Military Review

The strategy of the Entente and the Central Powers on 1916 year

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The strategy of the Entente and the Central Powers on 1916 year

A year and a half of the bloody war did not bring victory to any of the coalitions of the powers, but they significantly changed the balance of forces of the warring parties. France and England took advantage of the fact that the German bloc focused its attention on Russia, and significantly increased the power of its armed forces, transferred the economy to a military track. Russia, which bore the brunt of enemy strikes in 1915, faced systemic problems inside the country (weak industry, poor transport infrastructure, etc.), but it withstood. Germany, Austria-Hungary and Turkey, although they achieved important successes at the front, began to experience ever-increasing internal difficulties, their resources were limited and depleted. The composition of the coalition expanded through the accession of new states: Italy joined the Entente, Bulgaria took the side of Germany. Greece and Romania preferred to maintain neutrality. Serbia and Montenegro were defeated, their governments and armies evacuated. As a result, both sides had high hopes for the 1916 campaign, hoping to turn the tide in their favor.


General situation

German Empire By the beginning of 1916, the strategic situation was not in favor of the Central Powers bloc. During the 1914-1915 campaigns. they made every effort and resources to crush France (1914 g.) and Russia (1915 g.), and to solve the problem of war on two strategic fronts. Having significantly exhausted their human and material resources, putting a large part of the personnel of the army (the most prepared and with high fighting spirit), the Central Powers could not achieve this goal. And the prospect of a long war on two fronts inevitably led to defeat. The Russian Empire, France and Britain with their vast colonial empires, had superior material and human resources. But the Ottoman Empire, speaking on the side of Germany, although it had great resources, could not take full advantage of them because of a weak, semi-colonial economy and poor transport infrastructure. Moreover, the internal politics of Istanbul (including the Armenian Genocide, the most important trade and craft class of the empire) further upset Turkey’s economy.

However, during the 1915 campaign, the Central Powers achieved visible success and improved their strategic position. The Russian front dangerous for Berlin and Vienna, which had recently threatened to invade Germany and Hungary, was pushed eastward from 200-300 km. Austria-Hungary, with the support of the German and Bulgarian troops, was able to solve the problem of Serbia. With the accession of Bulgaria to the Central Powers bloc and the occupation of Serbia, Poland, the Baltic and Belorussian regions, the material and raw material base of the bloc has expanded. Germany established a direct connection with the Ottoman Empire, gaining access to Turkey’s reserves. Germany had the opportunity to pump out food and raw materials not only from Belgium and the northeastern departments of France, but also from the newly occupied areas of Russia, from Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire, and send them to strengthen their military and economic potential. The size of the industrial and agricultural resources of the occupied areas were significant. Only in the departments captured from France, before the war, about 75% coal was mined, 84% iron and 63% steel were produced and 60% of the country's metalworking industry was located.

For one and a half years of war, the German Empire and, to a large extent, Austria-Hungary, launched a powerful military industry and in 1,5 - 2 times raised the production of means of struggle. By the beginning of 1916, the production of rifles, aircraft and shells increased in Germany in 1,5, and machine guns and guns - in 3,5 times. In coal mining, production of iron and steel, Germany still surpassed France and Russia together.

Yet the socio-economic situation in Germany and Austria-Hungary was difficult. Beginning in the middle of 1915, these countries began to feel more strongly the course of the Entente toward waging war "to exhaustion." Own material and human resources ended. Germany put under the gun all the adult male population. The composition of the army has changed a lot: the new recruits did not have sufficiently high drill and military-technical training.

There were not enough hands, some types of raw materials and food. Due to the sea blockade of Britain, the connection between Germany and Austria-Hungary with the foreign market was greatly reduced. The British blocked the access of scarce raw materials to Germany from Sweden. Trade with Romania gave Germany oil and additional amounts of food, but this channel could close at any moment, as England and France made persistent efforts to force Bucharest to abandon the expectant neutrality and take the side of the Entente. Romania could already speak in 1915, but retained neutrality because of Bulgaria, which was on the side of Germany and because of the defeat of Serbia. In addition, Bucharest demanded guarantees of accession to Bessarabia and Transylvania after the war. But Russia opposed this. Petersburg considered Bucharest a weak and unreliable ally.

By the beginning of the new campaign, Germany still faced the need to continue the struggle on two fronts. This required further tension of all forces and intensive exploitation of the occupied territories. The German Empire had to provide with armament, ammunition and reserves of troops not only their armies, but also allied troops. Germany had to support the allies, as the strength of the alliance depended on it. In Berlin, they came to the conclusion that after the war, it would be necessary to create a “Middle Europe” (Mitteleuropa). It was based on the German-Austro-Turkish bloc, with the involvement of Scandinavia and Holland. In October 1915, Chancellor Bettman-Golweg and Commander-in-Chief Falkenhain finally resolved their differences over the future Central European Federation based on the German-Austro-Hungarian alliance with the inclusion of the territory of Belgium and Poland, plus Russian territories in the north-east. October 30 Foreign Minister Yagov agreed with the scheme worked out.

