Military Review

Knights of Outremer

20
Worldly I thirst for delight,
Worldly comfort.

I was glad to every temptation
I fell into sin.
The world attracts me with a smile.
He is so good!
Prickles I lost count.
Everything in the world is a lie.
Save me lord
So that I can overcome the world.
My path is to the Holy Land.
With Your cross I accept you.
Hartmann von Aue. Translation by V. Mikushevich


For the nearly ninety years that elapsed between the founding of the Kingdom of Jerusalem and the defeat of the Christian army in Hattin in July 1187, the Outremer army was the only force that helped the Europeans to stay in Palestine. However, their composition was somewhat different than in the traditional feudal troops of the time. First of all, they included "armed pilgrims", for example, militant monks (ie, Knights Templar and Hospitallers). The most unusual, however, was that they were completely unknown in the West types of soldiers: sergeants and turkopuly. The system was also unusual: “backbang ban”, which was not used in Europe at that time! Let us get acquainted with the troops of Europeans in Palestine in more detail.

Knights of Outremer

Council of Barons of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Sebastian Mamerot and George Castellian "History Outremer, written in 1474-1475's. (Bourges, France). National Library, Paris.

Barons and Knights

As in the West, the backbone of the army of Jerusalem consisted of knights who lived and armed themselves at the expense of income from the estates granted to them. It could be both secular lords (barons) and church (bishops and independent abbots). The latter exhibited about 100 knights each, and, judging by the records of John D'Ibelin, the bishop of Nazareth had to expose six knights, Lydda 10 knights, respectively.

It is important to remember that the term “knight” does not refer to one person, but describes a combat unit consisting of a knight on a warhorse plus one or several squires, as well as his riding horse (half-horse) and several pack horses. The knights were supposed to have armor and weapon. Squires - to have it all when possible.

The barons were supported by younger brothers and their adult sons, as well as "household knights", that is, people without land holdings who served the baron in exchange for annual wages (as a rule, these were payments in kind: table, services and apartment, as well as horse and weapon). John D'Ibelin assumes that the number of such knights took place in proportion from 1: 2 to 3: 2, which gives us a reason to at least double the list of knights of the Jerusalem kingdom going on the battlefield. But again this makes it difficult to count them. Someone they were, someone was not at all!

Surprisingly, the economic relations that they all entered into at the same time were often quite different from European ones. For example, Baron Ramle was obliged to set up four knights in exchange for the right to lease pastures to Bedouins. Often they were income from customs duties, tariffs and other royal sources of income. In the thriving coastal cities of the Outremer, there were many such "Lennists" who were liable to the King.

Part of the knights were recruited from the younger sons and brothers of the barons or to the army from among the landless armed pilgrims who want to stay in the Holy Land. At the same time, they took the lenten oath to the king and became his knights, and he fed them, armed and clothed them. In the West, this was just the beginning.

Armed pilgrims

The Holy Land, in contrast to the West, benefited from the fact that at any moment, but more often from April to October, attracted tens of thousands of pilgrims, both men and women, who brought great income to the kingdom, some of which went to “purchase” knights and other mercenaries, capable in the event of an emergency, get up and fight. Sometimes the barons brought with them small private armies of servants and volunteers who joined them, and these forces could also be used to protect the Holy Land. A good example is Count Philip of Flanders, who arrived in Akku in 1177 the year at the head of the “tangible army”. His army even included the English Counts of Essex and Meath. But more often, some knights were just pilgrims and went to fight only when necessary. One such example is Hugh VIII de Lusignan, Comte de la Marsh, who ended up in Palestine in 1165, but eventually died in the Saracen prison. Another example is William Marshall, who arrived in the Holy Land in 1184 year to fulfill the vow of the crusader given by his young king. That's how it happened! Therefore, it is impossible to know exactly how many “armed pilgrims” - and not only knights - took part in battles between the military forces of the Kingdom of Jerusalem and its opponents Muslims.

Knight monks

Another “anomaly” of the Outremer’s armies was, of course, large detachments of fighting monks — among which the Knights Templar and Hospitaller, the Knights of St. Lazarus, and a little later the Teutonic were the most famous. David Nicole in his book about the Battle of Hattin suggests that by the 1180, the Templars had about 300 people (only knights!), And 500 knights' hospitalists, but many of them were scattered around their castles and could not get together with a single force. It is indisputable that the 230 Templars and the Hospitallers survived the Battle of Hattin on July 6 1187. Considering that the battle lasted two days, it seems reasonable to assume that both orders suffered serious losses before the battle ended. It is likely, therefore, that there could be about 400 people, both hospitallers and Templars, and there were also knights of St. Lazarus, armed pilgrims from Europe and the knights of the King of Jerusalem, that is, an army of impressive forces.


