From time to time, the Russian media inform the Russian population about the next prevention or threat of a terrorist act. The latest example of the threat of explosions in the subways of several cities: http://regnum.ru/news/accidents/2069533.html. Russian citizens must be sure that, although the enemy is working, the special services are not sleeping and are preventing terror in Russia in time. Most reports of terrorist acts in Russia concern acts against civilians. Ordinary people have the impression that the main goal of the Russian terrorists is directed precisely against the population and is no different from the goals of the terrorists in the rest of the world.
However, this is not the case. We are shown only the tip of the iceberg. Terror in Russia is radically different from terror, say, in France or Iraq.
We hear mostly resonant crimes, such as bombings on airplanes, subways, and railway stations, which resulted in numerous casualties among the population. But this is far from the case, at least in Russia.
At the University of Maryland, a group of experts for a long time since 1970 has been keeping a database of committed terrorist attacks in the world: http://www.start.umd.edu/gtd/. According to their data, at the beginning of 2015, 113 000 acts of terrorism were committed in the world, 52 000 of which were committed with the help of explosive devices. As a result, more than 14 000 people died.
Intimidation of the civilian population is the main lever of influence on the government. Influencing the inhabitants, you can get them active action against the government.
But the following is interesting: against whom the attacks were directed. Now among the developed countries there are two, the most suffering from terrorism, Russia and Israel. But while in Israel, the overwhelming majority of terrorist attacks are directed against the civilian population, in Russia the picture is completely different.
In Russia, for the period 2007 — 2012, according to the Maryland experts, the 694 terrorist act was committed.
As can be seen from the graph, in terrorist attacks in Russia, the population is not the main goal of terrorists. Under terrorist attacks are most often officials, police, public figures, business and religion. Of course, there is a percentage of civilians suffering during these attacks, but this is so-called. "Accompanying" victims.
Thus, it is clear that the goal of the terrorists in Russia is not to intimidate the civilian population in order to destabilize civil society and thus influence the government, but to intimidate the government itself, its representatives with a view to demoralizing and overthrowing it. In combination with the “soft power” of the Orange Revolution, this hard method can lead to a stupor of power, its fear, inaction and thus overthrow.
That is, terror in Russia has a pronounced political character. As a result of the destruction of the main part of the terrorist underground in the North Caucasus, the basis for internal terrorism in Russia was undermined, so now the main threat comes from outside, mainly from the territory of Ukraine. It is from Ukraine that both the Right Sector extremists (banned in Russia) and the fighters of the punitive battalions, as well as Islamists of the Islamic State (banned in Russia), the Turkish Gray Wolves organization, can penetrate. The last loophole on the “jihad route” from Turkey to Russia was covered by Surkov during his New Year visit to Abkhazia, which resulted in the closure of the Trabzon-Sukhumi ferry.
But there was a black hole called Ukraine. Against Assad to the beginning of the Maidan fought before the 500 of the Crimean Tatar radicals. By January-February, 2014, all of them were recalled to Kiev and were directly involved in the overthrow of Yanukovych. After the annexation of the Crimea to Russia, most of the extremists fled from the peninsula and joined the first punitive battalion "Crimea", created by Dzhemilev with money from Kolomoisky. But more than 2 500 supporters of Hizb ut-Tahrir al-Islami, banned in Russia, remained in the Crimea, and although quite recently there were more than 10 000 (http://ria.ru/incidents/20150330/1055412640) .html), but now they are all citizens of Russia, and can safely move throughout its territory. In conjunction with 250 000 illegal Ukrainians in the vicinity of Sevastopol, many of whom are certainly prepared to commit terrorist attacks, the picture in the Crimea is not so good.
