginning of the state raw materials economy to sell raw materials in exchange for the purchase of machinery and equipment in the west.

    So what to do? Give examples of successful competitive products manufactured in the USSR and the Russian Federation? She certainly was and is. But the whole country will not be able to feed such products. So there is a trade in raw materials. In order not to swell from hunger.

    I hope it won't be a revelation: Zenith cameras, wrist watches, radios. But for the first time a forearm prosthesis with bioelectrical control was made in 1958 in the USSR. Licenses for its manufacture were acquired by England, Canada and other countries. A lot of products were supplied. Despite the unpretentious appearance, the unpretentiousness and reliability of Soviet technology attracted many. For example, Italy willingly bought gaziki ...
  • Omsk
    Omsk 11 November 2016 15: 20
    0
    Quote: Logos
    е

    Actually, Poland started a war ...
    But Nazism in Germany was born without the Bolsheviks. The winners too humiliated the country.