Knights Outremer XIII century. The story of Outremer Guillome de Tire. White Thompson collection. British Library.

Infantry

In modern images of the medieval war, it is often overlooked that knights in medieval armies were the smallest contingent. The infantry was the main part of any feudal army and was far from being its excess component, although it was fighting in a different way than many people now imagine. Moreover, if in the West infantry in the XII - XIII centuries. consisted mainly of peasants (plus mercenaries), in the states of the Crusaders the infantry was recruited from free “burghers” who received land during the crusades, and of course mercenaries.


Saladin meets with Balyan II d'Ibelin. Sebastian Mamerot and George Castellian The Outremer Story, written in 1474-1475. (Bourges, France). National Library, Paris.

Mercenaries

If prostitution is the oldest profession on earth, then mercenaries should belong to the second oldest profession. Mercenaries were known in ancient Greece and ancient Egypt. In feudal time, the Lennians were obliged to serve their overlord for 40 days in a row, and someone had to serve in their place, when their turn ended ?! In addition, some military skills, such as archery and siege machine maintenance, required a great deal of experience and practice, which neither the knightly servants nor the peasants had. Mercenaries on medieval battlefields were everywhere. They were also in the Outremer, and probably were more common there than in the West. But without numbers in the hands of this you can not prove.


Crusader states in Outremer.

Sergeants

A much more interesting and unusual feature of the armies of the crusaders of the states were "sergeants". Because the “peasants” in the Outremer mainly consisted of Arabic-speaking Muslims, and the kings of Jerusalem were not inclined to rely on these people to force them to fight against their fellow believers. On the other hand, only one fifth of the population (ca. 140000 inhabitants) were Christians. All the settlers were communists and whether they settled in cities, like merchants and traders, or in agricultural areas on the royal and church lands, they were all classified as “burghers” - that is, not serfs. These members of the commune, who voluntarily arrived in the state of the Crusaders, automatically became free and had to go to military service if necessary, and it was then that they were classified as "sergeants."

The term “sergeant” in the context of the Outremer’s military practice is similar to the term “man with arms” of the era of the Hundred Years War. This means that he received money from representatives of the royal power to buy armor: quilted gambesons and stitched aketons or in rare cases of leather or chain armor, as well as a helmet and some kind of infantry weapon, spear, short sword, ax or morgenshtern. .


Battle of Al-Bugaya (1163). Sebastian Mamerot and George Castellian The Outremer Story, written in 1474-1475. (Bourges, France). National Library, Paris.

Not surprisingly, the sergeants were a burden for the cities, but the Templars and the Hospitallers contained significant powers of the "sergeants." And although they were not as well armed as knights, they were entitled to two horses and one squire! It is not clear, however, whether such installations were extended to sergeants of the king and church masters.


The Battle of 1187 Tire Sebastian Mamerot and George Castellian The Outremer Story, written in 1474-1475. (Bourges, France). National Library, Paris.

Turkopoules

Perhaps the most exotic component of the Outremer armies is the so-called Turkopules. There are many references to these troops in the records of the time, and they clearly played a significant role in the armed forces of the Crusaders, although there is no unequivocal definition of who and what they were. These were clearly “native” troops for those places, and it can be assumed that they were mercenaries from Muslims. Approximately half of the population in the Crusader states were, by the way, non-Latin Christians, and no doubt that from this segment of society it was also possible to recruit troops that hated Muslims. Armenians, for example, made up a significant part of the population in the Kingdom of Jerusalem, had their own neighborhoods and their own cathedrals there. Syrian Christians spoke Arabic and looked like "Arabs" and "Turks", but as Christians they were reliable troops. There were also Greek, Coptic, Ethiopian, and Maronite Christians, and all were theoretically subject to military service, and as Christians living in this region, probably gave the Latins ready warriors. They well remembered the insults and oppression of the Muslims, and here they were given the opportunity to get even with them.


Knight Outremera. Figure A. McBride. Pay attention to how detailed every detail is worked out. Moreover, the swords are drawn according to the real samples described by E. Oakshot.

