Against the background of this grand event (and because of high and reasonable secrecy!), Another equally important and technically difficult achievement of Soviet scientists and designers turned out to be unnoticed. 4 March 1961 of the year, just a month before Gagarin’s flight, in our country at the Tenth State Research Grounds for the first time in the history of mankind, a guided missile with a fragmentation warhead hit a ballistic target missile. The scientific and technical complexity of the problem solved by the Soviet country is not difficult to evaluate even to a person far from rocket technology and control systems. At the predetermined meeting point on the trajectory of the target rocket moving at a speed of about seven kilometers per second, it is necessary to withdraw the anti-missile with accuracy, ensuring the target is damaged by fragments of the anti-missile warhead and at the time of their closest approach give a command to undermine.
Note that this was done at a time when the speed and memory of an electronic computer was incomparably lower than that of modern computers! The successful interception of the ballistic goal was the beginning of the creation of the anti-missile defense of our country, which today in many respects keeps our opponents from realizing their aggressive designs. Unfortunately, the anniversary of that outstanding event of the 1961 year passed almost unnoticed by our media, but it should serve the cause of the patriotic education of young Russians. There is something to be proud of!
Only pride in the achievements of his country can serve as the basis for fostering the patriotism of a people that President Putin considers our national idea! Recall how it was.
The very birth and formation of the Tenth State Research and Testing (Balkhash) test site, the fiftieth anniversary of which was celebrated in the 2006 year, is inextricably linked with the name of Grigori Vasilievich Kisunko, the general designer of the first Soviet anti-missile weapon system. Therefore, the first kind words should be said about him.
Grigory Vasilyevich was born in 1918 year in a small Ukrainian village of Zaporozhye, in the family of a locomotive driver. After graduating from the Pedagogical Institute in Lugansk, he studied in the graduate school of the Herzen Institute in Leningrad, where in the spring of 1941, he successfully defended his thesis for the degree of Candidate of Physical and Mathematical Sciences. Since the beginning of World War II, having refused to be appointed as an associate professor in Astrakhan, he voluntarily joined the people's militia, but as a highly qualified specialist was sent not to the front, but to study at the country's first military school of air defense (now the Military Institute, Mozhaysky Academy in Pushkin city). Six months later, after graduating from the school, he received the military title of “technician-quartermaster”, he was already ensuring the combat operation of the radar station for detecting air targets in the Moscow air defense district. Since 1944, Kisunko is a teacher at the Budyonny Military Academy. Here he defended his doctoral thesis and became head of one of the country's first departments of radiolocation. In 1950, by the decision of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b), Grigori Vasilyevich was sent to the newly created Moscow Design Bureau (KB-1) under the patronage of L.P. Beria to work on the creation of the first Soviet anti-aircraft missile system Berkut, later named C -25. The system was in service with the First Army Special Purpose Air Defense Army, which included, apart from the missile bases, four corps of fifteen regiments located in two echelons around Moscow and reliably covering the approaches to the capital from the air already from 1956 onwards. For his work on the creation of a radio-technical center for targeting anti-aircraft missiles (RTSTN B-200) in 1956, Kisunko was awarded the high title of Hero of Socialist Labor.
As Grigory Vasilyevich himself recalled, the history of the landfill in the Betpak-Dala desert of Kazakhstan and military unit No. 03080 began with the letter of seven marshals of the Soviet Union headed by the Chief of the General Staff Sokolovsky to the Government of the USSR. The marshals raised the question of the need to begin work on creating a reliable shield to protect against a possible nuclear-missile strike of a potential enemy, which then clearly was the United States of America, actively developing its means of attack. The letter was sent in September 1953. The government quickly responded, and the search began for a man who would take up the solution of an insoluble task that seemed to many scientists and designers. In fact, it was necessary to learn how to hit a bullet in a flying bullet! The task was no less difficult than ensuring a manned space flight! GV turned out to be the person who ventured to take up the development of the necessary equipment. Kisunko. He headed the special design bureau.
It was decided to carry out an assessment of the possibility in principle of damage to the head part of a ballistic missile in flight using an experimental system, known as System A. The complex of assets included: three radars (PTN), which determined the coordinates of the target and anti-missiles by the triangulation method, the launcher (PU) and the command-computing center (CEC), from which all elements were controlled using the M-40 computer.
When the technical means were embodied “in metal” and worked out on special stands in the Moscow Special Design Bureau, the question arose of field tests, that is, a testing ground was needed. Initially, an experimental anti-missile defense (ABM) fire complex was supposed to be placed near the points of impact of the ballistic missiles designed by S.P. Korolev near the town of Aralsk. But Marshal Nedelin, who supervised the work of Korolev from the Ministry of Defense and foresaw a quick increase in their flight range, advised Kisunko to create a testing area west of Lake Balkhash, in the almost cloudless Betpak-Dala desert, and for military and civilian specialists involved in building and testing equipment. , - on the lake shore, thus providing more or less acceptable living conditions for people. So, thanks to Nedelin, the city became Priozersk!
