Periods of economic crises have always negatively affected the general state of crime. A typical example of the mass criminalization of Russian society was the post-reform period of the 1990-ies. history countries as "dashing nineties." It was at this time that film director and politician Stanislav Govorukhin called the “Great Criminal Revolution.” In 1990, Russian society faced an unprecedented upsurge in crime, which was attributed to several factors at once: 1) the economic crisis, which resulted in a sharp impoverishment of the population; 2) social collapse, consisting in the growth of the number of unemployed, the spread of alcoholism and drug addiction and other negative trends; 3) the destruction of the Soviet ideological system, including in the field of education and upbringing of the younger generations; 4) the influence of Western mass culture at its worst, with the cult of money, power, sex, power, etc. However, in reality, the growth problems of youth and juvenile delinquency were much deeper. Post-Soviet youth and teenage crime began in the Soviet period of national history, and the formation of the first largest and most rigid groups took place when there were still party and Komsomol structures, moreover, they were in the prime of possibilities and influence. It is in 1970-e - 1980-e. The formation of “district” youth groups began, some of which at the turn of the 1980's - 1990's. transformed into real organized criminal groups.
Transbaikalia - the most criminal region of Russia
In fact, the process of criminalization of Soviet youth began even earlier - in the post-war period, and was associated both with a high proportion of street children and children growing up without fathers (the phenomenon of “fatherlessness” of the post-war generation) and with the past after the war and in the middle of 1950 yo amnesty, as a result of which yesterday's prisoners were released from prisons and camps. Many of them settled in the same places where they were serving a sentence. So formed areas of increased residence of the criminogenic contingent. One of them is Transbaikalia. In the Human Rights Council under the President of the Russian Federation, they recently attended to the situation in a number of regions of Eastern Siberia. Mikhail Fedotov, head of the Human Rights Council, even stated that the problem of the criminalization of Trans-Baikal youth will be the main one for the Council in the coming 2016 year.
The philistine opinion paints the most criminal regions of Russia the North Caucasus, the “Rostov-Papa”, Moscow, “gangster Petersburg”. But law enforcement officials analyzing the general state of crime in the Russian Federation are well aware that the most criminogenic regions of the country are located just in Eastern Siberia - the Irkutsk Region, the Trans-Baikal Territory (formed in 2008 as a result of the unification of the Chita Region and the Agin Buryat Autonomous Okrug) , Tyva, Buryatia, Altai Territory. There is a very high level of crime, including teenage, and many crimes are striking in their cruelty and senselessness. It affects not only the economic situation of these regions, but also the rich traditions of interaction with the criminal world. After all, it was precisely in Transbaikalia and Eastern Siberia that they had exiled and sent to penal servitude not only political opponents of the regime, but also ordinary criminal criminals since tsarist times.
Evgeny Sinelnikov, Head of the Department for Supervision of the Implementation of Laws on Minors and Youth of the Territory Prosecutor's Office, 23 in October 2015 reported that Transbaikalian adolescents on average commit more crimes than their peers in Moscow in 1,5. And this is despite the fact that only 1 082 633 people live in Zabaykalsky Krai, which is approximately 10-12 times less than in Moscow. According to the Rosstat report on the socio-economic situation in the country, published in 2016, following the results of the past 2015, the Trans-Baikal Territory became the most criminal region of Russia - 3 069 crimes are committed against 100 thousand people. Trans-Baikal Territory is inferior to Buryatia and the Republic of Komi, but a high crime rate is also observed in the Krasnoyarsk Territory, Kemerovo, Irkutsk and Novosibirsk regions, Tuva, and Khakassia. By the way, Tyva, Khakassia and the Altai Republic are among the most drinking regions of the Russian Federation. The level of alcohol abuse also clearly affects the scale of crime, including crimes committed by young people and adolescents. It should be noted that Transbaikalia itself is not uniform in terms of the level of juvenile delinquency. Thus, the highest proportion of juvenile crime is in Baleysky (20,2%), Petrovsk-Zabaykalsky (14,4%), Shilkinsky (14,1%), Borzinsky (12,1%), Khiloksky (11,6%), Krasnokamensky (11,1%) districts of Transbaikalian Territory. According to the police, the main reasons for the high level of crime in the Trans-Baikal Territory are the socio-economic situation, the increase in alcohol consumption, the unfavorable situation in the families of adolescents, the low level of effectiveness of preventive work in educational institutions. Extremely high crime in Tuva. As a rule, a significant part of violent crimes are committed on the basis of alcohol intoxication, but since the region is one of the most drunk in Russia, the number of dangerous crimes is off the scale. Locals call youth gangs "surgeons" - for the fact that they are ready to use knives, selecting a cell phone or a small amount of money. The capital of Tyva, Kyzyl, if we proceed from the number of thousands of people killed on 100, occupies one of the first places in the Russian Federation and can safely be considered one of the most criminal cities in the country.
