Military Review

Tactics, armor, weapons of medieval Eurasia. Part of 3

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The fighting units of the Tatar-Mongols had to overcome waterless steppes, forests and rivers. The way of crossing the water obstacles was very interesting. Here is what Plano Carpini writes in "History Tartarus":


"When they get to the rivers, they cross over them, even if they are large, as follows: the more notable have a round and smooth skin, on the surface of which they make frequent handles around which they insert a rope and tie it up so that they form generally a kind of round bag, which is filled with dresses and other property, and is very tightly tied; after that, saddles and other more rigid objects are placed in the middle; people also sit in the middle. And this ship, thus prepared, they bind to the tail of the horse and make the man swim forward, on a par with the horse, who manages the horse. Or sometimes they take two oars, row them across the water and thus cross the river, horses are driven into the kin, and one person swims next to the horse, which controls, all the other horses follow. that and thus crossed through the waters and large rivers. Other poorer ones have a leather purse firmly sewn; everyone must have it. In this purse, or in this bag, they put a dress and all their belongings, tie this bag very tightly at the top, hang a horse on its tail and forward it, as stated above. ”

In the melee the Tatar-Mongols used maces, tassels and axes. One form of Tatar maces was borrowed by Europeans and Muslims from the East, becoming very popular. It was called Pernach, and its upper part consisted of blades (“feathers”) of a different shape coming out of the sleeve. The tops of the mace were forged from iron, cast in bronze and even iron. Over time, such forms of mace, richly decorated, began to serve as a sign of power. Spears are also widely used, especially in heavy cavalry. In the ancient Turkic language there is the concept of "fight" and it meant literally "to fight with spears." The main tips of the copies were three types: armor-piercing peaks with a long narrow three or four-edged tip; a spear with a universal lanceolate point; powerful spear with a diamond-shaped wide tip. In addition to these main copies with these tips Tatar-Mongols used a spear with a hook on the sleeve. They wounded and hitched horsemen, dragging them to the ground. Such a hook was borrowed from churchen.

Tactics, armor, weapons of medieval Eurasia. Part of 3


The heavily armed cavalry of the Turks. VI — VIII centuries. Artists Lobyrev MA and Mochalov The.P.

And the most honorable weapons Melee was dlinnoklinkovyh weapons such as a sword, broadsword, saber. The most popular was the broadsword. At first it was made with a straight, single-edged blade, but then acquired its classic look, more curved, with several lobes and elmans — an extension on the butt at a distance from the end of about 1,5 of the total length of the blade.


Crimean Tatar saber covered with silver, with engraving and niello. Accessories Turkish work. The first half of the XVII century. (private collection)

According to contemporaries, the Tatar-Mongols did not like to engage in close battle with the enemy. But when they did, they acted assertively and bravely. Every nation had its desperate brave men, among the Tatars they were called rich, Josaphat Barbaro noted: 

“Military people are supremely brave and courageous, and so much so that some of them, with particularly distinguished qualities, are called“ Talubagater ”, which means mad brave man. Such a nickname is born in the people, just as we have "wise" or "beautiful", which is why they say - Peter is so and so, nicknamed "The Sage", or Pavel so and so, nicknamed "The Handsome Man." These heroes have one advantage: whatever they do, even if it is to a certain extent beyond common sense, is considered correct, because since it is done because of courage, then it seems to everyone that the heroes are simply engaged in their trade. Among them there are many who, in cases of military clashes, do not value life, do not fear danger, but rush forward and, without hesitation, beat the enemies, so that even the timid ones get inspired and become brave men. Their nickname seems to me very appropriate, because I do not imagine a brave man who would not be mad. Isn't it a madness in your opinion when one dares to fight against four? Isn't it crazy when someone with one knife is ready to fight with many, and even armed swords? ” (Barbaro I. Journey to Tanu. Text reproduced from: Barbaro and Kantarini on Russia. Moscow: Nauka, 1971.)

The advance of the Tatar-Mongols to the West led to the spread of information about explosives and primitive artillery used by China. This stimulated the borrowing and development of similar developments in European countries. According to T. Ollson, the "chief architect" of the Tatar artillery was Ambughai from the clan Barguts. In tsz. 122 "Yuan Shi" states: “Ambughai, together with his father Bohochu, servant of Chyngyz Khan, went hiking and had merits. Once the emperor asked him: “What enters first into the besieged cities and enemy territory - warriors or weapons of war?” Ambughai replied with a saying: “In the besieged cities, first they use a catapult, throwing cores, because they are terrible, heavy and have a large radius of action”.

After that, Chyngyz Khan made Ambuguia a confidant in the management of the catapult masters, who chose 500 men and trained them. The Chinese technology of using siege weapons consisted in the fact that several dozen people were tugging at the ropes, which served as a lever for throwing projectiles. Catapults, depending on the size and characteristics of the design, the number of service personnel could throw stones weighing several tens of kilograms on 100 — 150 meters. After Chyngyz Khan took Samarkand, his engineers were able to improve the catapult and the range of the stones was 300 meters. Over time, the Tatar-Mongols also used ballistae, and from Jurchen they adopted the powder charges, which were placed in jars. In addition, they used the Greek fire, vessels filled with oil with tar or quicklime. At the bottom of the Takashima Gulf, the remains of the ships of Chyngyz Khan's grandson - Kublai Khan were found, which were sent to capture Japan in the 13th century. Namely, in the 1274 year, the first attempt at capture was made on 900 ships. But “Divine Wind” did not allow the plans of the Tatar-Mongols to be realized, the 200 ships sank, and up to 13 thousand people died. Weapons and hollow ceramic bomb shells were found in the boxes at the bottom.



