Military Review

From stone to metal: ancient cities (part 1)

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One of the advantages of the TOPWAR site is that in the process of discussing the materials published on it, its readers constantly suggest and even suggest new interesting topics to the authors. “Directly by request”, for example, was born a series of articles about the uprising of Spartacus, from the topic of “rusahs and Hyperboreans” - material about haplogroups, but numerous questions on the topic weapons Bronze is simply forced to raise and the topic of the emergence of metallurgy on the planet. We will not consider here its occurrence millions of years BC, in the era of thinking reptiloids, and about the planet Nibiru, and its nahuaks, which supposedly brought metal to people, there will be nothing in it either. So for those who see all these ideas as meaningful and interesting, you can directly advise not to read it. Well, for everyone else you can start with the fact that the famous triad - the Stone Age, bronze and iron in its time, namely in 1836, was proposed by the keeper of the collections of the Copenhagen Museum Christian Thomsen, who compiled a guide to the museum’s exposition, and in him all his archaeological materials were arranged according to the cultural-chronological scheme developed by him of three eras or three centuries - stone, bronze and iron.


From stone to metal: ancient cities (part 1)

Ancient copper knives and their modern remakes.

At the same time, he briefly substantiated his idea that the stone age was the most ancient, followed by the period of using bronze tools, after which the iron age came with its iron tools and weapons. At the end of the 50 of the last century, an outstanding researcher and public figure Marselen Berthelot took up the analysis of metal archaeological objects. Studying the chemical composition of ancient bronzes, he noticed that a number of them are made of pure copper and do not contain tin additives. A truly French explorer could only appreciate this discovery after his trip to Egypt in 1869, at the grand opening of the Suez Canal. Then, after analyzing some of the most ancient Egyptian artifacts, he found that they also did not contain tin, and based on this, he suggested that copper tools were older than bronze ones. After all, they were made back when a person did not know tin. Well, he decided so simply because the technology for the production of bronze was considered more complex than the processing of pure copper. And that is why the Egyptians, for example, before all other metals, was known lead, which is very easy to smelt from ore.



Neophytes, only a little "digging" historical sciences, they love to talk about the mass fake of bronze artifacts. But if they had glanced at the storerooms of at least some large museums, they would have imagined such an amazing number of unexposed samples that a significant part of the GDP of even an economically developed country would have been spent on falsifying them. And ... what, in this case, was the goal of producing all this, delivering it to different countries, digging it into the earth at different depths, and then waiting for everyone to find it? And if they don’t find it, then what? And this, not to mention the fact that many finds were made back in the Renaissance and under Peter the Great, when they did not even hear about radiocarbon analysis and the potassium-argon method. That is, a more stupid fabrication is hard to imagine.

Only after many decades will it be possible to prove that there are many artificial copper alloys that do not contain tin at all. It was from them that the items that Berthelot analyzed and recognized as "pure copper" were made. However, in general, he made the correct conclusion, on the basis of which the chalcolith (or Eneolith) was added to the Thomsen triad — the copper-stone age or the intermediate epoch between the Neolithic and the Bronze Age, or the initial period of the latter.


Metal products approx. 7000 BC and before 1700 BC: copper knives and their replica schemes. Archaeological Society of Wessex.

But even with the discovery of the Eneolithic, which apparently took a significant place in the history of mankind, the Thomsen triad was by no means destroyed. After all, bronze is an alloy derived from copper. After all, we do not use the term “steel age”, since steel is a derivative of iron, and no more.


Stone cutter Ashelian era. Museum in Toulouse.

Archaeological finds have been able to prove that the metal in people usually appeared after they mastered the ceramic industry. In addition, as a rule, these were not nomadic hunters, but sedentary farmers and herders. Moreover, this happened when people began to build and live in the first cities or city towns, as these settlements are called by some scientists, but who, nevertheless, had their surrounding walls and towers made of stone.


Jadeite Ax Canterbury, Kent, UK, approx. 4,000 - 2,000 BC. British museum.

However, a number of curious details also emerged. So, for example, as it turned out, the ceramic Neolithic was preceded by the pre-ceramic Neolithic, when in some settlements of this type dishes were made from wood and stone, but they already knew the metal. But in other cities they also did not know ceramics, they also used utensils made of stone, but they did not know the metal ...!


Obsidian arrowheads of the late Neolithic period ca. 4300 - 3200 BC. Archaeological Museum in Naxos.