Speaking about the unprecedented scale of juvenile crime in Transbaikalia, the Human Rights Council forced a very significant event that occurred on the night of February 2 2016 in the small town of Khilok, the administrative center of the Khilok district of the Trans-Baikal Territory. Here, a group of five students from the local correctional boarding school who were intoxicated, attacked the local police station. The police chose not to shoot at minors, but barricaded themselves in the department. The teenagers smashed surveillance cameras, made fun of a police car, and then disappeared - and that after the policeman still fired several times into the air from the personnel weapons. Soon 15 boarding school students were taken to the police, among whom all five attackers were identified. The investigative committee opened a criminal case under the article of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation “Hooliganism”. This incident quite clearly shows the level of recklessness and arrogance of semi-criminal youth in the Trans-Baikal Territory. However, sometimes, in despair of getting support from law enforcement, local residents begin to deal with young criminals on their own. So, 29 in January 2016 in the village of Novopavlovka Petrovsk-Zabaykalsky district, which borders Khiloksky district, the fathers of several students who became the objects of extortion by members of the local teenage group, took out the beginners “vagrants” for the village and beat them well. This incident was reported by local media. According to information received from local secondary school teachers, these teenagers participated in the activities of the criminal group and repeatedly committed offenses.
It is orphanages, correctional schools, boarding schools that become the real “incubators” of juvenile delinquency. What can I say, the contingent there is learning is not easy - children from dysfunctional families, whose parents abused alcohol and drugs. Often, these children are familiar with the customs of the criminal environment literally from the cradle, on top of that, they have mental abnormalities caused, among other things, by the consequences of the lifestyle of the parents. After graduating from 9 high school, they are transferred from orphanages to continue their education in vocational schools, but there many yesterday's orphans of the home completely lose the scope of what is permitted — they do not attend classes, they bullied, they terrorize their fellow students. The mass media also report about the revival of the system of youth groups in the Zabaykalsky Krai with their own “community”, focused on loyalty to the “thieving concepts” and uniting adolescents and young people who have decided to take the path of criminal activity. Apparently, it was yesterday's orphanages that became the main core of teenage groups formed in the Trans-Baikal Territory. Trans-Baikal media have repeatedly reported that in local educational institutions there are extortions "on obshchak", which impose all students, regardless of age. Even first-graders are forced to donate money for the needs of the group. Those who disagree with payment were subjected to harassment and beatings by the participants of the group. According to local media, the members of the group received funds in schools and then sent them to the zones in the form of transfers - tea, cigarettes, sugar, communications, alcohol, drugs that were illegally rushed to the colonies, were also bought with money from Trans-Baikal schoolchildren. Collecting obshchak is confirmation of the existing close relationship between adolescent groups and the adult criminal world.
Another example of confirming the orientation to the adult criminal world is the distribution of the hierarchy adopted in correctional institutions to children and adolescents. It is known that in the children's homes of the region there is a gradation resembling a hierarchy of places of deprivation of liberty. There are also authorities, boys, the majority of students, “six” and “lowered”. The latter category becomes a victim of bullying, no one wants to communicate with her, and the teachers are often unable to protect the pupils from bullying by more aggressive peers. Note that we are often talking about very young children - so, in the media, the disgusting case of “lowering” a four-year-old boy was cited. The first about this case was written by journalists of the Chita newspaper "Vechorka". It turned out that for a long time local responsible structures were inactive and did not take real steps towards protecting the little boy from criminal encroachments. However, adults are at risk. So, in February, 2013, a group of students from one of the vocational schools of Chita who were in a state of alcohol and drug intoxication, organized a riot and riots in the dormitory of the school. Drunk teenagers locked one of the teachers in the room, actually taking her hostage, after which the police had to storm the hostel and free the woman. Trans-Baikal journalists report the existence of a whole youth-teen semi-criminal network in the region, calling itself “AUE” and focusing on the ideology of the criminal world. In fact, it is not even a single group, but a conglomeration of groups and individuals who adhere to the ideological and behavioral attitudes of the criminal environment.