The inventors of such bombs were Koreans. The shells were not only ceramic, but also cast iron.

The Tatars came up with the smoke screen to hide maneuvers on the battlefield. Smoke and fire also served as a means of psychological intimidation of the enemy. Incendiary means were widely used in the siege of cities. In the Mongolian chronicles, written by the Chinese, there is a legend about how the Mongols tried to set fire to the besieged city, sending many birds to it, to whose tails burning cotton wool or wick was attached.

In 1240 — 1241 from the Tatars, the Europeans learned about the possibilities of gunpowder. In contrast to the Arabs and Europeans, the Tatar-Mongols thoughtlessly reacted to the invention of the Chinese artillery guns. Shells equipped with grapeshot were particularly effective against cavalry. In the 14th century, it was during this period that the Golden Horde state began to be divided into small Tatar states, which made it easier for opponents to seize territory and defeat Tatar troops with modern weapons. As a result of the loss of military superiority began the decline of the last of the states - the Golden Horde, formed on the basis of the greatest empire of the world - the empire of Chyngyz Khan.

Sources:
Petrov A.M. The Great Silk Road: about the simplest, but little known. M .: Eastern literature, Russian Academy of Sciences, 1995.
Rubruk G. Journey to the Eastern Countries of Wilhelm de Rubruk in the Summer of Goodness 1253. Translation by A.I. Maleina.
Plano-Carpini, John de. The history of the Mongols. Per. A.I. Maleina. SPb., 1911.
Kradin N.N., Skrynnikova T.D. Empire of Genghis Khan. M .: Eastern literature, 2006.
Enikeev G.R., Kitabchi S., Heritage of the Tatars. What and why hid from us from the history of the Fatherland. M .: Algorithm, 2015.
Barbaro I. Journey to Tanu. Text reproduced from: Barbaro and Kantarini on Russia. M .: Science, 1971.
Author:
Photos used:
from the book K.A. Ablyazov "The historical fate of the Tatars. From tribe to nation". T.1. Saratov: Scientific book, 2012.
23 comments
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  1. parusnik
    parusnik 23 January 2016 08: 07
    +3
    The advance of the Tatar-Mongols to the West led to the spread of information about explosives and primitive artillery used by China..... They sowed, rational, kind and eternal .. Arabs ... Europeans didn’t get anything useful ... but Arabs also traveled to China in vain in the future .. and they brought nothing but magnets to the refrigerator ...
    1. Kasym
      Kasym 23 January 2016 12: 07
      +2
      Medicine and arithmetic, for example, came to Europeans from the Arabs. That Pythagorean theorem was known in Egypt. Progress began when there was a "clash" of cultures. Gunpowder was invented in China, but artillery and firearms developed in Europe. hi
      1. Heimdall47
        Heimdall47 23 January 2016 20: 55
        +1
        Pythagoras theorem was known in Egypt

        She, obviously, was known in ancient Greece. And in Byzantium no one forgot about it. And what about the Arabs?
        1. Tutejszy
          Tutejszy 26 October 2018 10: 00
          0
          Quote: Heimdall47
          And what about the Arabs?

          Of course, we are talking about Ancient Egypt, where Pythagoras went to study (including geometry) - Arabs came there 12 centuries after Pythagoras!
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. siberalt
      siberalt 23 January 2016 12: 18
      +2
      Another nonsense! Maybe the "Tatar-Mongols" gave us the secrets of nuclear weapons? laughing Rewriting the story continues.
      1. Cap.Morgan
        Cap.Morgan 23 January 2016 16: 16
        +3
        Post office, monetary system, tax system.
        Handicrafts. Progressive troop control system. And the cessation of a long internecine war between the specific princes.
        1. sergo42
          sergo42 24 January 2016 23: 05
          0
          And the cessation of a long internecine war between the specific princes.
          Ek bent
    4. Vend
      Vend 30 October 2018 10: 09
      0
      Are you any Tatars, which Mongols didn’t exist, and the yoke wasn’t there either. laughing
  2. cth; fyn
    cth; fyn 23 January 2016 08: 21
    +1
    Even after the previous opus with a Tatar Yermolka with a two-headed eagle, the material is not very perceived.
  3. Riv
    Riv 23 January 2016 08: 26
    +5
    Nevertheless, they tell many tales. Ballista shooting porcelain (sic!) Kernels. Of course, you can stuff a china bomb with gunpowder, but throw it after that? Not everywhere in the place of her fall will lie a mattress.

    A catapult that shoots with the help of several dozen people pulling the strings? Nu-nu ... Immediately introduced her on the ship. :) There is no need for any "divine wind", he will drown himself.