Areier ban

The kings of Jerusalem also had the right to declare a “rear ban”, according to which the free man was to stand up for the kingdom. In modern terms, this meant total mobilization. It is noteworthy that the king of Jerusalem could keep his vassals in the service for a year, not only 40 days, as in the West, but this was connected with the threat to the very existence of Christians in a particular area of ​​the kingdom, or even the threat to the whole kingdom, the threat did not disappear, the troops did not disband! But if the king sent an army out of the kingdom for an offensive expedition, he had to pay his services to his subjects!
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  1. qwert
    qwert 30 June 2016 07: 03
    +9
    I read with interest. Vyacheslav found his niche and issues articles on the unencumbered subject of knightly times. Interesting to read. thank
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 30 June 2016 07: 43
      +3
      Quote: qwert
      I read with interest. Vyacheslav found his niche and issues articles on the unencumbered subject of knightly times. Interesting to read. thank

      Really! The topic is interesting and little known. As always interestingly described. Plus
  2. Igor39
    Igor39 30 June 2016 07: 40
    +5
    Where were the Jews? Something is not mentioned about them.
    1. kalibr
      30 June 2016 07: 54
      +2
      And they didn't fight. A lot of Jews were simply killed. So they "don't count".
      1. Mikhail Matyugin
        Mikhail Matyugin 30 June 2016 09: 30
        +4
        Quote: kalibr
        And they didn't fight. A lot of Jews were simply killed. So they "don't count".

        Dear Vyacheslav Olegovich, let me supplement your words a little. The fact is that the crusaders of the First Campaign in Syria and Palestine destroyed the communities of only two cities (the massacre in Jerusalem is especially known), the rest of the Jewish communities survived.

        Moreover, during the existence of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, their position as a whole improved and normal relations were established between Christians and Jews. Apparently in the XII century the largest Jewish community in the Christian lands of Utremer became the community of Tire.
        1. kalibr
          30 June 2016 11: 21
          +1
          See here, how many unknowns are all around us. When I wrote this material, in those sources that I used there was not a word about it. Thanks for the addition.
        2. voyaka uh
          voyaka uh 30 June 2016 15: 30
          +2
          Only communities in the mountains of Galilee were not affected,
          in the Hebron Highlands. The knights did not get there.

          But all these were children's toys in comparison with
          Jewish pogroms in Europe during the Crusades.
          1. Mikhail Matyugin
            Mikhail Matyugin 30 June 2016 15: 48
            +3
            Quote: voyaka uh
            Only communities in the mountains of Galilee, in the Hebron Highlands, were not affected. The knights did not get there.

            Well, actually, in most port cities there was no massacre, recalling the experience of the Maara and Jerusalem, everyone immediately went to the rather soft conditions of surrender put forward.

            And what about the lord of Galileo among others? also means the crusaders did not get it?

            Quote: voyaka uh
            But all these were children's toys compared to the Jewish pogroms in Europe during the Crusades.
            The pogroms that befell the European communities that were on the path of the crusaders (especially the March of the Poor and the First Campaign of the Knights), it was like a "completely different opera", everything was terrible there. Basically, everything ended with a "baptism of fire".
  3. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 30 June 2016 07: 43
    +1
    I liked the article. A lot of completely new information.
    Knights are different, unite!
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 30 June 2016 08: 01
    +2
    Interesting details, thank you .. Well, and illustrations, as always on top .. Thank you ...
  5. Avenich
    Avenich 30 June 2016 08: 36
    +2
    Knights Outremer XIII century. The story of Outremer Guillome de Tire. White Thompson collection. British Library.

    What a strange illustration. Maybe I didn't understand something, but it turns out that the besiegers throw their heads into the fortress with the help of throwing machines. "Psychic attack of the Middle Ages"?
    1. kalibr
      30 June 2016 08: 43
      +4
      You understood everything correctly! That is exactly what happened! They threw living (as yet!) People!
      1. Riv
        Riv 30 June 2016 15: 03
        +1
        It happened that children ...
  6. Mikhail Matyugin
    Mikhail Matyugin 30 June 2016 09: 27
    +2
    Dear Vyacheslav Olegovich, the article is without a doubt very interesting and raises an extremely rare question about the methods of manning the armies of the Middle East crusaders.

    Quote: Vyacheslav Shpakovsky
    The most unusual, however, was that they had completely unknown types of fighters in the West: sergeants and turkupula. The “arier ban” system was also unusual, which at that time was not used in Europe!
    Well, regarding the "Turcopols" - I agree, this is a borrowing from the Byzantines, they were the first to introduce such a practice, in turn taking the ancient Roman federates as a model.

