Military Review

Airplane plus ship. Part of 2

Airplane plus ship. Part of 2

It was the creation of a “flying ship” that the princess sang about. The hydrofoil of a ship is shaped like an airplane wing. The lower part is flat, the upper one has a convex surface. Water flows around the wing both from below and from above, but the speed of these two streams is different, therefore a certain depression of water mass is created under the wing, and the water pressure from below forms a powerful lifting force.

The designers determined the strict dependence of lift on the speed of the ship. It was a very important discovery. Speed ​​itself has become a regulator of the lift of the wings. A certain speed allowed the ship not to dive deep and jump out of the water, but to fly along an invisibly drawn line.

The shape of the wings, the depth of their immersion in water, the angle of inclination, or, as the designers say, the “angle of attack of the wings” —all this determined the steady flight of the vessel.

Only after conducting dozens of experiments, the designers found the optimal solution, the only true ratio of shape, speed and angle of attack of the wings, which was necessary for the “Rocket”.

When something completely new is created, difficulties and unresolved technical problems lurk at every step. In the experimental workshop we were convinced of this very quickly.

The appearance of the winged ship! Lift a regular boat out of the water, and you will be amazed at its ridiculous appearance. The “Rocket” building was all coming out of the water, for this new movement it was necessary to find new architectural forms.

When flying, the “Rocket” hull did not touch the water, but high speed generated air resistance. The ship was supposed to get the most streamlined. For a long time in the experimental workshop they could not find the necessary sharp lines for the bow of the ship.

But a special torment brought the control room. If it were possible, the designers would have removed the cabin from the deck at all, hid it in the body of the ship, as they do on airplanes. How much metal was spent making ten variants of this cabin. And every time it seemed to the designers that the deckhouse on the upper deck did not fit in well with the general, rapid “Rocket” circuit.

The riveted duralumin hull of the ship required particularly careful finishing - the slightest scratch, a dent was considered a marriage on the lead ship. When the hull was ready, the engine was delivered to the workshop, and its finishing was coming. Many of the failures with cruise ships in the past were due, among other things, to the fact that at that time there were no engines that, at high power, would have a relatively light weight.
Winged ship and bulky steam engine are incompatible things.

The work went on in three shifts. In early May, the “Rocket” was decided to be launched for the first time. The ship was still without felling, was not completed, but it was important to check its basic seaworthiness.

Only recently, ice passed on the Volga, and the flood was advancing on the shore of the Sormovsky backwater. When the engine pulled on the “Rocket” platform to the very shore, its wheels went into the water. The water splashed even at the foot of the tower cranes, which were supposed to transfer the ship to the water.

I had to push a floating crane to the shore, he lifted the ship into the air, sailed a little, and only then the “Rocket” found itself on the Volga. This turned out to be troublesome, and only in the evening tired, drenched shipbuilders climbed onto the deck of the "Rocket", according to ancient custom, smashing a bottle of champagne on its wing.

However, the first run of the vessel alerted the designers. The “rocket” was moving in the water uncertainly, its wings were walking too close to the surface, the ship was shaking on a small wave.

Wing angle of attack! That's what it was. Attack angle! Defining it, the designers have done hundreds of experiments with models. But on the first test of a full-scale ship, it turned out that the angle of attack is great, and more than necessary, the lift capacity of the wings.

Again, the floating vessel lifted above the water and carried it to the railway platform. Now it was necessary to remove the wings in the workshop, reduce the angle of attack and do it with such care and precision so as not to be mistaken not only in degrees of angle, but also in minutes.

26 July early in the morning "Rocket" again came out of the factory backwater, so that on the same day, fifteen hours later, go to the landing stage of the Khimki river station in Moscow. Even the most high-speed express trains passed 900 kilometers from Gorky to Moscow in only three days.

The Gorodtsu "Rocket" flew so fast that they did not have time to prepare the gateway, and the ship had to swim for twenty minutes near the hydropower station, until the lock gates rose, opening the way.

Then the ship went to the expanses of an artificial reservoir. Gaining speed, he rose on the wings, and the first captain of the ship, Viktor Poluektov, headed for Moscow.