Since 2012, an increase in crime has been observed in the Irkutsk Region, adjacent to Transbaikalia. Here, the number of crimes committed by minors increased by 24%. At the same time, official statistics do not take into account the number of crimes committed by children under the age of 14 years, since they cannot yet be considered, in accordance with Russian law, as subjects of a crime. An alarming factor is the increase in the number of recurrent crimes, which may be associated with the approval of ideas about impunity among adolescents and young people, as well as the deliberate desire of some of them to commit crimes and make a career in the criminal world - for lack of a different socially positive alternative.
These groupings resemble those that existed in 1980's. in many cities and towns of the Soviet Union. However, experts say that the real situation in the sphere of interests of youth and adolescents in the Trans-Baikal Territory has practically not changed since that time. “Street teenagers” both focused on a certain pattern of behavior and quite specific values, and continue to follow criminogenic attitudes. Moreover, in the modern information society, the criminal orientation of a certain part of adolescents is reflected even in the virtual space. Social networks create pages, groups and communities that promote a criminal lifestyle, world view and values of the criminal environment. The overwhelming majority of the subscribers of these pages are young people and teenagers, often practically children. It seems that in a number of regions of Russia, the dangerous phenomenon of "winders" is reviving - youth-teenage groups that have received special distribution in the USSR on the eve of its collapse.
Period 1980-x. became the heyday of youth and adolescent groups in the Soviet Union. Kazan, Tambov, Kurgan, Lyubertsy ... These cities later gave the name to powerful criminal groups that grew out of just youth and adolescent communities organized according to the principle of living next door. It was in the ranks of youth groups that many of the most prominent authorities of the underworld began their criminal careers, whose names subsequently entered into the domestic criminal history in connection with the numerous redistribution of spheres of influence and disassembly of the “wild nineties”. It was youth groups that acted as a “forge of personnel” for adult organized crime, supplying militants and killers to organized crime groups. In youth groups, ideals of comradeship, fraternity, mutual aid, and support were cultivated in the spirit of the criminal environment. It was precisely the goals of the brotherhood that motivated the charges for the needs of the obshchak, which meant paying lawyers, transfers to the prison, meetings from prison and a colony, treatment in hospitals, funerals, assistance to the families of those convicted or dead, etc.
Recall that one of the first youth gangs in the Soviet Union that gained fame across the country and was considered as an example of the groups that existed during the Soviet era was the famous “Tyap-Lyap”. She appeared in the middle of 1970's. in Kazan, and its core was composed of young people and adolescents who lived in the area of the Kazan plant "Teplokontrol". It was the activity of “Tyap-Lyap”, and later of a number of other similar groups, that allowed criminologists and sociologists to speak about the “Kazan phenomenon”. In the heyday, “Tyap-Lyap” could expose up to 300-500 people, including those armed with cold and even firearms. Meanwhile, only three people stood at the origins of this group. Zavdat Khantimirov, nicknamed "Javda", was born in 1956, was engaged in boxing, had pronounced leadership qualities. His peer Sergei Skryabin, nicknamed "Skryaba", was considered an intellectual and ideologue in the group, and in 1977 he even graduated from Kazan Pedagogical Institute. Finally, the third organizer - Sergey Antipov, nicknamed "Antip", was seven years older than Scriabin and Khantimirov - he was born in 1949, and by the time Tyap-Lyap was created, he had criminal convictions for hooliganism and robbery. The formation of the group initially took place in an underground "rocking chair", and thanks to a fairly rigid internal discipline, "Tyap-Lyap" quickly turned into the most powerful grouping of Kazan. From street fights with rival youth gangs, “Tyap-Lyap” has moved to commit burglary and extortion of money from tsehovikov and merchants. After the riots in Kazan, organized by the gang members, the authorities seriously took the gang. 14 April 1980, the court sentenced the leader of “Tyap-Lyap” Zavdat Khantimirov to death by firing squad. Also, active members of the Tazetdinov, Maslevtsev and Kayumov groups were sentenced to death. Later, the Supreme Court of the USSR replaced the death sentence of Maslentsev and Kayumov with 15 years of imprisonment, and Tazetdinov and Khantimirov were shot in 1982. Antipov and Scriabin received 15 years of imprisonment, were released in 1990-ies. and joined the other Kazan groups. The “dashing nineties” founders of “Tyap-Lyap” could not be survived - both Scriabin and Antipov were killed back in 1996.
