Military Review

White armor and colored armor ... (part two)

40
So, it is obvious that “bare armor” took place, but they also covered them, as was the case in the past, when they wore surcoats over mail. So, with white armor, the knights put on a tabar cloak in the form of a short sleeveless cape, reaching to the waist, which was often covered with heraldic images. But often it was just a beautiful and expensive fabric.



A still from the film by Lawrence Olivier “Richard III”: as you see, Richard was “attached” with a more reliable “chin-rest”, but ... they completely forgot about shoulder pads and bespoke - the “protectors” of the axillary hollows.

White armor and colored armor ... (part two)

Our “Soviet” Richard III from the film “Black Arrow” (1985) in this regard is overwhelmed by more confidence. Although without the "pyramids" on the shoulders, it would be quite possible to do without!

In Italy, wearing this raincoat with armor became so fashionable that Antonio Pisanello 1450 of the year on his painting canvas “St. George "depicted the saint not only in Milan armor with characteristic massive shoulder pads, but also put on him a cloak called jarniah. In 1476, such a cloak, worn over the armor, was worn by Duke Charles the Bold, and in it he died. Today, this cloak, which became the prey of the Swiss, is exhibited in the historical museum of the city of Bern, so that what is related to clothing in the movie “Secrets of the Burgundian Court” has been reproduced very accurately. Here with some details of the armor for some reason left the problem. This cloak is made of red satin, and with sleeves and puffs at the very shoulders, while tapering to the wrists. D. Edge and D. Paddock believe that, in general, nothing indicates that this cloak was designed to be worn with armor, but for some reason the duke put it on? And it is on the armor!


"St. George and St. Mary "painting by Antonio Pisanello.

It is interesting that in St. George in the picture of Pisanello, George closes his armor to the knees both in front and behind, but their shoulder pads are for some reason fixed on top of not only the cloak, but also the sleeves reaching to the elbow. I wonder how this could be implemented in reality? Well, and the saint is depicted in a hat, which is somewhat funny in our opinion, but, apparently, quite consistent with the trends of that time.


"Maximilian Armor" XIV century. Germany. Army Museum, Paris. Sample rationalism, taste and quality.

It is known, again, that methods such as chasing and metal carving for decorating armor were used in archaic Greece. But then they worked with copper and bronze. Now gunsmiths had to decorate iron, and it was much more difficult. That is why the earliest way to decorate such armor was their ... coloring! Moreover, it is clear that it is easiest to paint them with paint, but this technique was eventually considered primitive and began to directly paint the metal itself. First of all, or rather, before all gunsmiths mastered the technology of bluish bluing. At the same time, the Italian masters achieved such art in it that they could not only get a uniform color even on the largest products, but also get any desired shade. Violet and especially red (sanguine) hue were very much appreciated. They were able to give iron and elegant gray tone, which distinguished many famous inlaid Milan armor. Known black bluing, which sought, burning products in hot ash; Well, brown burnish became fashionable in Milan back in the 1530s. That is, the armor remained smooth and without any patterns, but ... "white" was no longer, but was "red", "brown", "black" and "blue."


Joan of Arc. The painting by Peter P. Rubens, 1620, by Jeanne, is depicted in blued armor.


"White" Gothic armor. 1470 - 1480 German National Museum. Nuremberg, Germany.

Then in the middle of the 15th century, Italian masters began to use engraving to decorate armor, which from the 1580-s began to be combined with gilding. Gone as part of the armor, and all the armor entirely! The method was very simple, although very harmful. Gold was dissolved in mercury, after which, together with various additives, the resulting "amalgam" was applied to the product, which was heated over a fire. At the same time, mercury evaporated, and gold was very firmly connected with the base metal. For example, a very beautiful and at the same time solid gilding is visible on the Milanese armor of the work of the master Figino, made in 1560's.


Gilded armor of King Charles I 1612 Royal Arsenal, Tower, London.