    Birds, with wicks tied to their tails ... A bird of course can fly into its nest, but first this "city" bird had to be caught, and for this to take the city. And about "catching" is also a problem. Try to catch an ordinary city sparrow somehow. Can you?
    1. Rivares
      Rivares 23 January 2016 15: 58
      +1
      Quote: Riv
      Birds with wicks tied to their tails ... Of course, a bird can fly into its nest, but first this "city" bird had to be caught, and for this to take the city. And about "catching" is also a problem.

      And in the next year, 946, Olga, together with the infant Svyatoslav, went on a campaign against the Drevlyans. Having besieged the main town of the Isrekorosten drevlyan, Olga demanded that the residents of the city give her three doves and three sparrows from each yard, promising to leave if she fulfilled her request. Overjoyed Drevlyans gathered birds and gave them to the cunning princess of Kiev. Olga ordered her warriors to attach a smoldering tinder to each pigeon and sparrow and release it. Pigeons and sparrows flew into their nests - in Iskorosten - and the city caught fire. Among the besieged panic began, they rushed to flee the city. The city was destroyed, and Olga again brutally cracked down on its inhabitants - they killed some, Olga gave the slaves to her warriors, and imposed on others a “heavy tribute”.
      1. Riv
        Riv 23 January 2016 17: 43
        +1
        So how is it? Imagine this fire show? Do not believe Slavic fabulous. Numerous experiments on birds have shown: if you attach a burning tinder to the legs of a bird, it instinctively flies not to the nest, but away - so as not to endanger the chicks.

        In fact, there was no need for all of this. Greek fire was well known at that time. Could Olga have a couple of jugs of the mixture? They could have. She went to Byzantium and repeatedly. And the city walls in Russia at that time were wooden, without exception. So is it worth it to weave fairy tales and magic?
        1. Rivares
          Rivares 23 January 2016 19: 51
          0
          Well, nevertheless, the chronicle of the birds, and not the well-known Greek fire, mentions.
          And how it was in reality can be interpreted differently.
    2. Tutejszy
      Tutejszy 26 October 2018 10: 03
      0
      Quote: Riv
      A catapult that shoots with the help of several dozen people yanking ropes? Nu-nu ... Immediately introduced her to the ship

      On the ship - of course not. But on the shore ... the Chinese preferred just such catapults (and in Central Asia they were called "brides" because of the many "braids")
  4. Stilet
    Stilet 23 January 2016 08: 31
    +2
    It would be interesting to read about Russian military art. As far as everyone knows, there is mention of this since the time of Byzantium. A huge plus of the Mongol-Tatars was in the unified command of the army. If, however, we consider directly the preparation of soldiers, then neither the German knight nor the Russian combatant were inferior, but often exceeded the Horde. Iron discipline is the basis of the victories of the descendants of Khan Genghis.
    The landing of the expeditionary force of Khan Khubilai did not take place not because of the typhoon, but because of the destruction of the first echelon of the landing of the Mongols, whom the Japanese destroyed on the shore in melee, chopping down with swords, because the Mongols, good archers (like the Japanese), wielded a sword fight worse. As a result of this, the military fervor of the Mongols died away, and they began to look for another place for landing along the coast. The Japanese, in turn, established posts in places of possible landings, and several of them were repelled. As we are standing on the Ugra. And then a typhoon flew ..
    1. cth; fyn
      cth; fyn 23 January 2016 08: 58
      -1
      Such a course of events is quite possible, but with proofs it would be even more interesting.
  5. Free wind
    Free wind 23 January 2016 09: 16
    +2
    Why Chyngyz? Sound in the Mongolian language does not seem to exist, it is, but it is used very rarely in borrowed words. Well, let's say we have the letter f, in Russian words this letter is not used, a number, a fleet, even the name Fedor is a foreign word.
    1. sleeping sayan
      sleeping sayan 23 January 2016 13: 04
      +1
      And in the Tuvan language, there is "Changys" -translated-one.
    2. Rivares
      Rivares 23 January 2016 16: 29
      +1
      Quote: Free Wind
      Well, let's say we have the letter f, in Russian words this letter is not used, a number, a fleet, even the name Fedor is a foreign word.

      How is it not used? In Old Russian, there are already two "F" "Firth" and "Fita"
      For example, from old tales: Finist, phoenix, etc.
      By the way, for Ching you plus!
      1. Free wind
        Free wind 23 January 2016 20: 23
        0
        PHYTO-MORGANA, witch, the mythical sea b ... l ... I ... q. from the depths of the ocean, a witch from the tales of the Vikings, A fort ... Firth is a fortress, maybe this is a defense? lucky guy-protected .. just stupid thoughts ......
        1. Free wind
          Free wind 23 January 2016 20: 51
          0
          oh sorry moro morgana
      2. Tutejszy
        Tutejszy 26 October 2018 10: 05
        0
        Quote: Rivares
        In Old Russian, there are already two "F" "Firth" and "Fita"

        but only for borrowed words! Words like "Fu"! and "frya" appeared later (even "ugh!" in Ukrainian will be "bye!")
    3. Mangel olys
      24 January 2016 06: 34
      0
      Quote: Free Wind
      Why Chyngyz? Sound in the Mongolian language does not seem to exist, it is, but it is used very rarely in borrowed words. Well, let's say we have the letter f, in Russian words this letter is not used, a number, a fleet, even the name Fedor is a foreign word.

