Military Review

Closed firing positions: how to fight with enemy artillery

34
In Europe, guns rattled over the battlefield from about the 13th century, but for many centuries the artillery did not play a decisive role in the battles. It was only with the advent of the wars of the 20th century that the fire of the guns became almost the main damaging factor. Fighting enemy artillery has become one of the key objectives for achieving victory.



The radar (radar) invented after the Second World War went a long way through technological improvement over several decades. Both the antennas themselves and the data processing algorithms were improved. In the photo - multifunctional radar AN / MPQ-53 in expanded form. Used as part of air defense systems MM-104 Patriot.

For a long time, the artillery was not distinguished by high range, and therefore was located in open positions directly on the battlefield. To establish the location of these positions did not pose any problem, and in artillery duels, which often preceded the battles of the foot and equestrian troops, he was the one who showed more agility. However, with the development of artillery technology, the range of guns increased, howitzers, capable of sending a projectile along a steep (mounted) trajectory, became widespread. Thus, it became possible to hide their artillery behind the folds of the relief or in specially constructed shelters. Fighting episodes with shooting from closed firing positions were noted as early as the Russian-Japanese war, and already in World War I, similar tactics of using guns became almost universal.



On the radar screen
Unlike the sound-reconnaissance station, which in its calculations relies on the speed of the sound wave from a shot, the anti-battery radar detects the rocket or projectile directly and calculates it entirely at several points of the trajectory, determining both the location of the enemy’s firing position and the location of the projectile.


Flash and piston
What if the enemy throws shells at you, and you do not even know where? The answer is simple: you need to come up with means of reconnaissance, detect the positions of the enemy and cover them with return fire. One of the options is to conduct reconnaissance from the air using airplanes or from a balloon, as shown in the famous comedy “Bumbarash.” These were good ways, if only because it was possible to see the enemy batteries from above before they started firing. However, there were still few airplanes in the First World War, and hot air balloons turned out to be too dependent on the vagaries of the weather, primarily on the direction of the wind. The art of disguise has also developed. Therefore, various methods of determining the position of closed artillery positions “without separation from the ground” began to arise. For example, they tried to calculate the position of the batteries by observing flashes. Seeing the flash or smoke of the gun, one could understand the direction to the position, and the distance was calculated using the “Boulanger sound rangefinder”. In fact, it was a device for measuring the time elapsed from the flash to the sound of a shot. In a tube with a viscous liquid, the piston sank, and the scale of the instrument graduated in sazhens (the speed of sound had long been known). The value of the division, opposite to which the piston was at the moment when the roar came, and corresponded to the distance to the gun or howitzer.



Zoo 1 (Russia)
The newest Russian counter-battery radar complex, which replaced the ARS-1 “Lynx”, is designed to reconstruct the positions of enemy fire weapons, calculate the trajectories of projectiles and missiles, adjust fire, monitor airspace and control UAV.


Intelligence Ears
But this, of course, was a rather primitive way. A more sophisticated sound intelligence system began to be developed even before the First World Headquarters Captain of the Russian Army, Nikolai Albertovich Benoit. He thought of using sound receivers (membranes) located at a great distance from each other. When the sound wave front passed through them, they began to oscillate, opened the contact and stopped the time counter through the electromechanical device. Knowing the difference in the arrival time of the shot sound on the spaced membranes and the relative position of the receivers between themselves, it was possible to calculate the position position. The sound reconnaissance units that applied Benoit’s invention showed good results, detecting the enemy’s batteries with high enough accuracy for those times. Benoit was not the only one who worked in Russia on sound intelligence systems. A certain distribution was also received by the VZh system, named after the developers of Volodkevich and Zheltov. There, three soldiers-observers acted as sound receivers, who occupied spaced positions with exactly measured coordinates. Hearing the sound of a shot, each soldier pressed a button, thereby sending an electric signal along the wire to a recording station installed in the rear. Having received the signal, the device left a mark on the moving paper tape. The marks could be used to determine the difference in the time of arrival of a sound wave to different observers, and then calculations were made. The VZh system also confirmed its performance, although to a greater extent than the Benoit design, depended on the human factor, or rather, on the reaction speed of the observer.