In the Kherson region there is an accumulation of igilovtsy from the CIS countries, returning from Syria through Turkey to Ukraine, as well as members of the Turkish terrorist organization Gray Wolves. They are based in the settlements of the Kherson region Chaplynka, Kalanchak, Novotroitsk, Genichesk, Vinogradovo, Apricot, Mayachka, Chervonny Chaban, Nikolaevka and others. According to the stories of local residents, several dozen people of Turkic and Middle Eastern appearance arrive there every day. In the area of the village Chervonny Chaban, such personalities have already accumulated up to one and a half thousand. The training of "shahidok" is entrusted to the notorious Amine Okuneva. The first and most expected goal is the Kerch ferry, infrastructure and state institutions of the Crimea.
Naturally, there is no talk of direct armed actions against the regular Russian army. The sole purpose of these groups is to carry out terrorist acts against Russia. Methods of penetration are also known. For the Islamists in Ukraine there is a massive purchase of Ukrainian passports. The cost of one passport - 15 000 dollars.
Even cheaper you can get a passport in the Donbas. It is reported that the cost of the Ukrainian passport there 20 000 rubles, LNRovsky - 3 000, and Russian - 60 000 rubles. And there will always be people ready for money not only to provide terrorists with passports, but also to transfer them across the Russian border.
Another type of terror against Russia is biological. In the 90s, after the Americans turned the Tbilisi Anti-Plague Station into a state-of-the-art laboratory for the production of biological weaponsIn the southern regions of Russia, epidemics of exotic diseases such as swine fever, swine flu and hemorrhagic fever suddenly appeared among people and animals. Russia was silent then. It is also silent now, when everyone is already saying openly that the epidemic of swine flu in Ukraine and Russia is the result of the use of biological weapons by Americans produced in their laboratories near Kharkov, in Odessa and Vinnitsa. Officially, this is only Basurin.
But Russia is silent. Although several Caliber missiles could quickly and effectively solve this problem.
And although recently there has been some tightening of criminal legislation for terrorism, but these are only cosmetic measures. Russian laws are too liberal and tolerant of terrorism. And if this is done to please a tolerant Europe, for which the parliamentary meetings do not allow us anyway, then its example now is anti-advertising of liberalism and tolerance. Europe itself is already overwhelmed by a terrorist wave, threatening in a very short time to develop into a real war.
Moreover, before the eyes of the Russian authorities an example of its own storieswhen the liberal attitude to political terror ended with the collapse of the Russian empire and the mass death of millions of its subjects.
Our modern historians do not like to mention the scale of political terror against Russia at the end of 19 and the beginning of 20 centuries. And they no longer like to mention the extreme liberalism of the Russian authorities to terrorist manifestations. It is much more pleasant to talk about the “bloody tsarism,” which with its repressions drowned people in blood. Moreover, the terrorists were heroic, they put monuments to them, they were named after streets, cities and steamboats-ships. And let's see if everything was as it was described in our textbooks.
Below I will give the chronology of the main terrorist acts in Russia 1866 — 1911.
4 April 1866 in St. Petersburg D.V. Karakozov, a member of Earth and Freedom, a participant in the terrorist “Organization” N. A. Ishutin, shot at Emperor Alexander II, but missed.
The key point in the further history of terrorism in Russia was the shot of V.I. Zasulich, with whom 24 in January 1878 was severely injured by the St. Petersburg mayor FF Trepov.
1878 was followed by a series of terrorist acts - perpetrated by “revolutionaries” from “Earth and Will”:
- the murder of gendarme officer G. E. Gaiking;
- The murder of the detective police agent A. G. Nikonov;
- An attempt on the Kiev prosecutor M. M. Kotlyarevsky.
4 August 1878 in broad daylight on Mikhailovskaya Square in St. Petersburg S.M. Kravchinsky was stabbed with a dagger of gendarme chiefs, Adjutant General N.V. Mezentsov.
At the start of the 1879 assassination attempt, one after the other.
In February, Governor-General Prince D. N. Kropotkin was murdered in Kharkov, police agent N. V. Reinstein in Moscow.
In March in St. Petersburg LF Mirsky shot gendarmes AR R. Drenteln in the chief, but missed.
2 April 1879. Terrorist Soloviev shot at the Tsar at the Palace Square, but none of his five shots reached the target. The terrorist was captured and soon hanged. After this assassination attempt, by the order of the tsar, Russia was divided into six governor-generals with the granting of emergency rights to the governor-general, up to and including the approval of death sentences.