      "Let us now consider what the name-title" Chyngyz Khan "meant: Chyngyz Khan and his" were forbidden by the Mongols to give their sovereigns and nobility various flowery titles, as other peoples do. "Accordingly, Timtrching (" Temuchin ")" instead of the ancient name -title - Il Kagan took the name "Chingiz" in the sense of "always victorious", "victorious", "overcoming" - explains the origin of this title-title of Akhmetzaki Validi Tugan. I believe that the world-renowned Türkologist gave the only correct explanation of this title: the word "Chyn" in the Tatar language still means "real (really)", "real", "always genuine, true". And the second part of the title is derived from the Tatar verb "gizu", which in the Tatar language still means "forward movement (forward), in the course of overcoming something" (space, river, life difficulties, all kinds of obstacles, etc.). This verb is used in word formation in the imperative form - "giz, gyz", for example: Kyrgyz (nationality) - in Tatar it will be - "Kyrgyz", which means - "wandering through the fields, steppes, the conqueror of these". There is a Tatar name "Ilgiz" - "conqueror of the country" (in a good way), etc. It will not be superfluous to note, although few people already remember this, that the full title-name of Chyngyz Khan among the Tatars (among their own people) sounded like this: "Chyngyz-bi khan", there is still a variant of the pronunciation of Tsyngyz-bi khan-na so-called "clattering" dialect of the Tatar language. What the word "bi" ("biy") meant has already been explained above. And below we learn also that "Temuchin" (Chyngyz Khan) did not acquire the khan's title by inheritance (he is "the son of foreman Ezukei"), but was elected by the Tatars as his khan, from among the most worthy and most worthy - from among the biys and the same, like himself, biy. And completely the title of Chyngyz khan - Chyngyz biy khan - meant "always (really) going to victory biy, worthy to be (became) khan". And I will note, foreseeing possible objections from the apologists of the "Bulgaro-Türkic", "local", "purely autokhont" history of the Tatar people - they say, the word "Chyngyz" in the Tatar language is written with a back-language "n" ("ng"). The explanation is simple: when the sounds "n" and "g" are pronounced together, the letter "n" takes a back-lingual sound, since the nature of the Tatar language is just that. "(Gali Yenikeev." Crown of the Horde Empire ". Moscow," Algorithm ", 2011 )
  6. King, just king
    King, just king 23 January 2016 10: 06
    +6
    Quote: Free Wind
    Why Chyngyz? Sound in the Mongolian language does not seem to exist, it is, but it is used very rarely in borrowed words. Well, let's say we have the letter f, in Russian words this letter is not used, a number, a fleet, even the name Fedor is a foreign word.


    It is about Chyn .. plusanul immediately.
    Something recently, the publications began to show the wrong "Mongol-Tatars". Well, well, before: small, cross-eyed, smelly, with a bow and a quiver, in a sheepskin coat, a three-ear hat, special undersized horses with hooves from under the snow dug grass - well, savages, what are they! Babenka, devour, take tribute and drink kumis in the steppe, however!

    And now! Itch, mom dear. Knights in kuyaks (though all are still cross-eyed), heavy armored cavalry, horses full-body, armor-piercing spear-arrow tips. It turned out that there was armored infantry, a siege vehicle fleet, and a convoy economy, however!
    Tactics and strategy sawing out well-fortified cities and heavy knightly cavalry, crushing the infantry bristling with spears 3 meters long like grass, however! Pass like a knife through butter through Russia-Poland with centuries of experience of "friendship and love" with the Pechenegs and Cumans, however! Didn't reach Italy a bit in connection with the Big Kurultai, however!

    Either give (historians) the old ones in sheepskin coats, or put on your underpants!
    1. Riv
      Riv 24 January 2016 06: 59
      0
      The funny thing is that the Tatars and nomads were somehow wrong. Full of references to big cities, developed trade in the Horde, and crafts. This is impossible without an urbanized culture. Actually, you cannot create an army from nomadic tribes either. Who is the Khan for a nomad? Yes, no one. He assembled a yurt and migrated kilometers beyond half a kilometer, where he had never heard of either the khan or his show-off. You can only recruit troops in a densely populated area with a settled population.
  7. King, just king
    King, just king 23 January 2016 10: 27
    0
    Quote: anodonta
    Quote: Stilet
    It would be interesting to read about Russian military art. As far as everyone knows, there is mention of this since the time of Byzantium.

    So a lot has been written about him and there are also many such articles on "VO". Here the question is rather to you: what do you mean by Russian military art? Is the art of war A.V. Suvorov is not Russian? If you mean the military art of Eastern Europe under the first Kiev princes, then a lot has been written about it too. The problem is different, this topic has turned out to be so ideologized by amateurs of pseudo history that a serious person, most likely, will not post such an article on "VO", so that unnecessary "SRACh" is not raised once again.