The fact that all this was so, and not otherwise, is confirmed by the discovery in Palestine of such an ancient city as Jericho, dating back to the era of the pre-arc neolith! His English researcher M. Kenyon dug him back in the 50s of the last century. It was a real city, already in the IX century, occupying an area of ​​about 1,6 ha, with powerful cultural deposits of thickness 13,5 m! A completely unique moat was found, carved out of the rock, and a massive stone tower with a height of 7,5 m, diameter at the base of 10 m, equipped inside with a stone spiral staircase.


Drilled stone ax from Nasby, Sweden. Aneolithic

Its inhabitants did not know ceramics and, apparently, used only stone and wooden vessels. At the same time, they made clay masks on the turtles of their dead relatives and were able to grow cereals and graze cattle. Obviously, this was the very end of the Stone Age, and other settlements were also known, where people had similar rites. For example, in the villages of Basta and En-Ghazal in Jordan, residents also kept the skulls of their ancestors with realistically molded clay, which suggests that this custom was massive at that time, although these settlements were a thousand years older than Jericho years old!


Cyprus. Khirokitia. UNESCO cultural heritage.

In the seven thousand years BC, that is, in the Neolithic era, a highly strange civilization arose on the island of Cyprus. There were found several settlements belonging to the pre-ceramic culture, the largest of which was called Khirokitia - after the name of the village that lies today near the hill where it was excavated.

The excavation here was carried out from 1934 to 1946 by the Greek archaeologist Porfirios Dikaios, but was later interrupted due to the Greek-Turkish conflict. Only in 1977, French archeologists were again able to dig in Khirokitia and study the artifacts found there. As a result, a truly unique picture of the town planning of the Neolithic era opened up before scientists. The fact is that it was not an ordinary settlement. It was a real ancient city, representing a single architectural ensemble consisting of residential and farm buildings, a powerful wall separating it from the outside world, and a three-span, stone-paved road-staircase leading from the foot of the hill to its top, rising more than plain above the plain. on 200 meters.


Real hives, isn't it?

Yes, the ancient “city” was already in Khirokitia, but there was no metal yet. Its description should begin with the fact that it occupied the entire southern slope of the hill, which picturesquely descended three ledges to the river bank, and was also located along its course, and their location suggests that the river at that time was much more affluent than at present time. The city was surrounded by a stone wall 2,5 meter wide. We can only guess about its height, since the highest level that has reached our time is three meters, but, most likely, at that time it should have been at least a little higher. Archaeologists have excavated 48 buildings, but it turned out that this is only an insignificant part of a huge settlement of that time, in which there were thousands of houses. The structure of the buildings, some of which have been restored and can be entered today, is extremely original. These are cylindrical structures - tolos - with external diameters from 2,3 m to 9,20 m. And internal ones from 1,4 m to 4,8 m. The walls in some houses were plastered with clay several times, therefore in some dwellings they found up to 10 of such layers. In some houses there are two stone pillars, which are believed to have had to support the floor of the second floor, which could be made of branches and reeds. The hearth was on the first floor between these pillars. The doors had a high threshold and a floor recessed into the ground. So in order to get inside it was necessary to first step over it, and then go down the stairs to the dwelling. It is interesting that near each such building there are small round extensions, most likely for economic purposes. In this case, all the buildings are located so close to one another, which together give the impression of a hive.


Or maybe they were like that?

For a long time it was believed that the roofs of these homes were dome-shaped. But when on one of them the remains of a flat roof were found, it was decided that they were flat, which was done on the buildings restored today in this settlement.


Pomos Idol is an ancient sculpture from the Cypriot village of Pomos. It belongs to the Eneolithic era (XXX century BC). Currently on display at the Cyprus Archaeological Museum in Nicosia. The sculpture depicts a woman with her arms spread apart. Most likely, this is an ancient symbol of fertility (fertility). In Cyprus, at one time, quite a few statuettes similar to it were found, including smaller ones, which were most likely intended to be worn around the neck as amulets.

Interestingly, for some reason, the inhabitants of this ancient “city” were buried right in their homes. The deceased was laid in a hole dug in the middle of it, sometimes it was crushed with stones, then it was covered with earth, and the floor was tamped down, leveled, and continued to live in this house further. Why they did this, today we can only guess, but there is a fact of special spiritual closeness between the living and the dead inhabitants of ancient Khirokitia, and it was she who forced them to do so and not bury the dead away from their homes, as was the case in most others. peoples.


Ceramic figures. Archaeological Museum of Aiani. Macedonia

However, archaeologists only benefited from this form of burial, since each new house gave them rich material for studying the life and daily lives of the people who lived here. However, before we talk about the items found in these graves, let's try to restore their appearance, which was possible only thanks to such a specific form of burial.