Closed firing positions: how to fight with enemy artillery


Shilem (Israel)
The topic of notching the enemy’s firing positions, mainly missile ones, is traditionally relevant for Israel. In this country, in particular, there is a missile defense system "Iron Dome". Using radar, the system calculates the trajectory of the fired missile, determines the place of its fall, and if the projectile is dangerous, gives the coordinates to the defeat.

Old idea and new technology
The equipment for sound reconnaissance continued to develop after the First World War in the USSR and other countries of the world. From membranes they passed to microphones, from chronoscopy (that is, fixing a single moment of arrival of a sound wave) to chronography (continuous recording of sound in relation to time coordinates). With the development of computing technology after the Second World War, computers were connected to the computation of the received data.

In the 1980-ies the Soviet Army received the most advanced model of equipment for sound reconnaissance - the AZK-7 complex, developed by the Odessa SKB "Lightning". The system was based on cars ZIL-131 and consisted of one central and three points with acoustic bases. She could carry out reconnaissance of artillery shells at a distance of 16 − 20 km and mortars - up to 8 km. However, no matter how stepped forward the progress has been since Nicholas Benoit, the sonometric reconnaissance still had its drawbacks, such as dependence on weather conditions and low accuracy during intensive shooting. When the cannonade rumbles endlessly, the sound reconnaissance equipment is “lost”.

Nevertheless, the sound-reconnaissance technique remains in service with a number of countries, and even new high-tech versions are being created, such as the American Boomerang, which is able to determine the location of a sniper firing a rifle, or any person who launches small weapon.



AN / TPQ-48 (USA)
Mobile portable radar counterbattery, designed to detect enemy mortar positions, provides an overview of 360 degrees and a detection range of more than 10 km. At the core of the design is an antenna with PAR. Radar is integrated into digital battle control networks.


Locators on the scene
As for the counter-battery struggle, then with the 1960 — 1970-s, in addition to sound-reconnaissance systems, they began to develop stations that allowed the enemy to detect the artillery positions of the enemy using radar methods. The radar is able to detect the projectile fired and at several points of the trajectory to calculate the location of the howitzer, mortar or MLRS. The easiest task was to solve for mortars with a steep hinged (close to parabola) trajectory. It was more difficult with howitzers, and the most important problem was represented by guns with a flat trajectory.

In the USSR, the ARK-1 "Lynx", built on the MT-Lbu floating tracked chassis, became the firstborn. An emitter with a power of 200KW was used to irradiate projectiles and enemy missiles, and a lens-shaped rotary radar was used to receive the reflected signal. According to the data describing a fragment of the trajectory, the computer complex calculated the type of projectile, the position of the artillery position and the intended place of the projectile falling. The “Lynx” complex was used during hostilities in Afghanistan, but in the highlands it proved to be not the best. A separate problem was the powerful radiation, from which it was necessary to protect the military personnel who worked with the complex.

In the United States in the same years, the Firefinder complex was developed with a radar based on an antenna with a phased antenna array. The radars were of two types - AN / TPQ-36 and AN / TPQ-37, one of them close, the other - long-range. It was these installations that were discussed when it was reported about the possible supply of American intelligence equipment to Ukraine. Now these radars are considered obsolete, and to replace them, the corporation Lockheed Martin creates a new system, AN / TPQ-53. In 1986, more advanced technology appeared in Europe. Together, Britain, Germany and France created the COBRA complex, which is able not only to detect individual guns, but also to analyze the location of the batteries for effective strikes. Also one of the most high-tech versions of such equipment was the Swedish-Norwegian ARTHUR. In Russia, in recent years, the development of the Zoo-1M complex has been completed, which should correspond to advanced foreign models in terms of its parameters.