    Yes, just everything, to the impossibility! Described and told a lot. If in relation to the time of description in the article, then:
    1. Battle: advanced regiment, Large regiment, regiments of the left and right hands, if possible reserve and again, if possible, Ambush regiment. There were variations of the type of A. Nevsky.
    2. Campaign: cavalry along the coast, infantry in the boats on the rivers. We get to the Polovtsian, infantry ashore, then paragraph 1;
    3. Horse raid: 1-2-3 clockwork horses and go, a la Igor horse (although maybe Ingvar-Yuri-Georgiy-Gyurgi).
    4. In case of an unsuccessful field battle: everyone goes to the city, either fight or surrender "on the shield".
    1. Predator
      Predator 23 January 2016 19: 52
      +2
      Yes, that's not all simple! In the campaign against the steppe people (on their territory), the infantry was not used, it is not even funny for the horsemen on foot. Why the advanced regiment?! What is its purpose?! Separately from the main forces, lie down under flank attacks ?! the general (normal) does not use the same established scheme. It all depends on the terrain, the enemy, etc. For example, the use of the equestrian formation "wedge" by Prince Svyatoslav, the same "pig" or "wall" the same phalanx. you're all just .....
      1. Tutejszy
        Tutejszy 26 October 2018 10: 08
        0
        Quote: Predator
        Why the advanced regiment?! What is its purpose?! In isolation from the main forces lie under flank attacks

        google "avant-garde" ("advanced Safeguarding"). Even the baboons have thought of it (as well as the rearguard)!
  8. AK64
    AK64 23 January 2016 10: 52
    +1
    copy paste from pdf file?
    And where is the original?
  9. Bashibuzuk
    Bashibuzuk 23 January 2016 13: 42
    +4
    Afiget!
    And the men didn’t know ...
    Here, okazza, who brought culture to Europe-Russia.
    And in China with Central Asia at the same time.
    Mongols.
    they are Tatars, who borrowed a lot from the Jurchen people.
    Including a tricky feature of using birds with burning tow on their tails.
    "AT Mongolian chronicles written by the Chinese there is a legend that the Mongols tried to set fire to the besieged city, sending many birds into it, to whose tails a set fire cotton wool or wick was tied. "

    The Chinese write the annals of the Mongols ..... wassat
    And the Chinese do nothing else for the Mongols, huh?
    .
    Tired of stupid materials about the great Mongols.
    .
    Yes, and read about the birds, after reading about Olga, glowing Drevlyan .... birds ...
    kayuk to the brains.
    Well, by the way, the Chinese will correct.
    1. Rivares
      Rivares 23 January 2016 16: 43
      +2
      Quote: Bashibuzuk
      And the Chinese do nothing else for the Mongols, huh?

      How not to do? It is said that it was the Chinese who built the great wall of China, although most of the wall is facing China and the battlements are directed to the South, i.e. against China. But nothing! It is now actively being repaired by the Chinese.
    2. Danyiar kusain
      Danyiar kusain 23 January 2016 17: 22
      +1
      Dig yourself, a Mongol and a Tatar will come out. Accept the story as it is
      1. Rivares
        Rivares 23 January 2016 18: 09
        +4
        Quote: Danyiar Kusain
        Dig yourself, a Mongol and a Tatar will come out. Accept the story as it is

        Sorry, an uneducated person, but there is no Mongolian impurity in the Russian ethnos either by markers in the Y chromosome (by father) or by mtDNA markers (by mother). Bullshit about the Russian mines and you will find everyone except non-Russian, invented by the Romanovs to smooth out the illegal seizure of power. And as for Tatarin, both Tartaria and Moscow Tartaria are quite clearly visible on the maps of the Russian Geographical Society.
        1. 2news
          2news 25 January 2016 22: 06
          +1
          Quote: Rivares
          but there is no Mongolian impurity in the Russian ethnos either by markers in the Y chromosome (by father) or by mtDNA markers (by mother)

          That is why a lot of questions arose on the so-called. "Tatar-Mongol yoke". However, there are already answers.
    3. Danyiar kusain
      Danyiar kusain 23 January 2016 17: 27
      0
      Dig yourself, a Mongol and a Tatar will come out. Accept the story as it is
    4. Mangel olys
      23 January 2016 18: 37
      +1
      Quote: Bashibuzuk
      Afiget!
      And the men didn’t know ...
      Here, okazza, who brought culture to Europe-Russia.
      And in China with Central Asia at the same time.
      Mongols.
      they are Tatars, who borrowed a lot from the Jurchen people.
      Including a tricky feature of using birds with burning tow on their tails.
      "AT Mongolian chronicles written by the Chinese there is a legend that the Mongols tried to set fire to the besieged city, sending many birds into it, to whose tails a set fire cotton wool or wick was tied. "

      The Chinese write the annals of the Mongols ..... wassat
      And the Chinese do nothing else for the Mongols, huh?
      .
      Tired of stupid materials about the great Mongols.
      .
      Yes, and read about the birds, after reading about Olga, glowing Drevlyan .... birds ...
      kayuk to the brains.
      Well, by the way, the Chinese will correct.