Fourteen running hours, an hour earlier than expected, the “Rocket” arrived at the Moscow Sea, but it was already late, and therefore the ship stopped for the night in Khlebnikov, then to appear early in the morning for a solemn meeting at the Khimki railway station.

The first day of Rocket’s stay in Moscow turned into an unusual and unforgettable holiday. At first there was a big rally in the river port, the Minister of the River spoke fleet, Alekseev, designers. Then the rally participants and among them many foreign guests of the VI World Youth Festival and students wanted to ride a cruise ship.

The desire of the guests of "Rocket" was so great that for the first time the ship departed heavily overloaded. On board were about a hundred people. Even the militiamen, caught up with universal enthusiasm, forgot about their duties and jumped onto the deck of the ship.

But still "Rocket" came out on the wings. Almost half a day she flew on the Khimki reservoir. One delegation of guests of the festival replaced another on its board. They all came to the indescribable delight of traveling on a cruise ship, congratulated the creators of this ship, were filmed with them on the deck.

The next day, the ship passed on the Moscow River past the Kremlin. Poluektov tried to steer the ship with the utmost care: boats, river trams, boats, scurrying to and fro along the river, blocked the “Rocket” way. Nevertheless, the vessel was flying rapidly past the recreation and leisure park, Neskuchny Sad, past the high granite shores of the embankment.

Some motorcyclist, as it turned out later, a foreign journalist, was racing on his motorcycle along the embankment, trying to catch up with the “Rocket”, but never caught up with her.

From the deck of the ship it was clearly visible how people were amazed by the appearance of an unusual ship from chairs, many jumped up on the tables, ran to the parapet of the embankment of the stadium, past which Rocket easily and smoothly slid.

Success inspired the creators and leadership. As soon as the “Rocket” came from Moscow to its native harbor, the United Volga Shipping Company announced regular passenger flights of the cruise ship on the Gorki-Kazan line. Began a new phase of testing. For two and a half months, the remaining until the end of navigation, the designers wanted to break in the “Rocket” in normal operation, to check the ship on board in a stormy, autumnal, often almost stormy Kuibyshev reservoir.

On the first voyage, the ship departed from Gorkovskiy pier at dawn, at four in the morning. In the wheelhouse next to Poluektov stood Hero of the Soviet Union, Mikhail Petrovich Devyatayev - captain of riverboats; during World War II, a combat pilot, who became famous for his heroic escape from fascist captivity on an airplane captured from the enemy.

From time to time Devyatayev replaced Poluektov at the helm, he learned to control a new ship. On board the ship and this time there were several designers and Rostislav Evgenievich Alekseev.

The train from Gorky to Kazan then went about a day. "Rocket" in the port of Kazan appeared at half past midnight, having done all the way in 6 hours 45 minutes.

On this day, on the Kuibyshev reservoir, the waves reached a height of a meter and a quarter, the excitement was equal to five points. But the turbulent Volga did not slow down the ship. The "rocket" was moving at a given speed, only swaying slightly on the waves, not in the way that ships usually sway, but only from side to side.

Thus began regular flights from Gorky to Kazan. The mere fact that the passengers could go from Gorky to Kazan in one day and come back seemed surprising. This changed the usual idea of ​​low-speed water transport around the world.

With each new flight, the designers became increasingly convinced of the practicality of the “Rocket”. The test program included swimming in a littered river channel. It was meant that logs, planks, and all kinds of garbage on a river, often coming off rafts. At first, the so-called “skids”, heavy logs barely visible under the water, which float almost vertically, seemed especially dangerous.

- What will happen to your duralumin "Rocket", with its wings, if at high speed it unexpectedly jumps into such a snag? - A year ago, Alekseev was asked by people to whom light winged vessels seemed fragile, unreliable.

- We will swim along the Volga - we shall see, - Alekseev answered in such cases.