It turned out that the growth of Hirokytians was small - in men, the average height did not exceed 1,61 meters, women were even lower - only about 1,5 meters. Life expectancy was also low: about 35 years of age men and 33 years - women. Not a single burial of the old men has been found, and this is very strange, because for more than a thousand years of living a fairly large group of people in one place, several old people could well have been found. But there are many burials of children, which indicates a high child mortality rate. The departed in the graves are found in "rolled up" poses, and along with them are various household items and decorations. First of all, these are stone bowls, often broken, apparently with some kind of ritual purpose (they say, the person “left”, so they broke the bowl!), Stone beads, bone hairpins, pins, needles, and also stone anthropomorphic figurines without any signs of gender. It is also very interesting that no special religious places were found in this settlement, from which it was concluded that there was no religion or cult in the Neolithic settlement of Hirokitiya as such, in the modern sense of the word. Although it is possible that they still had a religion, only its rites in religious places simply did not need.


This is what the excavation site looks like. Of course, for a layman, this is not a very impressive sight.

As for stone tools, in their manufacture the inhabitants of the city reached a high level, which, as a rule, is a very characteristic feature of the pre-ceramic cultures of the Neolithic era. Almost all of the dishes found here were made of greenish-gray andesite - a volcanic rock. Archaeologists have found and round, and rectangular, and oblong in shape stone bowls, which had a length up to 30 centimeters. Some of them were decorated with carvings in the form of strips or rows of ribs, indicating that Hirokitians had a very definite aesthetic style of life. It is found and it is not known why the river pebbles used are covered with carvings. The women's jewelry found in the graves was represented by stone beads and pendants of carnelian and gray-green picrite, one of the types of basalt, as well as beads of shells-dentals, whose shape resembled boar tusks. The fact that among the finds were made of obsidian sickles, tips for arrows and spears, and a number of other items, and there is no obsidian in Cyprus itself, indicates the presence of contacts with Asia Minor and Northern Syria among the inhabitants of Hirokitiya. And it is clear that they could only carry them out by sea. Consequently, the Hirokhitians either swam by sea themselves, or contacted those who swam and, accordingly, traded with them. During the excavations, even a small piece of fabric was found, which will allow to find out what people of the Neolithic era could wear. Well, and the findings of bone needles indicate that they already knew how to sew their clothes.


Early Bronze Age. Knives from the Cycladic Islands 2800 - 2200 BC. Archaeological Museum in Naxos.

The Hirokitians engaged in farming. And although no cereal grains were found during the excavations, the archaeologists made this conclusion on the basis of the sickle blades, hand grain grains and stones they found for grinding grain. Accordingly, the arrowheads and spears indicate that they were engaged in hunting, and the bones of sheep, goats and pigs, that they knew animal husbandry, although it is not necessary that they are bones of domestic animals. Why scientists can not explain why the Hirokitians, who settled in the seventh millennium BC here by the river, on these picturesque slopes, they lived here in this city for a thousand years, reached their apogee in the development of their pre-ceramic stone culture, it can be said, and then disappeared without a trace, it is not clear where and why. And only fifteen hundred years later, this place attracted the attention of people who settled here and brought with them a completely new Neolithic culture with painted in red and cream tones, very characteristic and very beautiful, ceramics.


Prehistoric copper mine in the Negev desert in Israel.