      The expert had the most honest rules,
      When I made a prediction,
      He made everyone horrified
      And caused a neurosis in society.
      His example is the other science;
      The sworn enemy of forecasts is boredom,
      With which must day and night
      Sit without taking a step away.
      But still low deceit
      Amuse the nightmare of hell
      And the power is not corrected,
      Without giving her the right medicine
      Sigh and think to yourself:
      When the hell will take you!
      Abdrakhmanov N.Z. laughing
    5. Tutejszy
      Tutejszy 26 October 2018 10: 09
      0
      Quote: Bashibuzuk
      The Chinese write the annals of the Mongols .....
      And the Chinese do nothing else for the Mongols, huh?

      when the Mongols ruled China, the Chinese dofig what they did for them. Essno, and they wrote chronicles too!
  10. sleeping sayan
    sleeping sayan 23 January 2016 14: 12
    +3
    Do not scold the author too much, and it’s easier to burn the city with arrows with burning tow.
    1. Severomor
      Severomor 24 January 2016 00: 52
      0
      Quote: Sleeping Sayan
      And the city is easier to burn with arrows with burning tow


      AND EVERYTHING !!! There is no need for stone throwers in the winter Suzdal forests, there is no need for a Greek light in pots on "triremes"
    2. Severomor
      Severomor 24 January 2016 00: 52
      -1
      Quote: Sleeping Sayan
      And the city is easier to burn with arrows with burning tow


      AND EVERYTHING !!! There is no need for stone throwers in the winter Suzdal forests, there is no need for a Greek light in pots on "triremes"
  11. shoemaker
    shoemaker 23 January 2016 16: 04
    +1
    But I wonder: When in some country of this empire there was hunger, then people took the tax, that is, they took the strongest boys. They fed and trained, it turned out to be a professional army, but by no means cross-eyed. Turn on the logic, our ancestors were not fools, otherwise there would not be such a large empire. You still live in the territory that created the Tatars (in the word Tatar means Soldier, or Cossack, as you want).
    1. Rivares
      Rivares 23 January 2016 16: 45
      0
      Quote: zapatero
      you still live in the territory that the Tatars created

      Maybe from Tartaria? Did the modern Tatars retain the name from this particular state?
    2. Fat
      Fat 23 January 2016 17: 50
      0
      Please show a "logical chain" in the spirit of: "Elementary, Watson". Using your words, it is easy to come to the conclusion that the troops of ChingYz Khan were engaged in "terraforming" (they raised the earth from the bottom of the sea)
      belay hi
      PS The article is interesting, it is a pity that the information is not presented very harmoniously.
  12. Mangel olys
    23 January 2016 16: 39
    +1
    Well what can I say, friends? I am only convinced of the correctness of the words of Arthur Schopenhauer: "Truth goes through three stages: first it is ridiculed, then violently resisted and, finally, it is accepted as obvious."
    1. sleeping sayan
      sleeping sayan 23 January 2016 19: 07
      +1
      And why don’t you write that Chin-giz Khan destroyed the Tatars for the murder of his father.
      1. Mangel olys
        23 January 2016 20: 30
        +1
        Quote: sleeping Sayan
        And why don’t you write that Chin-giz Khan destroyed the Tatars for the murder of his father.

        It was a clash of different clans of the same people.
        The Italian Marco Polo, who lived among the Tatar-Mongols for 17 years, wrote: "It so happened that in 1187 the Tatars chose a king for themselves, he was called Chyngyz Khan in their language. And the Tatars, scattered all over the world, recognized him as their sovereign."
        1. Arbogast
          Arbogast 23 January 2016 23: 01
          0
          Quote: Mangel Olys
          It was a clash of different clans of one people
          Maybe so, maybe ... recourse
          Since ancient times, in Central Asia and Mongolia, including the confrontation and interaction of 2 ethnic components. Turkic and Mongolian respectively ..
          Simplified:
          I. Hunnu and Xiangbi
          II. Türks and Mongols
          III. Kazakhs and Dzhungar (Kalmak)
          They are so intertwined that it is sometimes extremely difficult to draw a line between the Turk and the Mongol.
          (Something reminiscent of the Slavic and Ugrofin components of Russia, where there are also disputes about the fundamental principle).
          For example, the clan / tribe "Naiman", which is uniquely from Mong. -8 (eight), but historical sources mention that the previous historical n-d in this territory roamed "Segiz-Oguz", where Segiz in most Turkic languages ​​also means 8 (eight).. repeat
          With regard to the ancient Türks, LN Gumilev, "Ashina" had Mongolian clans in the Türkic-speaking environment, a sort of "leaven" of the ancient Türkic ethnos ..
          In the age-old confrontation between the Dzungars and the Kazakhs, there were precedents when separate clans of both Kazakhs and Kalmaks took the side of the historical "enemy". Those. some Kalmak clans acted as allies of the Kazakhs against other clans of the Dzungars. And vice versa, individual clans of Kazakhs were renegades of their people, being in alliance with the Kalmaks ..
          1. King, just king
            King, just king 23 January 2016 23: 42
            0
            Yes Yes. This bike about the great Kazakhs-ukrov-Turkmen-Tajiks-Kyrgyz-Li
            1. King, just king
              King, just king 24 January 2016 12: 22
              0
              Is it strange that this happened to my post? Yesterday in writing, it sounded like this:

              Yes Yes. This bike about the great Kazakhs-ukrov-Turkmen-Tajiks-Uzbeks-Kir
              1. King, just king
                King, just king 24 January 2016 13: 07
                0
                I don’t understand anything .........