The meeting with the fuel tank took place in one of the first flights. When the “Rocket” at full speed hit its wings on a large half-sunken log, Alekseev and the captain, who were at that time on the deck of the motor ship, turned pale with excitement. Calculations by calculations, all the same, there are all sorts of surprises, suddenly a log will ram the light, like an airplane, the hull of a river ship?

However, the passengers on the boat did not even feel the shaking of the hull. Steel wings, like sharp knives, instantly cut the log, and only large chips accidentally fell under the screw and slightly bent its blades.

The last days of navigation have arrived. The "rocket" was already without passengers from Gorky to the Kuibyshev reservoir, where, according to the forecast bureau, great excitement was expected. Alekseev wanted to experience the ship in the harshest stormy weather. But when the ship approached Kazan, it became very cold, freezing began on the Will. Moving on was not possible. “Salo” went along the river. Along the coast there are already areas of solid ice. There was a real danger - to find himself in ice captivity.

But the "Rocket" could not winter in Kazan, far from the Sormovsky backwater. But the cruise ship is not an icebreaker. What happens to his hull if the ship starts to break through the ice fields? Alekseev and Poluektov, all the designers who were aboard at that time, anxiously consulted whether they had the right to put their first cruise ship at such a risk. However, they didn’t have time for reflection, they had to decide immediately, until the situation on the river deteriorated.

Alekseev decided: to return to Gorky. From Kazan moved away at night. It was dark and deserted on the river, but there were lights showing up the fairway in some places.

Soon it began to snow, it became even darker. Then came the fog.

In such difficult conditions, the flight of the “Rocket” began along an almost frozen river - seven hours of continuous unrest and tremendous tension in an unusual cruise, on which only a winged ship could decide.

If the “Rocket” were sitting deep in the water, the ice floes would surely damage its hull. But the wings lifted the body of the ship into the air and instantly cut large pieces of ice. Small ice with a whistle flew through the entire motor ship, with a beating it beat about strong glasses of the windows of the cabin, about the dural lining of the deck, and it seemed like an ice blizzard raging above the winged ship.

On the half way, the water intake scored with ice, but there is a blessing in disguise: now the designers have learned how to redo it, so that no freeze will take them by surprise.

All in long icicles, which hung on the sides, frosty, as if grayed out over this heavy ice transition, the “Rocket” returned safely to Gorky to become a winter hut on the shores of factory grounds.

For “Rocket” Alekseev set about creating “Meteor”. The new ship "Meteor" was laid on the stands in January 1959. By the end of the year he was ready. Assembly was fast.

The winged ship, which seemed fantastic a few years ago, did not surprise anyone now, becoming the same familiar detail of the factory landscape as tugs, boats, motor ships.

And then “Sputnik”, “Voskhod”, “Petrel”, “Comet” appeared, which had already plowed the expanses of the sea.

But few people know that Alekseev’s design bureau was actively developing military options - for example, ekranoplans “Lun” and “Eaglet”, which, in fact, open a new era in traditional systems aviation and fleet.

It is known that three ekranoplanes of the type “Orlyonok” were created for the needs of the Navy. The new Minister of Defense Sergey Sokolov in 1984 found these projects unpromising. But the general designer Alekseev will never find out about this: during the tests of the passenger version of an WIG, he will be under the weight of his brainchild. Nobody really could tell from his designer how Alekseev got under the ekranoplan. He will produce until the end of the test, and the next day he will complain of severe pain in the stomach. On the second day, Alekseev fainted. Doctors said he broke up. Peritonitis has begun. Save the ingenious designer failed.

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  1. Stinger
    Stinger 20 May 2016 07: 50
    The student had a chance to observe the first runs of the Rocket on the Volga in the city of Gorky. The sight was really unusual, fantastic! Especially when she flew past the wheeled steamers, which at that time were full on the Volga.
  2. surrozh
    surrozh 20 May 2016 07: 54
    A fantastic vehicle with a no less fantastically talented inventor - a scientist. For our off-road, high-speed river transport is the most.
    1. Oprychnik
      Oprychnik 20 May 2016 19: 38
      As a child, I had the chance to walk along the Volga on the Rocket, and on the Meteor, and on the Petrel. But it is most comfortable on the boat in the first-class cabin with a toilet and shower.)))
  3. candidate
    candidate 20 May 2016 08: 02
    ... Greatness manifests itself in deeds
    History will appreciate their scope ...
  4. inkass_98
    inkass_98 20 May 2016 08: 34
    But few people know that in the design bureau of Alekseev, military variants were actively developed - for example, the Lun and Orlyonok ekranoplanes, opening, in fact, a new era in traditional aviation and navy systems.