That is, exceptions to the rules have always been and will be, probably. True, to judge this is quite difficult, because archaeologists have excavated not all, including in Cyprus. But, as we have already noted, in Khirokitia and in other settlements this metal culture was not found. There was no metal and those who settled in these places after a thousand years! Where, then, did archeologists find the first metal products? This will be in the following material.
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  1. Mangel olys
    Mangel olys 1 June 2016 07: 19
    +5
    Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich, as always - interesting and colorful.
    1. Vend
      Vend 1 June 2016 09: 43
      +2
      Yes, storerooms of museums are something.
  2. Mikhail Matyugin
    Mikhail Matyugin 1 June 2016 08: 13
    +9
    The article is great! but the photo makes an incredible impression - where the rows of antique Corinthian helmets found are on the shelves. Just goosebumps - a complete sensation that a number of ghostly hoplites are still standing in the indestructible phalanx!
    1. kalibr
      1 June 2016 08: 47
      +4
      I had the feeling, only with pots. In the storeroom of the museum in Larnaca. In the exposition, they are spacious. And there ... in close rows, as in the kitchen. This is how many of them both small and in the growth of a person had to be done. There are a lot of glass vessels for incense and under glass, but there ... boxes of broken bottles! You go to another museum - the same thing there, in the next one too. Well, it’s better not to go into the basement of the sea museum in Ayia Napa. So much there is all raised from the bottom. And it is not surprising that there are so many - people have lived for millennia. From every century a bottle is already an exposition! And how many stone anchors at exhibitions on the street?
      By the way, these are only Corinthian helmets. And there are photos with others. Just did not find.
  3. Penzuck
    Penzuck 1 June 2016 08: 27
    +2
    1. Vyacheslav, but do you suggest plague or leprosy? Those. a large family lived in the same house, the infection happened, the doors were barricaded (and before that they were stocked up with supplies), and the dead were buried sequentially, or even sadder, they let the very sick go down, and when they died they fell asleep with earth. A description of the bones of the dead and subsequent analysis could tell us more.
    2. If there are no old people is it possible to "voluntarily" die (seriously ill, crippled), maybe the old people were burned? And since there are no gnawed human bones, then the inhabitants did not experience Hunger? Or how the Scandinavians "regulated" the number of children, only at a later time.
    1. kalibr
      1 June 2016 08: 40
      +2
      You have asked very interesting questions and ALL of them are discussed by specialists. Moreover, there is such a hypothesis that they all "left" in a parallel world, like the Maya. In general, while they are digging, they are studying, but there are no 100% answers. It's good that at least we managed to find out!
    2. AK64
      AK64 1 June 2016 10: 54
      +1
      1. Vyacheslav, but do you suggest plague or leprosy? Those. a large family lived in the same house, the infection happened, the doors were barricaded (and before that they were stocked up with supplies), and the dead were buried sequentially, or even sadder, they let the very sick go down, and when they died they fell asleep with earth. A description of the bones of the dead and subsequent analysis could tell us more.


      Not ... Burying in the house was a very, very widespread practice.

      And since there are no gnawed human bones, then the inhabitants did not experience Hunger? Or how the Scandinavians "regulated" the number of children, only at a later time.

      Already the Cro-Magnons did not eat their own. That is, in general.
      1. Mikhail Matyugin
        Mikhail Matyugin 1 June 2016 11: 15
        +1
        Quote: AK64
        Already the Cro-Magnons did not eat their own. That is, in general.

        The Cro-Magnons were just eating. You probably have East European Neolithic races like Kostenkovtsy or formerly bridges.
      2. kalibr
        1 June 2016 13: 23
        0
        In the USA, bones with characteristic signs of cannibalism were found in the settlements of the early Pueblo Indians. So they could and have ...
  4. Igor39
    Igor39 1 June 2016 09: 12
    +3
    As I began to read, I immediately understood Vyacheslav Olegovich wrote smile , interestingly, I look forward to continuing.
  5. ando_bor
    ando_bor 1 June 2016 09: 35
    +1
    Yes, it is interesting, and the more we learn, the more questions arise.
  6. Time
    Time 1 June 2016 10: 34
    +2
    Remarkable, interesting and informative article. Even the dance began from the frustration that the first part ended and was looking forward to continuing. Thank you so much!
    1. kalibr
      1 June 2016 13: 26
      0
      Glad you liked it. The second is already ready and will be next week. Now we are working on the third. But I will not say how many of them there will be. There is a lot of material. It accumulated for several years and suddenly "formed". It’s a joy when it’s like that. But you can't write one at a time, it's the same as eating one caviar. Bread will want corny!
  7. Volzhanin
    Volzhanin 1 June 2016 10: 35
    +3

    From the second minute a very entertaining episode with a Jewish-Russian-Mersikosov professor.
  8. ivanovbg
    ivanovbg 1 June 2016 10: 44
    0
    Very interesting, I look forward to continuing with impatience.
  9. AK64
    AK64 1 June 2016 11: 00
    -1
    And ... what, in this case, was the goal of producing all this, delivering it to different countries, digging it into the earth at different depths, and then waiting for everyone to find it?

    Why wait? He buried it himself - and then he found it.
    And the goal is a simple goal: to sell to tourists. Or here it is for you to sell.

    And if they don’t find it, then what?

    Hee hee ... How's that, sorry?

    And this, not to mention the fact that many finds were made back in the Renaissance and under Peter the Great, when they did not even hear about radiocarbon analysis and the potassium-argon method. That is, a more stupid fabrication is hard to imagine.

    Vecheslav, you’re a naive Chukchi boy ... Forgery of, say, antique coins was a business in Italy back in the 18th century. What for? Yes for sale, why else!

    In principle, any asset should be considered fake, and prove its authenticity.

    For example: the most famous undoubted fakes are Priam’s treasure and treasure in Mycenae, found by Schliemann (a swindler). Guaranteed fakes.