1570 Armor Royal Arsenal, Tower, London. Decorated with embossing and gilding.

At the end of the 15th century, they invented a method for decorating armor, which consisted in trimming them, as well as stripes and emblems that were made with acid etching. The decorative effect depends on whether the image on the metal is convex, and the background is deepened, or vice versa. In the first case, we see an image with a very flat relief, and in the second - something similar to an engraving on copper. But simply etching was rarely used. It was combined with blackening and gilding. When using pickling with blackening, the resulting cavities rubbed in a special “black” and caustic mineral oils, and then subjected the product to calcination. The oil evaporated and the "black" was connected to the metal. In the case of etching with gilding, the amalgam was rubbed into the grooves, followed by heating again followed by processing the product with files and polishing.


Parade armor of the XVI century. Metropolitan Museum, New York. Decorated and etched and gilded.

Actually, it was possible to decorate with such blackening not only depressions, but also the entire surface of the armor. To do this, use the "mobile", consisting of a mixture of silver, copper and lead in the proportion of 1: 2: 3, having the appearance of a dark gray alloy. They call such blackening “niello”, well, and its technology, like many other things, came to Europe from the East. And, by the way, it was only in the East that the helmets and shells were completely decorated with blackening. In Europe, this technique was mainly used by Italians; and already in the XVI century, its use was greatly reduced, giving way to cheaper blacksmithing.


Parade armor with cuirass, covered with fabric, with the image of the emblem of their owner. Belonged to Don Sancho de Avila. Made in Germany in Augsburg at 1560, the Philadelphia Museum of Art, Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

As for etching, this method was also very simple and therefore received very widespread in Europe. Its essence was that a special “paste” made of wax, bitumen and wood resin was applied to the surface of iron or steel, and then a picture was scratched on it. “Scratches” at the same time reached the metal itself, and the lines could be as very thin (for this they used needles), and quite wide. Then around the drawing they made a side of wax and, thus obtaining a semblance of a cuvette, “poured a special“ etchant ”into it. Usually it was a mixture of acetic and nitric acids, as well as alcohol. However, the "erudition" of the composition was not very important, because at that time no one was in a hurry. It was important to remove the composition from the surface of the product so that it does not pass through the metal. Then the “paste” was washed away, and the resulting pattern was corrected with a shtiheli or poisoned again to achieve a “game” of the reliefs.

At the beginning of the XVI century, when many German armor crowned to black and blue, a method of decorating them by etching by blackening appeared. In this case, the blued surface was covered with hot wax and, like with the usual acid etching, the picture was scratched on it - so that the metal was visible. After this, it was necessary to dip the product into strong wine vinegar, as if burnished, and a white polished metal was opened! After that, the wax was removed, and the light pattern on a black or blue background remained to please the eye. Sometimes it was also scraped with whip, and this technique was used until the XVII century.

A more secure, though expensive, gilding method was the forging method, which consisted in the fact that gold foil was superimposed on the red-hot surface of the iron product and smoothed by polishing. Known German armor 1510-ies from Augsburg, decorated in this way.


Armor 1510 Milan. Engraving needle and gilding. Weight 8987 Metropolitan Museum, New York.

A very ancient way to finish is inlay, taushirovka or "notch". In Italy, this technique spread in the 16th century as “lavoro all'Azzimina” or “alla Gemina”, both of which have Arabic roots. This technique was used in the West in ancient times, but later it was preserved by the Indians, as well as by the Persians and Arabs, who decorated the helmets and armor of the plates exactly like that. From them, this art passed to the Spaniards and Italians. Already at the beginning of the 16th century, the metal inlay technology was successfully used by masters of Toledo, as well as Florence and Milan, from where weapon Inlaid in Europe. The essence of the method is well known and consists in the engraving of an ornament on metal, after which small pieces of gold or silver wire are hammered into the grooves made by the chisel. Then the metal product undergoing the “notch” is heated, and the inlay is securely connected to its base. There are two types of such inlays: flat, flush with the surface of the product, and embossed, that is, protruding above it. The latter, of course, is much more complicated, since the protruding parts need additional processing, whereas a flat inlay is quite sufficient to process with a file and polish. By the way, after that, the iron can be painted in gray or blue, but in gold or silver, this color will not fall! However, this technique is laborious, and therefore very expensive, which is why it is used on relatively small surfaces.