AN / TPQ-36 (USA)
Developed by Hughes in the 1970-ies within the framework of the Firefinder program, the mobile radar was able to finally detect the positions of both mortars and howitzers, and guns firing at a gentle trajectory. The range for detecting positions for artillery is 18 km, for missiles - 24 km.


The development of a variety of reconnaissance assets, which make it possible to detect closed artillery positions, has long made the gunners not feel safe and often change the position of the guns after a series of shots. But anti-artillery radars are also quite vulnerable. After all, starting the irradiation of the target, the locator can be detected by means of electronic intelligence. An artillery strike can be applied to it, and electronic warfare weapons can be used against it. To protect such a complex and expensive facility requires security measures. First, for modern anti-artillery radar, radiation time is critical. The shorter it is, the less likely it is to be detected. Secondly, the radar must be used in conjunction with other reconnaissance measures, in order to put it into action precisely when there is a threat of shelling. And thirdly, like the gunners, increased mobility is prescribed to the radar units. In modern warfare, as in the duels of artillery of the past, promptness will not interfere.
Author:
Originator:
http://www.popmech.ru/weapon/236490-zakrytye-ognevye-pozitsii-kak-srazhatsya-s-artilleriey-vraga/
34 comments
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  1. corporal
    corporal 3 July 2016 07: 25
    +7
    If you want to detect a shell, turn on the locator, then you will be spotted too.
    You don’t want to be spotted, don’t turn on the locator, then you will miss a hit. wassat
    Well, where should the poor peasant go? recourse
    1. Professor
      Professor 3 July 2016 07: 41
      +3
      Quote: Corporal
      If you want to detect a shell, turn on the locator, then you will be spotted too.
      You don’t want to be spotted, don’t turn on the locator, then you will miss a hit. wassat
      Well, where should the poor peasant go? recourse

      Use a passive system. For example, highly sensitive scanners operating in the infrared range.
      Electro-optical artillery fire direction system
      1. m262
        m262 3 July 2016 11: 37
        +3
        Due to the low speed of the flight, a mortar mine in flight almost does not heat up. A dead end!
        1. Professor
          Professor 3 July 2016 11: 44
          0
          Quote: m262
          Due to the low speed of the flight, a mortar mine in flight almost does not heat up. A dead end!

          This "dead-end direction" is already embodied in metal. By the way about "almost does not get warm":

          1:15




          Electro-optical artillery fire direction system

          1. corporal
            corporal 3 July 2016 16: 57
            +4
            Quote: Professor
            Electro-optical artillery fire direction system

            Well Professor, set the task with a Basurmanian to push laughing
            Detection range up to 50 km
            accuracy
            Better than 0,25%
            CEP range
            Cargo Detection
            Over 300 shells
            in a minute
            Operational Availability over 95%

            50 km is in an ideal atmosphere?
            1. Professor
              Professor 3 July 2016 19: 45
              +2
              Quote: Corporal
              50 km is in an ideal atmosphere?

              Where did you see the perfect atmosphere in Israel? wink
              1. corporal
                corporal 4 July 2016 08: 31
                0
                Quote: Professor
                Where did you see the perfect atmosphere in Israel?

                I have not been to Israel wink
                ==============================
                What is the CEP range?
                1. Professor
                  Professor 4 July 2016 08: 44
                  +1
                  Quote: Corporal
                  What is the CEP range?

                  And this is sorry, your translation is not correct. wink

                  Accuracy: less than 0.25% firing range, KVO
                  1. corporal
                    corporal 4 July 2016 09: 05
                    0
                    Quote: Professor
                    Your wrong translation

                    Google translator, he is so ... request
          2. The comment was deleted.
          3. Cresta999
            Cresta999 5 July 2016 09: 31
            0
            What makes you think that 1.15 is a mine? Just because of the trajectory?
            1. Professor
              Professor 5 July 2016 09: 53
              +1
              Quote: Cresta999
              What makes you think that 1.15 is a mine? Just because of the trajectory?