    So ...

    Well, and what does "carbon analysis" have to do with it, I really don't understand at all: how are you going to analyze metals with carbon?
    1. Igor39
      Igor39 1 June 2016 12: 14
      +1
      Schliemann personally admitted this to you?
      1. AK64
        AK64 1 June 2016 13: 06
        -1
        Schliemann personally admitted this to you?

        I would really advise you to get acquainted with the biography of Schliemann, the one before DO Troy --- after that you will not have questions.

        You can even rummage in my comments, there seems to be such an opportunity.
    2. kalibr
      1 June 2016 13: 29
      +4
      Why wait? He buried it himself - and then he found it.
      And the goal is a simple goal: to sell to tourists. Or here it is for you to sell.

      Density of earth in excavation! And its number of storeys. There are 18 cultural layers in Chatal_Hyük! These are meters of land! Cubic meters of excavated soil !! And a lot of money. Will not pay off! And just helmets and many other things are not sold to tourists. Coins - yes, but helmets, cuirasses ... I would see how you take the helmet out of Cyprus. That is, the number of artifacts sold "to the left" does not agree with the tons of available ones that are interesting only to specialists.
      The biological remains that are found next to the metal are subjected to carbon analysis. What is incomprehensible here? It’s clear that they sell antique souvenirs - I’ve bought an authentic Pomos idol for myself, but I need to bring something more ...
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. AK64
        AK64 1 June 2016 13: 42
        -1
        Why wait? He buried it himself - and then he found it.
        And the goal is a simple goal: to sell to tourists. Or here it is for you to sell.


        The density of the earth in the excavation! And its number of storeys.


        Come on, Vyacheslav, who measured the "density of the earth" in the place where Schliemann "found the treasure"?
        Yes, and then say - the land there was certainly dense ... And so what?

        Or, recently, an outstanding treasure was found in England - the gold of the Angles, yeah ... people shook their heads and said enviously "people can!"

        There are 18 cultural layers in Chatal_Hyuyuk! These are meters of the earth! Cubic meters of excavated soil !! And a lot of money. Not pay off!

        That is why it was not in Huyuk that they found any treasure that tourists could sell.

        And just helmets and much more are not sold to tourists. Coins - yes, but helmets, cuirasses ... I would see how you take out a helmet from Cyprus.

        (1) Question of price. It’s necessary - they’ll do it.
        (2) Not so long ago, the British took out all of Tutankhamun from Egypt - and nothing. (By the way, there are also big doubts here)

        That is, the number of artifacts sold "to the left" does not agree with the tons of available ones that are interesting only to specialists.

        Yeah ... Vyacheslav, because in general collectors are not interested in any ceramics as a rule. That is, tons of ceramics is as much as you like. But tons of bronze helmets are paaaaardon, a reason to doubt much.

        The biological remains that are found next to the metal are subjected to carbon analysis.

        That's not a single ancient artifact presented to SERIOUS expertise.
        And those that "presented" - that's where all the dating of the two shines was confirmed. In 100% of cases, yeah ... (After that, it's just not worth talking seriously about the reliability of such examinations)


        What is incomprehensible here? It’s clear that they sell antique souvenirs - I’ve bought an authentic Pomos idol for myself, but I’ll get something more ...

        This is because you do not have money. If there is money, they will make it (and it will not be necessary to take it out - they will do it on the spot, moreover, the most ancient)
        1. Bramb
          Bramb 1 June 2016 17: 03
          0
          Quote: AK64
          Yeah ... Vyacheslav, because in general collectors are not interested in any ceramics as a rule. That is, tons of ceramics is as much as you like. But tons of bronze helmets are paaaaardon, a reason to doubt much.

          A ton of helmets with a weight of one 2 kg is 500 pieces. Actually not so much.
          1. AK64
            AK64 1 June 2016 17: 31
            -1
            A ton of helmets with a weight of one 2 kg is 500 pieces. Actually not so much.


            Show me 500 helmets.
            Show at least 100.

            You are not surprised that there is not a single pre-Mongol helm? All Russian helmets that exist are the 17th century.

            And here suddenly we are talking about 500 from the Bronze Age - well, well
            1. kalibr
              1 June 2016 18: 13
              0
              Pictured above is the 64 helmet. Not all fit, but if you look, so that 100 pieces are typed, this is only in the Athenian archaeological museum and only this type.
              1. AK64
                AK64 1 June 2016 18: 27
                0
                Pictured above is the 64 helmet. Not all fit, but if you look, so that 100 pieces are typed, this is only in the Athenian archaeological museum and only this type.