Chased parade armor 1500 - 1600 years. from Italy. Arsenal Higgins. Worcester, Massachusetts.


Relief "notch" on the metal. Armor for the duel of prince Christian I of Saxony. Metropolitan Museum, New York.

Also in the second half of the 15th century, such a method of finishing armor as iron embossing appears. It is clear that even the Indians of the Copper-Stone Age in America knew her again. But they minted for copper. The characteristic hardness for iron greatly impedes this method of processing. But as soon as large surfaces appeared on the armor, the idea of ​​subjecting them to chasing took possession of the minds of many gunsmiths.
The difficulty lies in the fact that, unlike copper or silver, iron for chasing must be heated. A rough treatment is always started from the reverse side, extorting the general plastic form, and the thin one is carried out both from the front and from the reverse side, due to which this technology has received the French name “repoussé” - “counter-shock”. But then the technology became the common heritage of European masters, so that chased works are known in Milan, and in Florence, and in Augsburg.


Parade-rifle armor with a round shield-rondasch Friedrich Wilhelm I, Duke of Sachs-Altenburg, Augsburg 1590, the Royal Arsenal, the Tower.

There is also a carving on the gland. Here, the work is carried out using shtiheli and cutter. And this technique was also used to decorate armor and weapons. Italy was here ahead of other European countries and in the XVI century overtook them all. Although in the XVII century French and German masters appeared, surpassing the Italians in the beauty of their products. Embossing was used mainly in the manufacture of sheet metal armor, and carvings on iron and other metals were decorated with swords, swords and daggers, gun locks, barrels, stirrups, horse mouthpieces, etc. Coinage, like carving on iron, was widely used masters from Milan, as well as Florence, Venice, and later became widespread in Augsburg and Munich, and combined with inlay and gilding. Spanish gunsmiths of the beginning of the 17th century combined stamping and carving with gilding, and the motifs of their ornaments were not too rich, which indicates the beginning of the decline of this type of craftsmanship.


The hauberk, even when it was no longer used as a solid armor, continued to be used for a long time in such well-made patches that were worn under solid-forged armor. All that they did not cover was closed chain mail and, moreover, it did not restrain movements! Philadelphia Museum of Art, Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.


This is how it looks in the 2005 movie about Joan of Arc of the Year. It was precisely the early cuirass that consisted of two parts, both in front and behind, and they were fastened with straps. They used to wear only the lower part, and the top was covered with a cloth or chain mail.

Finally, perhaps the most luxurious type of decoration of armor and at the same time the most unnecessary is enamel. Enamel art appeared in the early Middle Ages and was widely used in jewelry, but for a long time it was not used by gunsmiths. However, in the early Middle Ages, cloisonne enamel was used to finish the handles of swords and shield parts. Later, it was useful for finishing the hilt of the swords, and on the sheathing of the scabbard, and such production centers were Limoges in France and Florence in Italy. Well, enamel in the 17th century was used mainly as decoration of the butts of richly decorated guns, and on the flasks.


Polish hussar helmet, decorated with a slit pattern, the end of the XVII century. Fitzwillam Museum.
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  1. parusnik
    parusnik 14 July 2016 07: 34
    +8
    Thank you, I learned a lot of interesting things .. The photos are wonderful ..
    1. Pavel1
      Pavel1 14 July 2016 12: 51
      +2
      how many ceremonial-exhibition armor, for someone it was necessary to rivet these armor to arrange in museums ...
      1. Diana Ilyina
        Diana Ilyina 14 July 2016 14: 16
        12
        Quote: Paul1
        how many ceremonial-exhibition armor, for someone it was necessary to rivet these armor to arrange in museums ...


        Please note that most of the armor is not in European, but in American museums! Although what relation did medieval knights have to the United States is not clear ?! I can still understand the armor of the conquistadors exhibited in Brazil or Peru, but this is how "chased ceremonial armor from 1500 - 1600 from Italy. Higgins' Arsenal." have to Worcester, Massachusetts, is that a question ?!