He estimated the situation in Europe as follows: “During the clashes between the German and Slavic worlds, the Pan-Slavic tendencies in Russia will strengthen, and the traditional dynastic ties between us and St. Petersburg will be finally buried, and Russia will remain our enemy in the future. The question of whether the need to expel the semi-Asian Muscovite empire for Bug should be considered as imperatively necessary, since the current turn stories obliges us, as representatives of Western culture, to reject the Slavs for the Elbe, Oder and Vistula ”. Thus, Germany officially resurrected the concept of an “onslaught to the East.”

At the beginning of 1916, the German and Austrian authorities switched to a rigid rationing of supplies, introduced a rationing system for food products and certain types of industrial goods. In Berlin, began to fear the revolution. General Falkengain, the war minister of the German Empire, believed not without reason that if the sea blockade was not broken and Romania stopped supplying oil and food, then the Central bloc countries would face a food and raw materials crisis, which would cause a social and political crisis.

England and France. The Entente countries, especially Great Britain and France, were in a more advantageous strategic position. The period of relative calm on the Western Front in 1915, England and France used to build up their military and economic potential.

Due to the mobilization of internal reserves and resources of dominions and colonies (India, Australia, Canada, etc.), the production of weapons and ammunition was significantly increased. Britain and France managed to raise their military-economic potential enough to eliminate the lag behind Germany in the production of weapons and ammunition, especially heavy artillery and machine guns. In one year (January 1915 - January 1916) rifle production in France grew by 1,5, guns by 5,8, and cartridges by more than 50 times. During the same period, the production of machine guns in England increased by more than 5, and aircraft - more than 10 times. England and France launched new branches of the military industry - the production of chemical agents and agents against chemical protection. In the second half of 1915, French factories produced up to 6000 chemical projectiles per day and as many gas masks as needed to supply the entire army. England and France started mass production of a qualitatively new weaponstanks. Reliance on the human and material resources of the colonial empires, the supply of military materials from the United States allowed England and France to create such reserves in the means of warfare that they fully provided for their needs. In addition, England and France could provide support to Russia, Italy and the evacuated Serbian army. On the whole, the material and technical base of the war of the Entente countries by the beginning of 1916 exceeded the base of the Central Powers.

For 1915, France increased the size of its army by 1,4 million, and England by 1,2 million. In May, the British Parliament 1916 adopted a law on universal conscription and, by calling on contingents of dominions, colonies and metropolises, brought the number of its armed forces to 3 million. At the beginning of the 1916, the Entente had 365 divisions (Russia - 136 divisions, France - 99, England - 80, Italy - 36, Serbia - 6, Belgium - 6), and the Central Powers - 286 divisions (Germany - 159 divisions, Austro- Hungary - 63, Bulgaria - 12, Turkey - 52). The total number of armies of the Entente reached 18 million, and the Central Powers - 9 million.



Russian empire. The Russian Empire has also achieved certain success in building up military production. 1915’s defeats forced the authorities and industry to take radical measures to restructure the economy on a war footing. In Russia, at last, they embarked on the development of the domestic military industry, on the creation of a network of new factories for the production of guns, rifles, gunpowder and explosives and the widespread involvement of private enterprises in the manufacture of military products. At the end of 1915, the Main Artillery Directorate developed an emergency program for the construction of 37 new military factories (2 / 3 was planned to be commissioned in 1916). True, this program was not fully implemented, but the new factories that were commissioned in 1916 have already begun to provide military products. As a result, the Russian Empire began to emerge from the crisis in supplying the army with weapons and ammunition. From January 1915 to January 1916, rifle production in Russia grew by 3, guns by 4-8, and various types of ammunition from 2,5 to 5 times.

However, Russia still could not get the necessary amount of means of struggle from its economy. Therefore, attempts were made to get help from the allies. In November, 1915 was sent to England and France by a Russian military mission led by Admiral A.I. Rusin. She had to place large military orders abroad. Russia needed gunpowder, toluene, cars, tractors, barbed wire, etc. However, the mission did not fully reach its goal. She managed to place orders only for part of the necessary Russian army products.