              Mortar bomb intercept, CEP. bully
      2. ICT
        ICT 4 July 2016 18: 57
        +2
        Quote: Professor
        Use a passive system.


        there were also those who calculated by sound






        1. Professor
          Professor 4 July 2016 19: 21
          +3
          Quote: TIT
          there were also those who calculated by sound

          They are still there:
          ARTILOC
  2. V.ic
    V.ic 3 July 2016 07: 54
    +7
    For a long time, artillery did not differ in high range, and therefore was placed in open positions directly on the battlefield. Establishing the location of these positions did not present any problem, and in artillery duels, which often preceded the battles of foot and horse troops, the winner was the one who showed greater agility. Author Oleg Makarov

    At the Battle of Gross-Jägersdorf, the Shuvalov howitzers, secret "Unicorns", fired through the battle formations of the Russian troops. The Cossacks "lured" the Prussian hussars to a successful salvo.
  3. kind
    kind 3 July 2016 07: 54
    +6
    Zoo 1 (Russia)
    The latest Russian counter-battery combat radar system, which replaced the Lynx ARK-1,

    Not the latest. There is a "Zoo-2 and 3". Unfortunately, the Zoo-1 in the troops is very, very small.
  4. PKK
    PKK 3 July 2016 09: 04
    +5
    Here Oleg is right, the main thing is agility. As long as your projectile flies, you should already get off the ground and watch from afar how the nasty art starts shooting at your former position. The artillery training comes to the forefront.
  5. castle
    castle 3 July 2016 09: 42
    +6
    I cannot agree with the statement: "Invented after World War II radar (radar)"
    The radar was actively used in the air defense system of Great Britain already during the "Battle of Britain" in 1940. In the same year, the SRC-270 radar was adopted in the USA. And Japan has used its own radars since 1941
    In 1941, radars were already actively used in navigating warships and long-range bomber aircraft.
  6. Olezhek
    Olezhek 3 July 2016 10: 05
    +5
    Guns thundered in Europe over the battlefield from about the 13th century, but for many centuries artillery did not play a decisive role in battles. Only with the onset of wars of the XX century


    Comrad, you are definitely confusing something. Already in the era of the Napoleonic Wars, artillery played a decisive role for itself.
    The same can be said of the 7 summer war.
    And even describing the 30 summer war: in many ways, the outcome of major battles depended on artillery.
    Successful Turkish expansion is largely determined by the superiority in artillery, and this is the XV-XVI century.
    And what was Ivan the Terrible so terrible ????

    Comrad, what the hell is the 20th century?
  7. chenia
    chenia 3 July 2016 10: 35
    +2
    Quote: PKK
    the main thing is agility. As long as your projectile flies, you should already hit the ground and watch from afar how the nasty art begins shooting at your former position.


    Often this is not possible. for barrel artillery.

    There is another way. but more expensive. The battery occupies a power supply unit in the region of 600 to 600 m (consists of gun positions. Up to 200 m between each other).

    The binding of each gun and the calculation of the source (and control if necessary) individually for each gun, taking into account the place in the fan. But here you need to have the appropriate technical capabilities.

    With this option, at least a platoon is required to suppress one gun. Or high-precision weapons (but the target observability is already needed here).
  8. demiurg
    demiurg 3 July 2016 10: 36
    0
    Tell me, how will self-propelled artillery survive in such conditions? Msta-s understandably, shot 3-4-5 shots and left. A towed? No one will give a hollow for half an hour from the same position.
    1. Cresta999
      Cresta999 3 July 2016 11: 28
      +2
      In modern combat with the use of reconnaissance and strike systems, towed artillery has no chance even of deployment. Because, as the depth of work (detection and destruction) of the RUK was at the time of my service about 70-120 km. I don’t know now, but probably more. And this is both from NATO and our side. The life time of even a mobile combat unit (such as a tank or plane) in modern combat is measured in minutes.
      1. Olezhek
        Olezhek 3 July 2016 11: 51
        +1
        In modern combat with the use of reconnaissance-strike complexes


        The difference between self-propelled and towed artillery is not so great ...
      2. Mista_dj
        Mista_dj 7 July 2016 11: 04
        +2
        Quote: Cresta999
        The life time of even a mobile combat unit (such as a tank or plane) in modern combat is measured in minutes.