        In a word, this country is created by robbers, and is held by robbery.
        1. kalibr
          14 July 2016 14: 52
          +8
          You are not right! There are many more armor in European museums. It's just that American museums are more accessible through the Web, that's all! And Higgins did not rob anyone, all the exhibits of his museum were bought. They have passports and it says where, when - or these are gifts, as in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. In the Hermitage and the Artillery Museum, we also have armor and a lot. So what? Our ancestors also stole them? What relation these lat have to Russia? But ... Exhibited in the Knights' Hall everyone walks and admires.
          1. Diana Ilyina
            Diana Ilyina 14 July 2016 15: 42
            14
            Quote: kalibr
            So what? Our ancestors also stole them? What relation these lat have to Russia? But ... Exhibited in the Knights' Hall everyone walks and admires.


            You know, I would agree with you if I did not know history, especially the United States. Throughout its history, the United States was only engaged in robbery. What were they doing in Russia in 1918 ?! Do you think you fought with the Bolsheviks ?! No! There is not a single confirmed clash, but there are facts of murders and robberies. Moreover, they robbed everything from the property of citizens to material resources, pulled everything that was bad. What did the Americans do in World War II ?! Fought ?! Do not make me laugh! That flea fuss with the Japanese over tiny islands in the Pacific Ocean is very difficult to call a war. But during the landing in Normandy, these "gallant" warriors did their best. And this is taking into account the fact that practically all the forces of the Germans were on the eastern front. At the same time, the Germans managed to practically defeat these would-be warriors in the Ardennes with several times smaller forces. What's wrong?! But the Americans raped the German women to their hearts content and took out a bunch of loot by the Germans from us and taken by the same Germans to the American occupation zone on purpose so that the Russians would not get it! And so everywhere and in everything. How many museums were looted in Iraq, Libya, Striy ?! Where are the oldest artifacts of world history ?! In American museums and American private auctions. So here you will not convince me.
            1. Pavel1
              Pavel1 14 July 2016 16: 20
              +5
              Quote: Diana Ilyina
              You know, I would agree with you if I did not know the story, especially the United States. The United States throughout its history only engaged in robbery.


              you are absolutely right, for example, there are such world archaeological discoveries, for example, KUSHAN GOLD AFGHANISTAN. The Soviet scientist Viktor Sarianidi in the 70s of the 20th century dug up so many TILE TEPE artifacts that he had to be taken out by TRUCKS. There was so much gold that the rogue Schliemann or the forger Carter with their pseudo collections rest. And where do you think all this huge golden collection has gone? She was taken to the United States under the pretext of protection against robberies. Shpakovsky will not write about this.
              1. kalibr
                14 July 2016 19: 45
                +1
                You write, Pavel, and all readers of VO with great interest will read about it here. You see, everything in the world cannot be known. My topic of research is the English-language historiography of knight armament from the 1958 year to the 2008 year. As part of this, I know something. You and others can know everything else, why not. Write ... Everyone will only say thank you! And I am the first!
                1. PKK
                  PKK 14 July 2016 20: 44
                  0
                  I am amazed. The armor is made of alloy steel. I would like the article to analyze the metals of which the armor is made. And if there are modern steel grades? They look very much like a remake, there are no signs of socks on any one, and battles, apparently, in those centuries there were no battles. Stamping was widely used, which means they knew how to make stamps and decorate products. The impression is that everything was done much later than stated.
                  1. kalibr
                    14 July 2016 22: 30
                    +2
                    Yes, he took a pot, made the red-haired boy write there - the urine of red-haired boys was especially appreciated, for which they gave him beer to drink as much as he liked. Then the urine was "sour" (wow, how disgusting!), Then the parts of the armor were heated and ... there! Several times in a row and the surface was alloyed, that is, nitrided. Although it smelled disgusting, I checked it myself, just not as a red-haired boy ...
            2. Kenneth
              Kenneth 14 July 2016 17: 10
              +1
              No matter how Americans are to blame for you in general, this does not give you the right to blame the theft of specific individuals without solid evidence.
              1. Pavel1
                Pavel1 14 July 2016 18: 30
                +2
                Quote: Kenneth
                No matter how Americans are to blame for you in general, this does not give you the right to blame the theft of specific individuals without solid evidence.