    No, Polina, a lot of people know about this, and this topic has been raised here more than once. Remember, in the commentary to the first part I pointed out the opinion of Kaptsov? So the spears on this subject have broken more than once.
    From myself, I want to say that these were beautiful and necessary cars - that were hydrofoil ships, that were ekranoplanes. And it is necessary to revive their construction.
  5. Bashibuzuk
    Bashibuzuk 20 May 2016 08: 59
    Well, the difference between the male and female perceptions of the world is known to all.
    Even the article is noticeable.
    Somehow softly written. Not manly.
    And if there hadn't been such annoying mistakes too - "..therefore under the wing creates a certain rarefaction of the water mass, and the pressure of the water from below forms a powerful lifting force. "- it would generally be read amazingly.
    Depression is created above the wing - and then everything is correct.
    Dear Pauline, the third part will be?
    About KM and Eaglet?
    As an alternative to the articles of the author Oleg Kaptsov known to everyone here.
    Unfortunately, I didn’t have a chance to ride on them.
    And Comets - from Severomorsk to Murmansk-130 - were my favorite transport.
    1. Papandopulo
      Papandopulo 20 May 2016 10: 38
      Hydrofoil warships also have
      1. code54
        code54 22 May 2016 15: 42
        Yes, there is! Even in the film was shot, the film "Right to Shoot" seems (not sure) !!!
        1. wanderer_032
          wanderer_032 24 May 2016 07: 34
          Quote: code54
          "The right to shoot"

          PSKR Pr.205P was shot there.

          205 is the main main workhorse of the MCHPV of the KGB of the USSR, now - the Coast Guard of the FSB FS.

          There are 38 more. left...
        2. wanderer_032
          wanderer_032 24 May 2016 07: 56
          Found in which movie you can see "Antares":

          A ship of this type took part in the filming of the film - The Alpha Project.

    2. The comment was deleted.
  6. Arktidianets
    Arktidianets 20 May 2016 09: 17
    Rostislav Alekseev is a man of legend, a brilliant engineer and designer! His genius, even physical laws were not the limit of what his ekranoplanes are worth.
  7. Volga Cossack
    Volga Cossack 20 May 2016 10: 44
    The great man was Alekseev - his name is Polytech in Nizhny - he studied there. and I did practice at Shipbuilding in Sormovo ... Remember this person in the Lower!
  8. red_october
    red_october 20 May 2016 11: 22
    and the "Rockets and" Meteora "went along the Dnieper.
    In Cherkassy on the Dnieper in the 90s there was an unnecessary "Rocket". Empty, abandoned.
    Grandfather on the ice made his way to her, tore off a piece of duralium.
    Made a boat out of it, it turned out light, durable. Thought to fish.
    The boat on the village pond was chained to a pole driven into the ground.
    By morning there was no pillar, no chain, no boat ...
    1. iv-nord
      iv-nord 20 May 2016 18: 42
      a thief at a thief ...
  9. Verdun
    Verdun 20 May 2016 12: 00
    Quote: surozh
    For our off-road, high-speed river transport is the most.