        Are you serious?
        What do you mean by "modern" combat?
        In mine - this is the war in Donetsk / Lugansk, the war in Syria, the war in Turkey.
        I don’t remember there such monstrous losses in technology, especially in the tank and aviation ...
        1. Alexander Romanov
          Alexander Romanov 7 July 2016 11: 16
          +1
          Quote: Mista_Dj

          What do you mean by "modern" combat?

          These figures are given in officer schools. And then in the headquarters. But as practice shows, these numbers are often refuted in battle.
          Tank survivability 3 minutes.
          Kreiser Varyag 45 minutes.
          Divisions 40 minutes.
          All these figures were presented when the third world war appeared.
    2. Razvedka_Boem
      Razvedka_Boem 3 July 2016 11: 31
      +2
      I believe that towed artillery, in local conflicts, will not be used against the enemy with counter-battery fire. And in case of use, electronic warfare and reconnaissance means and other measures ensuring survivability will be used.
    3. iAi
      iAi 3 July 2016 15: 12
      +1
      Towed artillery is needed to destroy civilians and militias, finishing off. It saves the resource of real, self-propelled artillery.
  9. Mountain shooter
    Mountain shooter 3 July 2016 13: 11
    +3
    The professor is right. The future is with passive tracking systems. You can detect thermal imagers with good resolution, and the trajectories of the shells and the coordinates of the targets that release them will not be difficult to calculate. Thermo-optics is our everything.
    1. maximghost
      maximghost 3 July 2016 15: 22
      +8
      The future is with passive tracking systems.

      No, the future lies in the combination of active and passive systems. Betting on one and hammering on another is a big mistake.
    2. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 3 July 2016 18: 57
      +4
      This problem was solved back in the USSR at the beginning of the 80's, however, when mounted in low cloud conditions, when shells fly into the clouds, the system did not work. Therefore, it was abandoned.
  10. chenia
    chenia 3 July 2016 13: 14
    0
    Quote: Razvedka_Boem
    I believe that towed artillery, in local conflicts, will not be used against an enemy possessing counter-battery fire


    Yes. In the troops of constant readiness (barrel artillery) in the battalion link to have Vienna, in the regiment (ADN SME) it is desirable to MSTA-s, in the division (and RGK + 203 mm PION type system) Coalition.

    In the mobilization version in the regimental unit PAT-b, or D-30. in the divisional MSTA_-b, PAT-b, D-20.

    It should be borne in mind that counter-battery fighting is not an end in itself (although art dueling is possible), but is connected with the tactical situation. And with this in mind, forces and means are allocated for the implementation of this event.
  11. chenia
    chenia 3 July 2016 13: 32
    +2
    Quote: Mountain Shooter
    The professor is right. The future is with passive tracking systems.


    And active than bad? What do you think, if a target is detected, then it is immediately destroyed?

    No, only nuclear weapons delivery vehicles are subject to immediate destruction. And the data on the reconnoitered artillery battery is only immediately reported to the higher headquarters. And about most reconnaissance goals (report) only after a certain period (every 2 hours.)
  12. nesvobodnye
    nesvobodnye 3 July 2016 16: 13
    0
    Anti-radar missiles against similar radars work?
    1. corporal
      corporal 3 July 2016 18: 21
      +1
      Quote: nesvobodnye
      Anti-radar missiles against similar radars work?

      Theoretically, yes.
      Almost everything depends on the "omnivorous" missile seeker, whether it "sees" the range on which this or that radar will operate.
  13. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 3 July 2016 18: 54
    +4
    Yes, the phrase "Radar invented after World War II" spoils the whole impression of the article. Unfortunately, the author is not aware of the fact that even in the USSR the Redoubt system had been made by 1941.
  14. Chief Officer
    Chief Officer 8 August 2016 10: 20
    +2
    Very mixed feelings from the material ...