                the treasures of the people of Afghanistan are stolen, what other evidence do you need?
              2. Anglorussian
                Anglorussian 18 July 2016 02: 13
                0
                without strong evidence.
                The main problem is that there are usually none.
            3. kalibr
              14 July 2016 19: 42
              +1
              I will not persuade you. But we were talking about where there is more armor, and not about who fought where and how and who was raped, right? The main supply of armor to the same Metropolitan Museum took place in 1935, there was no war. And this is reflected in the passports of the artifacts. Of course, they took out something. And why not? "Woe to the vanquished." We also took out Priam's treasure. And rightly so, they took everything out of our zone - they are smart people, there is no other way to say "His example is science to others!" And again about the armor in the Hermitage ... Were they bought or were they also stolen? So robbery is robbery, and museum exhibits ... exhibits. To be able to take it and not take it is stupid and that the Americans took advantage of it to the full naturally. It is in the States, therefore, that the richest collection of Japanese swords, forelock and erotic shunga is in the Los Angeles Museum of Art.
            4. Anglorussian
              Anglorussian 17 July 2016 23: 52
              0
              flea fuss with the Japanese for the tiny islands in the Pacific Ocean
              ^ 6,5 million soldiers and officers would not agree with you a little. And also 26 (million) civilians.
            5. alekss211
              alekss211 7 August 2016 08: 08
              0
              until I could put a plus for the comment. would put even ten pluses.
        2. Pavel1
          Pavel1 14 July 2016 14: 59
          0
          Quote: Diana Ilyina
          In a word, this country is created by robbers, and is held by robbery.


          here it is mainly intellectual theft, a model of the museum's exposition is created and an exposition is created for this model, and then the divorce of suckers, well, you can put pressure on the scientific component by the accumulated "authority" of artifacts, as Shpakovsky does ...
          1. kalibr
            14 July 2016 15: 09
            +1
            Quote: Paul1
            here, mainly intellectual theft, a model of the museum’s exposition is created and an exposition is created for this model

            Oil oil or "I didn't understand what I wrote," but I really wanted to write!
        3. alekss211
          alekss211 7 August 2016 08: 06
          0
          Have you heard about the reparations and trophies?
  2. Riv
    Riv 14 July 2016 08: 20
    +5
    Still, one should distinguish between ceremonial armor and "field" ones. It is clear that it is more pleasant to show off in gold and silver. There are samples in which there are more precious metals by weight than steel itself. Silver rivets, patterns from such rivets - all this is beautiful, but does not add strength. And, of course, going out into the rain in such a suit is highly undesirable. When water gets into the place of contact between gold and iron, a galvanic pair is formed. Not even hours - minutes are enough for noticeable corrosion, and after an hour the gold piece will simply fall out.

    But the "white" armor - they are just fighting. No decoration other than polishing. The metal is thickened. The minimum price / quality ratio. Above the casing, also without much bells and whistles. It is not for nothing that Jeanne d'Arc is portrayed only in such, the first to climb into battle.
  3. seti
    seti 14 July 2016 09: 23
    +1
    Very high-quality article, wonderful photos thanks
  4. Verdun
    Verdun 14 July 2016 10: 01
    +3
    Thanks to the author for the article and good illustrative material. I want to add that the art of finishing armor is called "plating." In the Middle Ages, cladding masters stood out in a separate workshop and their names were known no less than the names of famous gunsmiths and manufacturers of the actual armor.
    1. kalibr
      14 July 2016 11: 39
      0
      Yes, I had to say this, I forgot somehow ...
  5. Kenneth
    Kenneth 14 July 2016 10: 26
    0
    And still, I do not believe that this can be fought. Armor in which you can’t turn the head and raise your hand cannot be used in battle. IMHO, these full armor is a thing of purely status and not even tournament. The odel walked with a white swan and took off in the locker.
    1. Chiropractor
      Chiropractor 14 July 2016 11: 40
      +2
      In addition, I ask you to pay attention to such a detail as the presence of THAI on a large number of Maximillian armor. If you plan to move actively, then you will not have enough air after about ten minutes of active swing - work at least in sparring for five minutes without a break.
      Yes, and the impression is from the armor that they were intended for slender women, because you won’t shove heroes or beer brewers in them.