    Water transport, even as fast as SPK, is a cost-effective thing. It is definitely more profitable than automobile and, as far as I know, even cheaper than railway. This was well understood in Soviet times, built canals and ships, tried to develop this area. And if you now sit down on the shore of the Moscow Canal and see how many ships pass by per day, I don’t take Private boats and yachts into account), then it turns out that they are depressingly small, and there are practically no new ones. This is not the bossy.
  10. EvilLion
    EvilLion 20 May 2016 13: 00
    You go to hell with your stoned ekranoplanes, if hydrofoil equipment went into mass production, then under-plane crashes with any emergency with heaps of motors didn’t fall for anyone.
  11. serge siberian
    serge siberian 20 May 2016 13: 47
    he himself in childhood on the "Rocket" along the Ob reservoir to Novosibirsk with his parents arrived. Very quickly and elegantly.
    And the ekranoplans watched on TV, an equally bewitching sight, if you pay attention to those that could carry decently with missile weapons and airborne forces. Such developments should be revived.
    1. code54
      code54 22 May 2016 15: 45
      Eh, but I didn’t find that in Nsk them ...: ((((only on ordinary motor ships on the Ob River we skated.
  12. gladcu2
    gladcu2 20 May 2016 16: 27
    Well, that's the real "brand" of the USSR.

    If I am not mistaken, then such ships were built only in the USSR.
    1. FID
      FID 20 May 2016 16: 53
      Quote: gladcu2
      If I am not mistaken, then such ships were built only in the USSR.

      US Sea Eagle ... Sorry, unclicky ...
      1. Verdun
        Verdun 21 May 2016 16: 20
        US Sea Eagle ...
        The main ideologist of ekranoplanes is the German designer Alexander Lippish. After WWII, the Americans took it to the states and apparently believed that the concept of the ekranoplan was in their pocket. However, all developed samples are small in size. I guess when US intelligence discovered the Caspian Monster the Pentagon was shocked. Unfortunately, the guys from Sormovo told that in the nineties, on the direct order of Nemtsov, the documentation on ekranoplanes was passed on to our "new friends". So, I would not be surprised if they have something similar.
      2. Manul
        Manul 27 May 2016 03: 27
        And where did these prototypes fly? Our Caspian was cut, and these only tried to take off. And it’s ridiculous to compare the take-off weight. I can also bungle a glider with a motor.
  13. maximghost
    maximghost 20 May 2016 16: 34
    I remember when I lived in the Kineshma in the early 90s, then rockets and meters ran along the Volga 10 times a day, when about 5 years ago I went to the sanatorium on the Volga I have not seen one.
  14. Come on
    Come on 20 May 2016 16: 58
    Our rockets went along the Irtysh, a cool sight! And what kind of waves the Rocket gave, floating children and teenagers especially liked it! And if on a "motorboat" with two "Whirlwinds 30" you fly and the Rocket is going, then you try to turn across the waves, when you disperse with the Rocket and jump on these waves. And there was also another model, but on different principles - Zarya 5, a comfortable, huge, high-speed bus on the water, but unlike the Rocket, it could literally moor to any shore with its muzzle. So we drove fishing and rest on this .. Eh ..
    1. adept666
      adept666 23 May 2016 16: 26
      Dawn 5, a comfortable, huge, high-speed bus on the water, but unlike the Rocket, it could literally be moored to any shore in the face. So, we were fishing and relaxing on such a trip .. Eh ..
      The dawn created an air cushion so it was possible to go out on the braid. And where did you rest on the Irtysh River if not a secret?
  15. akm8226
    akm8226 20 May 2016 17: 38
    This is a Soviet engineer!
    All life to the motherland!
  16. Mustachioed Georgian
    Mustachioed Georgian 20 May 2016 18: 00
    And us on Lena still fly and rocket and dawn
  17. Alex Xorkam
    Alex Xorkam 20 May 2016 18: 28
    All is well interesting article, but clarify all the same what it is about. A story about an ekranoplan or a hydrofoil. These are, of course, very interesting trials, but it is better when the article is without annoying inaccuracies. By the way, "a certain rarefaction of the water mass is created under the wing," this is inaccurate, the pressure is less above the wing.
  18. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 20 May 2016 20: 10
    Author, more carefully prepare the text! Two repetitions, paragraphs mixed up, again, rarefaction does not occur below (as in the text), but above the wing. Obviously humanitarian education is available. And the topic is wonderful. By the way, why is there nothing about cavitation and the violation of the flow around the wing when air breaks from above to it with high lift coefficients?