                In general, I wrote that the bike about the greatness of each of the peoples inhabiting b. The USSR, appeared in the late 1980s, and we will still be disentangling this bike for a very long time.
                And if a citizen of Arbogast has written sources in support, then let him provide.


                And he also wrote that Gumilyov rummaging around the Khazar ruins took too much on himself for those theories that he dashed off. Too many!
                1. Arbogast
                  Arbogast 24 January 2016 14: 02
                  0
                  Quote: King, just king
                  This bike about the great Kazakhs-ukrov-Turkmen-Tajiks-Kyrgyz-Li
                  fool
                  Sholokhov: “Every nation that has its own history is great”
                  .
                  Quote: King, just king
                  I don’t understand anything ....
                  It means nothing ..
                  In general, in my message, did I mention "greatness", "great Kazakhs-ukrov-Turkmen-Tajik-Kirghiz .."? belay
        2. voyaka uh
          voyaka uh 24 January 2016 12: 19
          +1
          "The Italian Marco Polo, who lived among the Tatar-Mongols for 17 years, wrote" ////

          Marco Polo’s book is very interesting. It’s generally unique that
          hundreds of years there was an intense trade route from
          Atlantic (Spain) to the Pacific Ocean (China).
          And 4/5 of this trade route was the empire of Genghisides.

          And, of course, the existence of such a vast empire for a long time
          cannot be explained by any combination of historical accidents.
          Militarily, the Tatar-Mongols were stable both numerically and
          and technological advantage over any armies of that time.
          What gave the Empire stability.
          1. sleeping sayan
            sleeping sayan 24 January 2016 14: 36
            0
            But to the Jews, what matters, to Chin-giz Khan. Tell me again that he is of your tribe clan. And on the territory of Siberia the ancient Jews wandered.
  13. Real stalinist
    Real stalinist 23 January 2016 17: 28
    +1
    We Russians are forever standing in the way of progress! :) We interfere with European integrators, such as Napoleon and Hitler, or with the eastern "shakers of the universe" ...
  14. Poplar505
    Poplar505 23 January 2016 21: 25
    +2
    Normally, everything turns out here.
    In the same segment of world chronology exists Ancient Russia and States Medieval Europe.
    And everything came to us from China. By the way, we all heard about China Town and we know where it is.
    But our great-great-great-great-grandfathers had no idea about the Mongol-Tatar yoke. But now what they knew about their ancestors is not a secret for us, but a real k-RA mole. That's what the true ones from Tor-iki brought to.
    It just becomes interesting to me how many more years this academic nonsense will pour on our heads ...
  15. King, just king
    King, just king 23 January 2016 23: 29
    -1
    Quote: Predator
    Yes, that's not all simple! In the campaign against the steppe people (on their territory), the infantry was not used, it is not even funny for the horsemen on foot. Why the advanced regiment?! What is its purpose?! Separately from the main forces, lie down under flank attacks ?! the general (normal) does not use the same established scheme. It all depends on the terrain, the enemy, etc. For example, the use of the equestrian formation "wedge" by Prince Svyatoslav, the same "pig" or "wall" the same phalanx. you're all just .....



    Yes, what are you writing ?! Vladimir Monomakh means used in the famous united pogrom against Polovtsy, and citizen Predator writes - mowing ... Most of the retaliatory retaliatory campaigns of Russia into the steppe were carried out in winter and early spring after opening rivers, for the use of infantry, and in connection with the limited feeding of the steppe horses - winter, jute.

    The forward regiment is a watchdog. Having started the battle, he departed as part of the Big Regiment or wings. The combat formation scheme of the troops of Russia is standard, but with variations.
    Regarding Svyatoslav ... This is so far away that there are no real materials for information. About normal commanders - yes please: phalanx and legion, cavalry at that time did not play a special role. Just don’t need to be reminded of getayrs and Thessaly cavalry. In general, it is still 1000 years older than Svyatoslav, and what was there and how is the question at all.
  16. shoemaker
    shoemaker 24 January 2016 02: 00
    0
    In those days, the Russian infantry was considered the best equipment in Europe, everyone was in armor. Why did this infantry lose the battle at the kalka, and with a larger number of soldiers this is another matter. Yes, most likely, as was written in the annals: each of the princes wanted to lead the battle.
  17. shoemaker
    shoemaker 24 January 2016 02: 09
    +1
    Who has more history and military art, he absorbs, and then dissolves in an ethnic group, but traditions remain. It makes no sense to be offended by the dialectic of life.
  18. King, just king
    King, just king 24 January 2016 12: 35
    +1
    Quote: voyaka uh
    "The Italian Marco Polo, who lived among the Tatar-Mongols for 17 years, wrote" ////

    Marco Polo’s book is very interesting. It’s generally unique that
    hundreds of years there was an intense trade route from
    Atlantic (Spain) to the Pacific Ocean (China).
    And 4/5 of this trade route was the empire of Genghisides.