    Well, mounted and foot sergeants are nothing more than a designation of professional ignoble warriors, nothing new for Europe.

    And the call of the general militia - Arjerban - was also used in Europe, but was rare, because There was no strategic threat from the arrival of the Hungarians to the invasion of the Mongols.
    1. abrakadabre
      abrakadabre 30 June 2016 11: 43
      +2
      I agree with you.
      The main difference between sergeants was most often only their non-noble origin. For the same hospitaliers, Teutons, and Templars, sergeants often had the same weapons and tactics in battle as the noble brothers-knights. It was rather a financial question whether the sergeant would differ from the knight. But the class origin and imposed all the differences.
      In Germany at that time, miniseries were a complete analogue. Some of which, having emerged upward in the class hierarchy, gradually also turned into knights and noblemen of the lower level of subsequent centuries.

      The practice of arieban, that is, total mobilization, has also not disappeared anywhere since the days of the Merovingians. At least theoretically. In fact, it has become inapplicable in Western Europe. Both due to class stratification, and absolutely no quality of such militias in battle, even with the necessary equipment. What was very revealing was demonstrated in the battle at Visby, which was getting all sore on.
      The fighting quality of the people's militia began to increase only with the development of cities in general (with their privileges within the framework of the estate society) and of guild organizations in particular.
      The only example of the peasant mass militia is the Swiss infantry of the cantons. But they just had the conditions of universal national danger for the whole people, and not just its elite. Well, because of the mountainous area, agriculture was more of livestock, rather than agricultural, which allows us to allocate time for training with weapons, both individual and as part of units.
      1. Mikhail Matyugin
        Mikhail Matyugin 30 June 2016 15: 52
        +1
        Quote: abrakadabre
        For the same hospitaliers, Teutons, and Templars, sergeants often had the same weapons and tactics in battle as the noble brothers-knights.

        If we talk about "horse sergeants" - then yes, they just made up the second and subsequent lines in the horse attack, and the weapons were just more outdated models, and so - normal medium or almost heavy cavalry.

        And the foot sergeants are precisely the professional foot soldiers.
        Quote: abrakadabre
        But they just had the conditions of universal national danger for the whole people, and not just its elite.
        Everything is not easy there, primarily because there was very little local chivalry.
  7. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 30 June 2016 09: 38
    0
    Quote: kalibr
    You understood everything correctly! That is exactly what happened! They threw living (as yet!) People!

    I took these heads for the conventions of the image. They threw "Greek fire", stones, sewage, just dirt ...
    But the Mongols waged a biological war --- they threw the besieged cities with the corpses of their own soldiers who died from the plague !!! And after a few hours they entered a completely empty city !!! I read this, I don’t remember where, maybe at Gumilyov. Interesting, but did the knights use this technique?
    1. AK64
      AK64 30 June 2016 10: 52
      +2
      the Mongols waged a biological war --- they threw the besieged cities with the corpses of their own soldiers who died from the plague !!! And a few hours later they entered a completely empty city !!!

      So also "hours"?

      Generally speaking, when you have a plague in your camps, you are unlikely to enter the city.


      I read this, I don’t remember where, maybe with Gumilyov. Interestingly, did the knights use this technique?

      This is the only case described.
      During the siege of Kafa, the Mughals threw the corpse of a deceased from the plague into the city. And left (the plague!)

      And a plague broke out in the city, the people ran somewhere, in Genoa in a glance. Well, we ran - sir --- a wave of "black death" swept across Europe from Genoa
    2. abrakadabre
      abrakadabre 30 June 2016 11: 28
      +2
      Interestingly, did the knights use such a technique?
      Everyone used it. Never complexing. It’s just that the eastern despots had larger armies and, accordingly, during military operations they used this practice more massively. And so, the level of atrocity was about the same everywhere.
      1. Mikhail Matyugin
        Mikhail Matyugin 30 June 2016 16: 01
        +2
        Quote: abrakadabre
        And so, the level of atrocity was about the same everywhere.

        Apparently yes, the mentality is the same for the era throughout Eurasia, as it were. Although there were exceptions, the peoples where cruelty was raised to a new level are the same Mongols.

        Again, in Europe and in Russia, including war, there were two categories - internal strife, war between Christians, where there were a number of rules, where they preferred the enemy not to kill, but to capture, etc. And wars with an external enemy, pagan or alien opponents.
  8. sub307
    sub307 30 June 2016 11: 51
    +2
    Great material, excellent designs.