      So it looks more like a sort of male "corset" for a secular exit. The female one was covered with dresses, the male one - with chasing.

      By the way, in the picture on the Orleans Virgo, armor without a waist, although a woman ...
      1. kalibr
        14 July 2016 12: 41
        +3
        David Nicole specifically addressed this issue. Judging by the armor of that time, people had a different constitution. Thin ankles and wrists, and a thin waist! That is, you can compare the skeletons, by growth. But muscle mass was distributed differently. Armor on people of the same height on the ankles of our people do not converge! Also the waist ... Although people with stomachs were then. See the armor of Heinrich 8.
    2. kalibr
      14 July 2016 11: 44
      +3
      At Leeds in the Royal Arsenal, re-reenactors fight every day in sword armor, and the armor is an exact copy of the real ones that are on display here. I myself have not seen, but V.P. Gorelik showed me a film. That's cool! The knight bounces and pushes the opponent with his feet in the chest, hits with the hilt of the sword (top), pushes with his elbow. Sweat pours hail from them, but very spectacularly. Then a film is shown in which thumbnail pages are simply scrolled over, where all these techniques are shown. That is, the source base. As they say - go to the library! Those who wish can try on armor and walk in them. Well, our reenactors ... are no worse. I already wrote that I also walked in Gothic armor for half an hour. Tired, but ... it's without training. What about training?
      1. Kenneth
        Kenneth 14 July 2016 12: 18
        0
        I also saw how to fight. Standing nearby. And dressed armor, but not white. In the armor of the reconstructors, you can twist your head and move your hand, although it is difficult if you look carefully. And in any way. Nearly. Perhaps they are imprisoned for work only with a spear.
        1. kalibr
          14 July 2016 12: 42
          0
          In the next article there will be a photo of a helmet with a side, thanks to which you can twist your head in the helmet.
    3. Verdun
      Verdun 14 July 2016 21: 52
      0
      Quote: Kenneth
      And still, I do not believe that this can be fought. Armor in which you can’t turn the head and raise your hand cannot be used in battle.

      In full armor, they fought on horseback. The main weapon of an equestrian warrior is a spear. Such cavalry was strong only until the moment when it acted in close formation. By the way, the traditions of knightly tournaments led to the fact that the rider had only one spur - the left one, to turn the horse towards the barrier on the lists. In good armor, when falling from a horse, some of the elements "unfasten" from the blow, making the warrior more mobile. However, such armor had no real combat value. They were used mainly in tournaments. We tried to fight in such attire with the Saracens and quickly came to the conclusion that the armor should be lighter, and two spurs were needed ...
  6. Raphael_83
    Raphael_83 14 July 2016 17: 59
    +3
    Both articles are informative, written in understandable human language and provided with excellent photographic material. An analysis of the reconstructions in film and art also delivered. Thank. hi
    1. kalibr
      14 July 2016 19: 55
      +1
      Quote: Raphael_83
      written in understandable human language