19 November 1879 roared the explosion of the royal train near Moscow when the emperor returned from the Crimea.
5 February 1880 is a new, unprecedented insolence attempt on the emperor - an explosion in the Winter Palace, carried out by S. N. Khalturin. But the king was late for dinner that day and therefore remained alive. However, the explosion killed 60 Russian people.
1 March 1881 king drove along the promenade. The explosion of the first bomb, abandoned by N. I. Rysakov, damaged the royal carriage, injured several guards and passers-by, but Alexander II survived. Then another metal worker, I. I. Grinevitsky, coming up close to the king, threw a bomb at his feet. From the explosion of which both were fatally wounded. Alexander II died a few hours later.
In 1886, P.Ya. Shvyrev, A.I. Ulyanov decided to organize the murder of Russian Emperor Alexander III.
1 March 1887 P. I. Andreyushkin, V. D. Generalov, and V. S. Osipanov were arrested on Nevsky Prospekt St. Petersburg with bombs in their hands and surrendered all the rest.
During this period, 70 Russian people were killed by terrorists. But these are only those whose names are preserved by history.
In fact, if you take all the killed policemen, all the people killed by crazy bullets and shrapnel bombs, the Russian people, then those killed at that time were at least 10 more times.
27 February 1901 terrorist Karpovich committed the assassination of the Minister of Public Education, Professor Nikolai Pavlovich Bogolepov.
2 April 1902 Social Revolutionary S.V. Balmashev shot Minister of the Interior D.S. Sipyagin.
5 May 1902. BUND member Lehter GD makes an attempt on Vilnius (modern Vilnius) Governor Valya.
26 June 1902 - attempted assassination of the Kharkov governor I. M. Obolensky, terrorist F.K. Kachura
6 May 1903 - the murder of the Ufa governor N. M. Bogdanovich. Murderer - terrorist O.E. Doulebov.
3 July 1904 Mr. E. Schauman was killed by the Governor-General of the province of Finland N.I. Bobrikov.
15 July 1904 The Socialist-Revolutionary E. S. Sozonov killed Interior Minister V. K. Plehve.
4 February 1905. the grand duke Sergei Alexandrovich died from a bomb thrown by I.P. Kaliayev.
28 June 1905, the year of the terrorist P.A. Kulikovsky was killed by the Moscow mayor P.P. Shuvalov.
In December 1905 was shot in the chest and wounded and Tambov vice-governor N.Е. died. Bogdanovich. The murderers are terrorists Katin M.L. and Kuznetsov I.S.
27 Jan The 1906 in St. Petersburg terrorists blew up the Tver Tavern, which belonged to the Union of the Russian People (NRC) and was a gathering place for monarchist workers (2 were killed, 11 people were injured).
20 Apr 1906. In Irkutsk, terrorists killed the initiator of the opening of the department of the Russian Assembly (RS), V. A. Tronin, teacher of the church-teaching seminary.
26 Apr 1906 in St. Petersburg at the Nevsky Shipbuilding Plant in a shootout with revolutionaries killed the leaders of the factory department of the Union of Russian People masters of the boiler department V. M. Snesarev and Lavrov, later four more patriotic workers were killed.
27 July 1906 in Rostov terrorists killed an activist of the Union of the Russian People, a master of railway workshops I. I. Bashkov.
June 29, 1906 the commander of the Black Sea died of bullet wounds fleet Vice Admiral N.E. Chukhnin. The killer was the terrorist Izmaylovich Ekaterina Adolfovna.
12 August 1906. terrorists killed the Penza governor SA Tails (he died in the explosion of Stolypin’s dacha on Aptekarsky Island; in all, 33 people died there.). Organizers: Gersh Tsynin (pseudonym Nestroyev Grigory Abramovich), N.I. Ryvkind, M.I. Sokolov.