The baton from "Tyap-Lyap" was intercepted by the group "Hadi Taktash". It appeared in the same Kazan in 1982 - it was by that time that a youth company had formed in the area of Hadi Taktash and Zhdanov streets, which was quite aggressive in its essence and focused on confrontation in fights with other rival groups. Unlike Tyap-Lyap, which flourished and was defeated by the years of relatively strong Soviet power, Khadi Taktash was more fortunate. The transition to a market economy and the collapse of the Soviet Union opened up wider opportunities for criminal gangs throughout the country - not only in extortion and robbery, but also in infiltration into legal business. The members of the gang "Hadi Taktash", by this time divided into two groups - the "old" and "young." The “old men” advocated loyalty to the old concepts and sought to act as a criminal grouping, while the “young ones” were more focused on economic activities, and subsequently on penetration into the authorities. The struggle between the "old" and "young" resulted in a series of bloody crimes. The leader of the “old men” Rauf Sharafutdinov and the leader of the “young ones” Anvar Khaliullin died in the fighting. After that, the grouping was headed by Nikolay Gusev and Radik Galiakberov. Gradually, Hadi Taktash took control of all the prostitution and drugs of Kazan, as well as the ritual services and more than 40 firms, restaurants, banks and enterprises. Thus, an organized criminal group was formed from the youth hooligan company, which spread its activity far beyond Kazan, including to the city of St. Petersburg. The heyday of the group came in the middle - the second half of the 1990's, and in 1999 its leaders were arrested. The unprecedented trial of Hadi Taktash took place in 2002. Following the results of the trial, Radik Galiakberov and his right hand Rinat Fakhrutdinov received the highest penalty - life imprisonment. Another 11 people received sentences ranging from 6 to 24 years of imprisonment each.
Finally, the third Kazan group, which gained fame throughout Russia, was the organized-crime group “Zhilka”. It got its name from the Kazan residential district Residential area, where most of the organizers of the group lived. Leader created back in the late 1970's. The group became Khaidar Zakirov, nicknamed "Hyder". Like "Tyap-Lyap" and "Hadi Taktash", "Zhilka" was distinguished by its tough inner discipline. Expanding its ranks and spheres of influence, "Zhilka" gradually integrated into its membership about twenty "brigades", previously acting independently. In 1990-s. “Zhilki” authorities began to take control of large industrial enterprises of Tatarstan, gradually the group gained weight, turning into an impressive economic and even political force in the republic. The Kazan Helicopter Plant was in the sphere of economic interests of Zhilki. In addition, the group showed a certain interest in such a giant of the Russian industry as AvtoVAZ. Back at the beginning of the 1990's. the leader of Zhilki Zakirov and a number of his henchmen moved to St. Petersburg, where they quite successfully declared themselves on the local criminal scene, pressing even the famous “Tambovtsy” - the Tambov organized criminal group. Already in 1994, Kazan controlled all firms and institutions located on Nevsky Prospect. Nevertheless, internal divisions became a serious blow to the grouping, which led to its split and internecine struggle, in which the founder of Zhilki, Haidar Zakirov, was killed in 1996. Due to internal squabbles, the group began to lose its former power. In 2001, trying to assert their positions in Kazan again, the “Zelkovtsy” staged car blasts in one of the city car dealerships. Soon after the demarche, the group members were arrested. In September, 2004 held a trial, in accordance with the decision of which the new leader of the group, Yuri Marukhin, was sentenced to life imprisonment, his closest assistant, Ilsur Garipov, to 25 years in prison. The rest received from 17 to 22 years of punishment. It should be noted that many killers who worked for the group, died before the trial.