      Thank you too, Rafael, but to be honest, I am not particularly happy about this. All this is taken either from my doctoral dissertation, which I most likely will not defend, since I do not see the point, or from scientific articles ... by way of simplification. That is, simply ... damage! We have to remove the "scientific", cross-references, footnotes to the works of different authors, but there is to reduce the level of cognition. As a result, questions like: "Where is this from?", "Why is this?" I tried to leave footnotes, but nobody uses them anyway, but questions remain. And they eat up a huge volume. So a good language is one thing, but a high level of information content is another!
      1. Raphael_83
        Raphael_83 14 July 2016 20: 08
        0
        Well, after all, you can reveal the topic in parallel and on more serious resources - thematic, professional (the same reenactment) - the people there are a bit more savvy than the regulars of media resources, which is our beloved "VO". drinks
        And about hammering a self-tapping screw for scientific character, it's you, my dear friend, in vain. And so it is indistinct where we are going with our education, science and the country as a whole, so that the preservation of the corresponding potential, regardless of whether a specific field of scientific thought, "naked" (high) theorizing or the possibility of applied application, is our everything! No matter how insulting and annoying in relation to the existing situation, it was not. And isn't it a pity for the time spent, the effort acquired in the process of knowledge? Well, it was not in vain. Well, how will the theme "shoot" and determine the future?
        From SW. hi
        1. kalibr
          14 July 2016 20: 17
          +1
          Things are worse on professional sites than here. Everyone knows everything! And they only measure who is cooler. And they don’t pay there, and I’m not used to working for nothing! And yet ... Once M.V. Gorelik was invited to the reenactors club, and there was an announcement: Scramasax test. He asks: What credit is when nothing is known for sure. Well, then he was told how everyone learned about Scramasax in this very club. ALL! After that, he did not go to the club and generally avoided "these guys".
          1. Raphael_83
            Raphael_83 14 July 2016 20: 31
            +1
            No, I certainly do not mind: loot defeats evil, and all that ...yes
            Well, many in the country continue to work on a variety of issues on bare enthusiasm, because if all the remaining normal people give up, then we will definitely find ourselves in the new Middle Ages (feudalism seems to be already there, soon it will be completely attached to the earth). However, in this context, experts like uv. the author will be very expensive: Kevlar cannot be weaved on a loom, but forging (stamping) some kind of armor from an old broken-down "fret-viburnum" is all the easier. And those who know not only how to make, but also how to make it beautifully will be held in high esteem (unless, of course, in guild slavery, but that's another topic).
        2. kalibr
          14 July 2016 20: 39
          +1
          Quote: Raphael_83
          Well, it was not in vain. Well, how will the theme "shoot" and determine the future?

          That you are right for all 100%.
  7. Mengad
    Mengad 14 July 2016 21: 06
    0
    Helmet, Persian or Russian, at the end of the 15th to the beginning of the 16th century, St. Irene (Ottoman) arsenal of brand, steel, leather, Met Museum. This extremely tall conical helmet is noted as an example of the type worn in Persia and Russia in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. Similar helmets depicted in miniature paintings often show a small pennant attached to a long pommel.
  8. Mengad
    Mengad 14 July 2016 21: 11
    -1
    Quote: PKK
    I am amazed. The armor is made of alloy steel. I would like the article to analyze the metals of which the armor is made. And if there are modern steel grades? They look very much like a remake, there are no signs of socks on any one, and battles, apparently, in those centuries there were no battles. Stamping was widely used, which means they knew how to make stamps and decorate products. The impression is that everything was done much later than stated.

    Don’t you see that these are copies? laughing Okay, do you want metal quality? you are welcome laughing
    Helmet Sasha Nevsky laughing The head of all the examination will take place; give a tooth! laughing
    1. kalibr
      14 July 2016 22: 23
      0
      Quote: Mengad
      Helmet Sasha Nevsky

      Is this, of course, a joke?
      1. Riv
        Riv 15 July 2016 12: 16
        0
        What kind of jokes? This is a business. In these theirs England, reenactors, when making modern replicas, proudly say that they did it. They didn’t think that it was possible to make official paper with seals and sell the thing at an order of magnitude more expensive. "Savsem is real, yes! I found it under a pine tree. My mother is klyanus!"

        In the end, Benvenuto, after all, at one time made several gizmos and passed them off as antiques. Nothing worked. He even later wrote in his memoirs that he "gained a lot" in this matter. Why are our craftsmen worse?
      2. Navigator Basov
        Navigator Basov 20 July 2016 01: 07
        0
        Quote: kalibr
        Is this, of course, a joke?
        Absolutely!
  9. kytx
    kytx 14 July 2016 22: 35
    0
    photo: "Armor for the walking duel of Prince Christian I of Saxony. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York." - the signature is wrong. This is an armor for a horse fight. I can justify.
  10. Mengad
    Mengad 14 July 2016 23: 04
    0
    Quote: kalibr
    Quote: Mengad
    Helmet Sasha Nevsky

    Is this, of course, a joke?

    There is no joke, please the site -http: //www.artstudiya.ru/dorogie-vip-podarki.html laughing