1906 year, August: The commander of the Life Guards Semenov regiment, Major General Georgy Alexandrovich Min. Was killed by a terrorist Zinaida Konoplyannikova.
September 21 1906. Simbirsk Governor-General K.S. Starynkevich.
9 December 1906 in Tver by a terrorist S.N. Ilinsky killed Count A.P. Ignatiev.
15 December 1906. terrorists killed the governor of NM Akmola. Litvin.
21 December 1906. the terrorists committed the murder of the mayor of St. Petersburg V.F. von der Launitz. The murder was organized by Lev Zenzinberg, the immediate killer was the Kudryavtsev terrorist.
27 December 1906 The terrorists Trauberg and Yegorov killed the chief military prosecutor General Pavlov.
25 January 1907. The Penza governor S.V. Aleksandrovsky was killed by terrorists.
15 December 1907, a member of the volatile combat detachment of Socialist Revolutionaries Rogoznikova, killed the head of the Main Gendarme Office A. Maksimovskiy.
28 March 1907 in Klintsy terrorists killed a retired sergeant major in his apartment, comrade to the head of the department of the Union of Russian People M. M. Ryzhkov.
8 Apr 1907 in Zlatoust by militants of the local RSDLP assassinated the chairman of the department of the Union of Russian People A. E. Anikeev.
15 May 1907 killed the merchant S. A. Vetkovsky, who replaced him as a fellow of the chairman of the department of the Union of the Russian People, there.
4 June 1907 in the town of Verzhievo, Nezhinsky district, Chernihiv province. the founder of the local subdivision of the Union of the Russian People, volost foreman P.I. Dudchenko was killed.
In July, revolutionaries sealed 1907 in Moscow at the Bogorodsk-Glukhovskaya manufactory and welded it alive to the cauldron of a worker-monarchist.
23 Oct 1907. The terrorists assassinated the chairman of the Upper Belozersky subdivision of the Union of the Russian People, the peasant I. A. Shilo.
17 Nov. 1907, in Odessa, terrorists killed an activist of the NRC railway worker E. A. Lopatkin.
In the same month, an active monarchist carpenter of railway workshops DG Popov, who survived three assassination attempts, was killed in the city of Ufa.
21 Jan 1908, a revolutionary in Tiflis, a student of the Tiflis Railway School, organizer of the youth group at the Patriotic Society 18-year-old M. Sergeyev was killed by revolutionaries in Tiflis.
15 Feb 1908 was killed in Odessa by terrorists an activist of the Union of the Russian People worker SM Bonchakovsky.
8 sept. 1909 in Tomsk terrorists assassinated Hieromonk Ignatius (Dvernitsky), comrade of the head of the department of the Union of Russian People, head of the Tomsk Church Teacher Seminary.
4 June 1909 Propulsion In Krasnoufimsk terrorists killed a member of the NRC painter G. D. Danilov.
1909 year: the director of the Petersburg security department, Colonel S.G. Karpov.
1 September 1911, Prime Minister P.A.’s assassination by the terrorist Mordahey Gershkovich Stolypin.
In just one year (since October 1905 of the year), 3611 government officials were killed and wounded. By the end of 1907, the number of officials killed and maimed by militants exceeded 4500 people. To this must be added the 2180 dead and the 2530 injured individuals.
From January 1908 to May 1910, 19957 attacks and expropriations were observed, which resulted in the death of 732 officials and 3051 citizens, and 1022 official and 2828 individuals were injured.
Total for 1901-11. terrorists killed and injured about 4,5 thousand government officials at various levels. "Along the way" 2180 was deprived of life and 2530 private individuals were injured.
In total, in 1901-11, about 17 thousand people became victims of terrorist attacks.
As we see, the overwhelming majority of the attacks occurred against officials and public figures. That is, the terror was clearly political in nature.
And what about power? What is this “bloody tsarism”? Probably drowned everything and everyone in the blood? Far from it.
Disregarding stereotypes of many years, the “bloody royal regime” had one of the most liberal criminal laws in the world and one of the lowest practices of death sentences and executions.