Svetlana Stevenson, who devoted a detailed article to the “Kazan phenomenon”, believes that the main distinctive feature of Kazan groupings is a rigid organization model with leadership, hierarchy, and internal discipline. From the members of the groupings they demanded not only participation in collective fights, but also payments in the “common”, following concepts, and participation in group meetings. It was Kazan youth groups that were among the first on the territory of the Soviet Union who began to collect tribute from street vendors, tsehovikov, fartsovschikov. At the same time, they did not forget the traditional criminal crimes - robberies, robberies, burglaries.
To a certain extent, the emergence of groups like Kazan, was the response of Soviet youth to the ideological and moral vacuum that had already formed in the 1970 years. Official ideology and propaganda took on more and more mossy features that repelled a significant part of the youth. It is likely that in a different situation, many group leaders would be able to put their creative energy in a constructive direction, make a career in the political, military or industrial field, but this did not happen. But if in Soviet times there were still channels of vertical mobility for guys from a simple working environment - through Komsomol organizations, service in the army, participation in a party organization, then at present the way “from the bottom up” in Russian society is seriously hampered. It is problematic for children from simple families living in the central part of the country, in large cities, what can be said about people from the marginal environment of the same Siberia or the Urals. Modern teenagers are the children of those whose youth and youth fell on the “dashing nineties”. Many of the parents of modern adolescents associated with the criminal environment, themselves have gone through participation in youth groups, have criminal records. That is, it is a kind of family lifestyle, the system of transferring value-behavioral attitudes in this case is running smoothly. On the one hand, we see the disadvantaged, often drinking and criminalized inner circle of adolescents - parents, older brothers and sisters, uncles and aunts, neighbors. On the other hand, the official education system, which in the twenty-five post-Soviet years of the Russian statehood has not been able to acquire the key paradigm of its development, find its own way and build an educational strategy in accordance with it. Youth organizations in modern Russia, especially in a remote province, exist only on paper. As a rule, in a small settlement, official youth organizations are represented by one or several novice officials who have no real influence in the youth and teenage environment and, moreover, are extremely far from it. Adolescents perceive representatives of such youth organizations as another type of educators or even law enforcement officers. Accordingly, the attitude towards them is largely negative. The fact that today we have a rather complicated situation with youth and juvenile delinquency is a direct consequence of the education system of the younger generations destroyed in 1990.
"Generation tin" and its problems
Russian social psychologist Mark Sandomirsky even introduced a special term for modern youth - “tin generation”. Under it, it unites those born after the collapse of the Soviet Union. In the second half of the 2000's. In the Russian Federation, an increase in the number of cruel and aggressive offenses committed by minors began. This is how the “generation of tin” declared itself - young people born during the collapse of the Soviet statehood. The reason for the antisocial behavior of post-Soviet youth Mark Sandomirsky sees in the lack of emotional support experienced by a child at an early age. From the very tender age, the generation whose birth and early childhood years fell on the period of the collapse of the Soviet statehood lacked empathy and sympathy. Mothers of children were in a situation of constant social stress, often concerned about finding livelihoods, which inevitably affected the psychology of a significant part of the older generation. Children have not learned to sympathize, empathize, hence the emotional callousness, the inability to put oneself in the place of another. Therefore, this “other” is so easy and turns into a sacrifice - if a young man cannot put himself in the place of another person, then he can allow aggressive actions towards the latter, up to extreme cruelty, which even seasoned investigators and experts cannot explain. Now the representatives of the first “tin generation” are already in the age group of the older youth - they are in the 25 years. But it was they who transmitted their behavioral patterns to younger age groups — contemporary teens and young people of 15-20 years, who demonstrate almost a greater level of sociopathy than their older comrades. Another serious problem is the total infantilization of the younger generation. Modern adolescents are deprived of ideas about how to behave in society, do not have proper ideas about social roles. As a result, 15-16-year-old boys and girls behave like five-year-old children, unable to realize the consequences of their actions, to calculate their steps. The case of an attack on a police station in the Trans-Baikal town is a typical example of a complete lack of miscalculation of possible consequences. The teenagers did not realize that hooligan actions against the police are not smashing windows in a school or children's home toilet, but a much more serious offense, for which criminal punishment is provided.