                Aren't you surprised that there is not a single Russian pre-Mongolian helmet? And here - 10 pieces of only one type. "People are able"

                Can you imagine the price of a helmet at that time? Somewhere like a Mercedes today, or even more expensive (because less often). Could you tell me where the WHOLE Mercedes is scattered?
                1. kalibr
                  1 June 2016 21: 58
                  0
                  Where did the Russian-Mongol helmets come from in ancient Greece? Something you are not writing ...
                  1. AK64
                    AK64 2 June 2016 08: 20
                    0
                    Where did the Russian-Mongol helmets come from in ancient Greece? Something you are not writing ...

                    Well, present such a helmet from Mongolia. Come from Russia. In general, not one on a global scale.

                    So, in Greece they have special conditions for the storage of antique, or what? I just think that everything is simple, that the Greeks are swindlers: and they always have been.
        2. kalibr
          1 June 2016 18: 09
          0
          Stubbornness is worse than drunkenness!
        3. kalibr
          1 June 2016 22: 58
          0
          Quote: AK64
          That's not a single ancient artifact was presented for a SERIOUS examination.


          How do you know that? Source?
          1. AK64
            AK64 2 June 2016 08: 26
            0
            How do you know that? Source?


            Vyacheslav, well, this is ridiculous, just ridiculous.

            Any artifact MUST be considered fake BEFORE its authenticity is proved.
            That is, there is no need to prove that it is a fake - but there is a need to prove that it is genuine.

            So here you are - once you have come up with such a strange demand ---- now prove it.

            And what and where from: yes, a friend of mine, a physicist, well, not knowing what to do, was engaged in the fact that he analyzed all kinds of compositions and materials (he had such an attitude): he did not find understanding among historians and other museum workers, and complained a lot.
            1. kalibr
              2 June 2016 22: 43
              0
              There is a book by E.N. BLACK MAN-METAL-TIME. M .: Science 1972. He was then the head of the spectral analysis laboratory of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, and now he is doing the same thing, just analyzing metal artifacts. The web has a list of his works, but this most accessible one is easy to download, and there is a lot about all the analyzes that have been exposed to famous artifacts from our museums.
    3. Bramb
      Bramb 1 June 2016 16: 59
      -1
      Quote: AK64
      Well, and what does "carbon analysis" have to do with it, I really don't understand at all: how are you going to analyze metals with carbon?

      As usual: on the part of the handle of an ax or spear. According to the stool on which the kettle stood. Etc.
      1. AK64
        AK64 1 June 2016 17: 34
        0
        As usual: on the part of the handle of an ax or spear. According to the stool on which the kettle stood. Etc.


        (1) Show me these "parts of the arms"
        (2) Well, where are the tests?

        To make it clearer: in all known cases when "analyzes" were allegedly carried out, these "analyzes" in some fantastic way confirmed the "age estimates". Do you understand that it doesn't happen? There is no such Happiness in nature.

        But there is an exception - when the shroud was checked, it turned out to be ... the 12th century. But the trick is that the shroud is not science, but religion, and not just some kind of "religion" but Christianity - but Christianity must be fought. Therefore, the 12th century.
        1. AK64
          AK64 1 June 2016 18: 28
          -1
          Well, minus is undoubtedly an argument in the conversation, what is already there: put a minus - and like "overpowered everyone"
      2. The comment was deleted.
  10. AK64
    AK64 1 June 2016 11: 02
    -5
    By the way about fakes: Novgorod birch bark letters, in.

    (And no need to minus - better sort it out)
  11. The comment was deleted.
  12. V.ic
    V.ic 1 June 2016 11: 06
    +3
    Plused the article, although I do not agree with all of the above. For example, the fourth figure above, named as Acheulean chopped.
    To begin with, periodization by the quality of processing flint tools: http://biofile.ru/geo/14924.html
    Shel (1 million), Achelle (450 thousand) Average: Moustier (150-35 thousand) Late: Aurignac, Solutre, Madeleine.
    Selskie chopped the most primitive - on a silica cobblestone several bilateral chips, to obtain two or three cutting edges. Selskie dainty and with a lot of surface treatment, probably large flakes were used as scrapers for processing hides / removing mezra / or as cutting fragments. The Mousterian era is characterized by high quality tool processing, up to the formation of cutting edges in small chips. Aurignac is characterized by approaching maximum invested skill in the production of stone tools.
    Try to take with your bare hand the chopped one shown in the figure and chop something, the same bone for example. Fingers and palm will have a pale appearance - cuts and blood. I do not consider myself to be a specialist, but I think that in figure No. 4, which I am talking about, a weapon of a later era, for example, the Solutrean one, is depicted. I do not agree to Acheule. And it didn’t chop, but something like a knife for cutting hides, and at the same time a scraper to remove the skins. In the winter of 1972, he managed to go on an excursion to the Historical Museum in Moscow on Red Square. Here, on the third floor, there was a wonderful collection of flint tools of the Stone Age.
    1. Balagan
      Balagan 1 June 2016 12: 46
      0
      Shell as a historical era has ceased to be used since the 80s of the twentieth century.
    2. kalibr
      1 June 2016 13: 31
      0
      "I'm not guilty!" What was on the site of the museum, he wrote!
    3. V.ic
      V.ic 1 June 2016 17: 56
      0
      Quote: V.ic
      cutting edges. Shelsky more elegant and with more