In the Russian Empire:
B.N. Mironov. Social history of Russia. T.2. SPb., 2000. C.30.
Death penalty: Collection of articles / Tagantsev N.S. SPb .: State. type., 1913.
Släktforskning! Steg för steg av Per Clemensson och Kjell Andersson, tredje upplagan, 1987 (sid 28). Rättshistoria för släktforskare av Barbro Nordlöf, utgiven av Sveriges Släktforskarförbund, 1996.
Skurkar och vanligt folk, brott och straff i släktforskningen, Sveriges Släktforskarförbunds årsbok, 1993.
Bilan faller, historien om Elg-Cajsa och rättsskipningen förr i tiden av J Eriksson, E Turlock och I Åberg, 1992.
Att dömas till döden, Jonny Ambrius, 1996.
Hästskjuts och diligenstrafik. Äventyr, organization & lag genom 650 år, sid 145 ff, Tommy Eriksson, 1996.
Hjert och Tektor, ett kriminalhistoriskt pussel av Lennart Molander, 2001.
Döden i skogen, svenska avrättningar och avrättningsplatser, Göran Lager, 2006.
P. Block; John Hostettler (1997), Waterside Press.
Richard Clark. Capital Punishment in Britain Ian Allan Publishing, p.320.ISBN9780711034136, www.capitalpunishmentuk.org.
Death penalty: Collection of articles / Tagantsev N.S. - SPb .: State. type., 1913.
Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice, Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology, no. 3Capital punishment.Compiled and written by Ivan Potas and John Walker.
For the United States: National Archive of Criminal Justice, compiled for the Inter-University 1015th Street NW, Suite 18, Washington, DC 704.
For state crimes with 1866-1897 134 was sentenced to the death of a man among them executed 44 (including one woman). Thus, in 25 years, from 1876 to 1900, 419 people were executed, i.e. 16,5 per year.
In 1866-1899 in the US, 2928 people were executed. In other words, there are more times in 7 than in the bloody and tyrannical Russian Empire. The democratic public still had to fight the bloody domination of the United States.
The table shows the absolute figures. I foresee 2 possible objections:
1. "The table shows the absolute figures!"
Indeed, in research papers, absolute figures are not representative. Since the dynamic population growth rate is difficult to obtain, we turn to the dynamics in absolute terms, after analyzing which the statistics of the death penalty in the West will look even sadder.
2. "But what about the Polish uprising and the Chechen wars?"
The table shows the data of the civil "ordinary" justice. The suppression of uprisings in the occupied / colonial territories is undoubtedly a sad phenomenon, but does not apply to justice as such. Moreover, then for correct comparisons it is necessary to involve data on the victims of the riots of the Cipai, the Boers and the fight against the Indians and the Aborigines, which will turn the Anglo-Saxon duumvirate into Mordor.
Source: Russian wealth 1909. No. 4. C. 80-81; Polyansky
N.N. Royal courts in the fight against the revolution 1905-1907's. M., 1958. C. 215;
Yearbook of the newspaper on 1914 g. Pg., 1914. C. 41.
We see the extremely liberal attitude of the Russian authorities both to grave crimes in general, and to terrorism in particular. As a result, the Russian Empire collapsed, the country collapsed, and the population received such mass terror of various forces, which was reduced by several million people.
Is it really not a lesson for modern power in Russia? Why Russia can bomb the nests of terrorists in Syria and can not do it in Turkey and Ukraine? Why our planes destroy laboratories in the Middle East, but not destroy at their borders? Why are captured terrorists and their accomplices getting some number of years of imprisonment with the possibility of continuing their activities even in places of detention rather than being executed? Isn’t it time for Russia to take a look at its internal problems and not look back at the tolerant, crumbling West?
After all, not only the lives of many people are at stake, but the existence of the state of Russia itself, as our experience of a century ago showed us.
In my opinion, Russia is already strong enough not only to loudly tell the world who is actually the master of world terror, but also to give these forces adequate resistance on all fronts.
Otherwise tomorrow may be too late!