    And, of course, the existence of such a vast empire for a long time
    cannot be explained by any combination of historical accidents.
    Militarily, the Tatar-Mongols were stable both numerically and
    and technological advantage over any armies of that time.
    What gave the Empire stability.



    Marco Polo did not live with the Tatar-Mongol, but several with another people.
    And his book, according to some assumptions, very serious, he mostly sucked out of his finger - sitting in a Genoese prison.
  19. King, just king
    King, just king 24 January 2016 15: 19
    -1
    Quote: Arbogast
    Quote: King, just king
    This bike about the great Kazakhs-ukrov-Turkmen-Tajiks-Kyrgyz-Li
    fool
    Sholokhov: “Every nation that has its own history is great”
    .
    Quote: King, just king
    I don’t understand anything ....
    It means nothing ..
    In general, in my message I mentioned about "greatness", "great Kazakhs-ukrov-Turkmen-Tajik-Kyrgyz .. & quo



    t ;? belay


    They showed with an emoticon how to twist the rope that holds your ears?

    Are there written letters - theories of opposition of the Turkic and Mongolian components?

    Did you mention? - mentioned, mentioned. It all began with you there, ascribing to the nomads of the steppes a millennia-old history and state formations.
    1. Arbogast
      Arbogast 24 January 2016 22: 23
      0
      Quote: King, just king
      Did you mention? - mentioned, mentioned.
      Stuck laughing Don’t dodge. I repeat the question: In general, in my message I mentioned "greatness", "great Kazakhs-ukrov-Turkmen-Tajik-Kyrgyz .. & quo
      t ;? fool
      Quote: King, just king
      They showed with an emoticon how to twist the rope that holds your ears?
      What are we smoking ..? fellow !
      Quote: Sleeping Sayan
      And to the Jews, what matters is Ching-giz Khan. Tell me again that he is of your tribe-clan. And in the territory of Siberia, ancient Jews wandered
      You sad ?! Where did he say with one word that on the territory of Siberia, ancient Jews wandered.
      1. King, just king
        King, just king 25 January 2016 12: 22
        -1
        Polite citizen Arbogast. No pigs are grazing with you, so be kind enough to communicate with strangers as is customary in a civilized society.
        Doesn’t like it - I’ve gone ...
        1. Arbogast
          Arbogast 25 January 2016 19: 56
          0
          Quote: King, just king
          You do not pass pigs
          Well, yes, the Kazakhs have never grazed pigs laughing
          Quote: King, just king
          Polite Arbogast Citizen
          "With boors, I myself am a boor .." (c)
          Quote: King, just king
          communicate with strangers as is customary in a civilized society.
          Well, if you yourself set the tone for dialogue, then now blame ..
          Quote: King, just king
          Doesn’t like it - I’ve gone ...
          Oh scared, scared crying Don’t shout like that, otherwise I grinned laughing
          By the way, where are the Pruffs about "greatness", "the great Kazakhs-ukrov-Turkmen-Tajik-Kyrgyz ..
          1. King, just king
            King, just king 25 January 2016 21: 15
            -1
            Citizen Arbogast. Even if here, on the forum, you will be a fearless hero, apparently it’s completely impossible in life. Then, I’m ending the conversation with you. Beat your head against the wall with frustration.
            In conclusion, I note: only an equal can offend, and what kind of equal you are to me, so, a small troll with an overestimated self-esteem.
            1. Arbogast
              Arbogast 25 January 2016 22: 05
              +1
              Quote: King, just king
              Citizen Arbogast
              Well then yes soldier
              Quote: King, just king
              Even if here, on the forum, you will be a fearless hero, apparently it’s completely impossible in life
              Cap you saw me through .. belay
              Quote: King, just king
              Then I’m ending the conversation with you

              What’s so ?! crying I'm current
              Quote: King, just king
              Beat your head against the wall with frustration
              So it didn’t help ..
              Quote: King, just king
              only an equal can offend, and what kind of an equal you are to me, so, a small troll with an overestimated self-esteem

              So you don’t even reach the small troll, sickly ?!
  20. shoemaker
    shoemaker 24 January 2016 21: 02
    0
    Before the great flood, there was also history and accumulated knowledge. And for some reason they came from Asia in our particular case. Well, there the word gun (gun) or gun, or even send to xy is also interesting. All peoples have different pronunciations of different words: how do you like the expression - send to the gunas. It turns out that the curse used to be: Go to the gunas (maybe otherwise). It’s not for me to tell you, but there were a lot of things before us.
  21. King, just king
    King, just king 24 January 2016 22: 09
    0
    Quote: zapatero
    Before the great flood, there was also history and accumulated knowledge. And for some reason they came from Asia in our particular case. Well, there the word gun (gun) or gun, or even send to xy is also interesting. All peoples have different pronunciations of different words: how do you like the expression - send to the gunas. It turns out that the curse used to be: Go to the gunas (maybe otherwise). It’s not for me to tell you, but there were a lot of things before us.



    There are many things in the world, "zapatero", that our sages never dreamed of ...