      Colleagues, I apologize for the error in the above comment: "АShelskie more graceful "." Ashipka however " request I meant "Ashelsky". I am old.
  13. AK64
    AK64 1 June 2016 12: 18
    0
    Generally speaking, in a conversation about proto-cities, I would mention Chatal-Guyuk or Chatal-Hyuk (both spellings are used).

    This is a very, very interesting city - I recommend that you familiarize yourself (and do not limit yourself to Wiki, please - Wiki in this case, junk)
    1. kalibr
      1 June 2016 13: 32
      0
      Have you not noticed? THERE WAS NO METAL IN THIS CITY! He appeared in Hyuk! So we are talking about him ahead. I read Vicki, but my source about Hyuk is no worse.
      1. AK64
        AK64 1 June 2016 13: 39
        0
        Just Hyuk the most interesting, really the most interesting
        1. kalibr
          1 June 2016 18: 15
          0
          Here you are right for all 100%. Therefore, I allowed myself to use the materials from the book of the master of historical metallurgy in Russia, E.N. Chernykh. He wrote about him very informatively. And he has a lot of interesting books!
  14. Obolensky
    Obolensky 1 June 2016 12: 27
    +1
    Very interesting and informative article. Thank you very much, I read it with great pleasure.
  15. Riv
    Riv 1 June 2016 12: 39
    +1
    Have you ever lived in a house that looks like an egg and with a diameter in the widest place of three meters, no more? Yes, and with a dead mother-in-law under the floor? Something tells me that they did not try to scoff at themselves like that. And rightly so, not every Russian gardener will endure this.

    These are not residential buildings, but what the Greeks later call cenotafers. Posthumous housing. The deceased does not need a big house, the streets wide between the houses are also useless. Smaller houses, without burials - an imitation of the world. A dead man wakes up, crawls out from under the floor, looks out - around the city, the usual atmosphere, everything is fine. And it won’t go anywhere. Just in case - a fence around.

    And the lack of old people in burials is understandable. The old one clearly understood why he died - from old age. Self-liquidator has worked. And the young one who went hunting yesterday? What if from witchcraft? Witchcraft is different. Zombies and all that ... That’s young and buried separately.
    1. AK64
      AK64 1 June 2016 13: 08
      +1
      These are not residential buildings, but what the Greeks later call cenotafers. Posthumous housing. The deceased does not need a big house, the streets wide between the houses are also useless. Smaller houses, without burials - an imitation of the world. A dead man wakes up, crawls out from under the floor, looks out - around the city, the usual atmosphere, everything is fine. And it won’t go anywhere. Just in case - a fence around.


      Where did the trash come from? Are the dead littering? The bones were nibbled, and all that ???
      \ and just in case, scared \
      1. Riv
        Riv 1 June 2016 14: 28
        -1
        So I say: the dead are different.
        And where does the author write about garbage in these houses?
        1. AK64
          AK64 1 June 2016 14: 43
          +2
          I don’t know about Hirokitiya, but in Chatal-Guuk how much garbage should be put over the centuries.
          And buried also under the floor
          1. Riv
            Riv 1 June 2016 14: 50
            0
            Easy to explain. Wake In Russian cemeteries, if you don’t tidy up in time, garbage also accumulates.
            1. AK64
              AK64 1 June 2016 15: 13
              +1
              It would be better if you read at least something about Chatal-Guyuk.
              I don't know about Khirokitia, there was a very busy life in Chatal-Guyuk --- "zombies" specifically lit up
              1. Riv
                Riv 1 June 2016 17: 34
                0
                And what does Chatal-Guyuk have to do with it?
                1. AK64
                  AK64 1 June 2016 17: 36
                  0
                  try to read the comments above the ruler - and you will be answered
                  1. Riv
                    Riv 2 June 2016 05: 25
                    0
                    Try re-reading the article, and then my question. What does Chatal-Guyuk have to do with, a comparison with which you are far-fetched?
                    Trying to show your erudition? Evgeny Vaganovich, log in.
                    1. AK64
                      AK64 2 June 2016 08: 30
                      0
                      Try re-reading the article, and then my question. What does Chatal-Guyuk have to do with, a comparison with which you are far-fetched?
                      Trying to show your erudition? Evgeny Vaganovich, log in.