The infantilization of the younger generation of Russians was the direct result of the worsening family crisis. Today, Russia leads in the number of divorces, the majority of children, which resulted in staying with their mothers. Sociologist P.A. Yanchenko cites figures according to which, from 30 to 85,% of Russian adolescents who demonstrate illegal behavior grew up in single-parent families or in families with a recently appeared stepfather / stepmother. Thus, the level of family stability has the most direct impact on the future behavior of a teenager. Very often, children from single-parent families or even from families with a stepfather or stepmother, turn out to be unnecessary for their own parents. As a result - getting into the yard company, including pro-criminal orientation. Considering that mothers are forced to work in order to feed their offspring, children are given up for education to their grandmothers, who show excessive gentleness and bring them up in an atmosphere of permissiveness. On the other hand, permissiveness towards children is cultivated almost at the program level by the modern Russian education system. In Russian schools, there are practically no sanctions against poor students and those who simply do not want to receive knowledge themselves and interfere with others. A teacher who patted the ear of a negligent or hooligan schoolboy risks getting serious problems with Russian legislation, and his parents and official bodies will take the side of the student. Naturally, this destroys discipline in schools, creates a sense of complete impunity and irresponsibility among schoolchildren. Meanwhile, being brought up in the absence of a real opportunity to feel the existence of sanctions for wrong actions, the teenager gets used to the fact that he can do anything. From such a feeling of permissiveness to the commission of real offenses is literally one step. Russian justice is also contributing. It is no secret that many criminals "because of their young age" receive conditional punishment, which also contributes to reinforcing a sense of impunity and potentially provoking young people and teenagers to commit new crimes. On the other hand, the maximum sentence for a minor, regardless of the severity of the acts committed by him, is limited to ten years in prison. This means that even after serving the term “from bell to bell,” a killer of several people can be released at a very young age of 25-28. This point should also be taken into account - almost all repeat offenders began their criminal career in youth, if not in adolescence.
Crime prevention depends on youth policy
Of course, Russia needs to update its youth policy, or rather, to create an effective and socially oriented youth policy from scratch aimed at solving real, not invented, problems of young people. Russian Interior Minister Vladimir Kolokoltsev once said that the country's police are making every effort to prevent teenage and youth crime. In particular, the country's chief law enforcement officer said that every territorial police agency should take patronage over a children's state institution. As of autumn 2015, the Russian police supported 1,5 in thousands of orphanages, boarding schools and social rehabilitation centers. Moreover, as noted by Kolokoltsev, the largest number of orphanages and boarding schools are patronized by the internal affairs bodies, in addition to the Moscow region, in the Irkutsk and Kemerovo regions. In fact, this is indeed the right choice of regions, given the level of criminogenic activity in the Transbaikalia and Kuzbass. However, some lessons of legal knowledge, meetings with veterans of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, excursions and exhibitions can hardly have a serious preventive effect on the adolescent environment. The most important guarantee of successful prevention of juvenile delinquency is, first of all, the social orientation of the policy of the Russian state.
Until a more or less clear-cut ideological paradigm of educating Russian young people is formulated, it is unlikely that real progress can be made in the area of preventing juvenile crime. Using force to suppress juvenile delinquency, especially in the provinces, is almost impossible. In large cities, young people are afraid of a serious deterioration in the quality of life in the event of arrest and placement in a detention center or a correctional institution, and the police have all the capabilities to detain young offenders and criminals. In the provinces, especially on the periphery of the country, the situation is completely different. It is difficult to fight illegal behavior where a huge district department is located in a huge area, and local teenagers and young people are practically not afraid of anything, because they see nothing good in their daily life. Creating decent living conditions for the population, raising the level of economic development of the regions, creating a modern social infrastructure not only in the major centers of the European part of the Russian Federation, but also beyond the Urals, including in Siberia, Transbaikalia and the Far East is one of the most important conditions, the fulfillment of which for the state is necessary. Of course, if the state really seeks to resolve the situation in the field of youth and juvenile delinquency, threatening the national security of the country.