On August 13, military unit No. 1956 - Directorate of Military Construction - consisting of thirteen people, headed by the future major general Gubenko, landed at the Sary-Shagan station of the Kazakh railway at Sary-Shagan station of the Kazakh railway. The Kazakh village consisted of two or three brick single-story houses, including the Village Council, a school and a club, and two dozen clay earthen houses with flat roofs of Kazakh huts and yurts. The village was not electrified, even the railway traffic lights worked on kerosene. The Chairman of the Council allowed the arrived officers to stay at the school, showed the lake and a pitiful tavern. The very next morning, as Gubenko recalled, they went to look for a place for the future of the city. About twenty kilometers away from the station on the peninsula, we saw several yurts of herders. The place was pleasant. Here they decided to establish a residential town. Three days later the first construction battalion arrived: 19313 soldiers and officers armed with construction equipment. First of all, they built a platform for receiving goods. Echelons with the technique of experimental fire complex and construction went in a continuous stream. There was a queue for unloading.
A few days later, the first commander of the military unit No. 03080, Major General Stepan Dmitrievich Dorokhov and General Designer Grigori Vasilievich Kisunko, arrived. The construction of the landfill began with technical objects. The main task was to provide tests. At the site of the future Priozersk, only the headquarters and barracks were built for the arriving officers and industrialists. Despite the ban, some officers came with their families. All were accommodated in the barracks, separating the families of the sheets hanging from the ropes. When fifteen construction units gathered at the station, they moved in a large column directly along the Golodnaya Steppe to the point where the second radio-technical guidance center (PTN) should be installed. Making its way into the rocky, waterless desert, a column of three hundred kilometers was six days.
Thousands of military builders were working on the construction of the first, second and third sites, where the radars were supposed to be located. In a short time concrete plants were built (gravel and sand were sometimes delivered on barges from the opposite bank of Balkhash), concrete roads were laid in the lifeless steppe, technical facilities and housing were built. The ground on the sites was such that it was not uncommon to resort to explosives. Construction was really a shock. People worked sparingly, day and night, to ensure that the tests were carried out on time. And provided! There were no complaints, no moaning! Everyone understood the need to create in a very short time in response to the aggressive US intentions of our missile defense!
The first launch of the anti-missile missile was made in 1957 year. In 1958, all means of the firing complex, including computers, were delivered to the prepared sites. Began routine testing and refinement of technology.
The fourth day of March 1961 should be considered a special day. On this day, the first in the world was intercepted by the head of the P-12 ballistic missile of designer Korolev anti-missile B-1000 with high-explosive fragmentation warhead of designer Grushin. We are ahead of the United States by twenty-three years!
This month our victory preceded the space flight of Yu.A. Gagarin!
Delighted with the successes of Soviet science and technology, the then head of the Soviet government, N. S. Khrushchev, said that from now on we, the Soviet people, were capable of falling into space in a mosquito. These words of his bypassed the media around the world. All over the world, our friends admired the achievements of the Soviet people, as well as in space exploration, in creating missile defense ahead of the United States! Soviet people were especially proud of their country! In memory of this event in the Golodnaya Steppe, the B-1000 rocket was later put on a pedestal. The inscription on the monument said that tulips were burned here so that the Soviet people could work peacefully on their land. These words belong to the general designer Grigory Vasilyevich Kisunko.
The first ABM A-35 combat system was designed in parallel with the experimental tests. In 1970, she successfully passed the test site and was put on combat duty to protect the capital of our Motherland, Moscow.
Having acknowledged their significant lag, in 1972 the Americans went to conclude an agreement with the USSR to limit the development of missile defense. We, the test officers, who worked sparingly time and effort for the idea of the greatness of their homeland, were proud of the victory over rivals from the United States who worked for big money to create a similar weapons on Cape Canaveral.
In addition to anti-missile weapons systems, anti-aircraft missile systems C-75, C-125, C-200, C-300, early-warning radars for air and space purposes and other military equipment were tested and finalized. In processing the results of full-scale tests, the most advanced computers for their time were used. The landfill was at the forefront of Soviet science and technology. It had its own adjunct, Academic Council, a branch of the Novosibirsk State University. The officers' desire for knowledge was strongly encouraged by the command. The landfill gave the country a whole galaxy of major scientists. For the successful fulfillment of government tasks in 1966, he was awarded the Order of Lenin, and in 1981 - the Order of the Red Star.
Heads of the test site changed, test officers changed, and the test site for many years, right up to the present time of troubles, solved an important task of strengthening the defense capability of our Motherland. His godfather Hero of Socialist Labor, Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, State Prize Winner Lieutenant General Grigory V. Kisunko was not only a great scientist, designer and organizer, but also a very erudite, easy to use, cheerful person , poet and bard. He left our people a book of his memoirs, The Secret Zone and collections of poems. The song to his words and music is very popular in 60-70 years of the song from the movie "Silence" (it began with the words: "The rocket glowed, falling, falling ...") in those years was the anthem of the test officers. I was lucky to hear it performed by the author’s guitar. Here is her first verse:
Balkhash sparkles with turquoise, the sky is blue,
And a torch shot up over the square with a pole.
Not the first time I see it, but how worried the soul is,
When the anti-missile flies over the wild Bregh breg!
The last verse, I think, came to the memory of Grigory Vasilyevich when he left us in another world. Probably, we will remember him in due time and we are his associates:
When the hour of a heart attack or other fails,
I will remember the fourth day of March and the red pennant over the sixth.
Then, perhaps, with this song, and, perhaps, having stopped without breathing,
I will treat the anti-missile over the wild Bregash Breg!