                      It is clear: dropping into a puddle - angry at the asphalt.

                      Have you stated that Hirokity is a cemetery? Well no? Well: in Chatal-Hyuk also buried under the floor. What you were told from the very beginning.

                      You were told from the very beginning that burying under the floor is not unique to the Hirokiti. And an example is given.

                      So congratulations on another "got into a puddle"
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  16. Balagan
    Balagan 1 June 2016 12: 48
    +1
    Good article.
    Well, in general, modern science really owes Thomsen a three-century system. But his first inventor was not him. Titus Lucretius Car in the 1st century BC. I used this system, and in Chinese documents of almost the same time it is available.
    About the steel age, in the 80s, Soviet archaeologists proposed a new era - the era of synthetic materials. I won’t be surprised if they return to this idea in the future.
    1. kalibr
      1 June 2016 13: 34
      +1
      About Kara will be separate ...
  17. Crimea26
    Crimea26 1 June 2016 17: 10
    0
    I was struck by a rack with helmets!))) I thought it was a drop dead rarity, but here they are ... !!!!!
    1. AK64
      AK64 1 June 2016 17: 39
      0
      I was struck by a rack with helmets!))) I thought it was a drop dead rarity, but here they are ... !!!!!


      Hehe ...
      What follows from what?
      And the question follows "and who makes you such good helmets?"

      As a joke, a real story: once in one museum I began to be slightly outraged by the expatriates. Well, they called me back to the station and said, "Man, why are you making a noise? We have a very good uncle in Malaya Ivanovka, he loves to make replicas of the old days. And he is pleased, and we."
      1. kalibr
        1 June 2016 18: 18
        0
        The difference is that "from Malaya Ivanovka" in plain sight, and here in the storeroom, and there are still leggings, legguards (there are not many of them!) And even fingertips on their feet - these are displayed - a rarity. You will see!
        1. AK64
          AK64 1 June 2016 18: 30
          0
          The difference is that "from Malaya Ivanovka" in plain sight, and here in the storeroom, and there are still leggings, legguards (there are not many of them!) And even fingertips on their feet - these are displayed - a rarity. You will see!


          There, too, there was a full storehouse of "Malivan" products.
          1. kalibr
            1 June 2016 22: 09
            0
            Each museum exhibit has a card. What is it, where did it come from, if purchased - how much it costs. If an object is unknown, it is attributed, if the result of excavation, everything is described: time, horizon, approximate typology. I was invited for attribution both to our Penza museum (Korovin's pistol) and to the Samara Alabyeva (very beautiful Tati's ceremonial sword with cloisonné enamel) - sometimes it's even a pity: a number is written on a good thing with indelible ink, a tag is hung - and to this a cardboard or sheet paper, where everything is described in detail, so if something is bought, then pass it off as "found" ... God forbid. Besides, where to get the money? Who will give without specifying what or "I get on"? So do not fantasize, then the specialist will always see "get on", with all the ensuing consequences. We also have a "self-made" helmet in the museum and next to it there is an Iranian shield of the 17th century. Well, that's what the card says - a remake, but the Iranian one is much more interesting.
            1. AK64
              AK64 2 June 2016 08: 36
              0
              And what is written in such a card for "Prim's treasure"?
              Surely the horizon is written out and the composition of the soil?

              Ilty here the British have recently "found" a treasure of the English (well, people are able, do not subtract) --- what is written on the cards? What they say was an eccentric, unemployed and without a source of income - but with an expensive metal detector - according to someone else's field (private property, by the way!) --- Yes, he found a treasure for a couple of pounds lemons. So go it is written?

              Or the birch bark letters I mentioned: what difference does it say in the cards?

              If people are able, it’s all the same what is written there - even the truth will be written there. Just not all.
              1. kalibr
                2 June 2016 22: 45
                0
                Quote: AK64
                And what is written in such a card for "Prim's treasure"?
                Surely the horizon is written out and the composition of the soil?

                Take a look at the museum’s website where it is stored. There, the data for each artifact with its description is laid out. A comparative analysis and so on is given.
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