England and France, which in 1915 received a strategic respite and launched their military industry at full capacity, did almost nothing to render their ally, Russia, the necessary assistance. This created difficulties in building up the fighting power of the Russian army, which still needed weapons and ammunition, especially heavy artillery. “... Domestic production,” said M. V. Alekseev, 16 (29) of April 1916, “cannot give us not only guns, but even projectiles in sufficient quantity to carry out at least one operation lasting at least 20 days. An attempt to acquire heavy guns in England and France, mainly 6-dm calibers, so necessary for us to fight dugouts and shelters, and 42-mm guns failed completely. There is no hope for the manufacture of appropriate shells. ”

At the same time, the human resources of the Russian Empire still allowed to increase the size of the army. For 1915, the current army received 3,6 million. In 1916, 3 million more were called up, of which 2,5 million were sent directly to the front. The Northern, Western, South-Western and Romanian fronts from 1 in January 1916 to 1 in October 1916 (for 9 months) increased their number from 4,3 million to 6,1 million. Caucasian front with 336 thousand people to 702 thousand people. In general, the number of Russian army in the first nine months of 1916 increased from 4,7 million to 6,8 million. These replenishments were used to compensate for the losses (killed, wounded, and prisoners of war), to form new combat units and rear institutions. At the same time, a new problem appeared - the excessive growth of rear institutions and the number of persons who served them. Attempts to combat this social evil were not successful. It should be noted that it was the rear that was a hotbed of defeatist and revolutionary sentiment.

Inside Russia, the anti-war movement expanded. Workers and soldiers increasingly complained about the war. Surrender, desertion, flight from the battlefield from exceptional events in 1914 became commonplace. The unrest began again on navy. In October 1915, unrest occurred in the battleship Gangut, the cruiser Rurik, and other warships. The split in the elite of the Russian Empire intensified, part of the privileged, wealthy classes became in opposition to the tsarist regime. The Westernized bourgeoisie and intelligentsia were weighed by autocracy. This led to the creation of the bourgeois "Progressive Bloc", which allegedly criticized the policies of the tsarist regime and the encirclement of the tsar (the empress, some ministers and Rasputin) from a "patriotic" standpoint.

Germany’s attempt to coordinate the movements of the Russian socialists, separatists and nationalists, aimed at the collapse of the Russian empire, initially did not achieve much success. However, the masters of England, France and the United States (the so-called “world backstage”, financial international) also opposed Russia. Their goal was the collapse of all the "autocratic" empires - the Russian, Austro-Hungarian, German and Ottoman, which interfered with the establishment of the New "democratic" order headed by the "elected" clans. Therefore, one of the best agents of the world behind the scenes, Parvus, began to act against Russia. Back in the spring of 1915, he suddenly turned off profitable business in Turkey and offered his services to the German government. He presented a memorandum: “Russian democracy can realize its goals only through the complete crushing of tsarism and the dismemberment of Russia into small states. Germany, for its part, will not succeed if it fails to initiate a large-scale revolution in Russia ... The interests of the German government coincide with the interests of the Russian revolutionaries. ”

A plan was proposed for a secret war against the Russian Empire, which the German Chancellor Bethmann-Golweg very much liked, the Foreign Ministry, the military command and the Kaiser himself. Parvus was immediately assigned 2 million marks, then another 20 million, and in the fall of 1915 another 40 million marks. Parvus gathered the warring factions of the Social Democrats in September 1915 for a conference in Zimmerwald, Switzerland. Money reconciled even such enemies as Lenin and Trotsky. Socialists sharply increased the possibilities of their propaganda. The money went through other channels, to support the Social Revolutionaries, nationalists, separatists, and all who opposed the royal power. Funding channels have been established in Sweden, Norway and Romania. So in Sweden, the money from the Max Warburg Bank was transferred to the Stockholm “Nia Bank” Ashberg, and from there they were transferred to Russia.

The open gate to the Russian Empire was Finland with autonomy. She did not bear the cost of the war, her citizens were not drafted into the army. Formerly the impoverished suburbs of Sweden, and then Russia, were fattened by transit trade and speculation. Local authorities looked through the activities of various "guests" from abroad. It was impossible to press them because of the special status of the Grand Duchy. He also defended the Russian Duma. As a result, Finland was flooded with spies, and all who wished went across the border from Sweden, carrying disruptive literature, propaganda materials, weapons and ammunition. Finland has become a real springboard of the revolution in the empire.

The Russian authorities could not clean up the rear. It should be noted that in other powers very tightly controlled the internal situation. In the German Empire, the trade unions themselves banned strikes. The Social Democratic Party of Germany announced that agitation against the government in war conditions is a betrayal of the motherland and comrades in the army. Any violator was awaited trial for treason. In France, a dictatorship of the rear was introduced, the workers were equated to military personnel and submitted to military discipline. Suspicious persons were arrested preventively, without any charges! Britain passed the "Law on the protection of the kingdom" and the "Law on the Defense of India", they abolished all available freedoms. Strict censorship was established, state control over factories and transport, confiscation of any property was allowed, strikes were forbidden, tribunals were established, whose sentences were not subject to appeal.

And only in Russia there was a "peaceful" rear. So in August 1915, our troops washed with blood, restraining the onslaught of the enemy, and retreated to the east, unable to respond to the volleys of enemy artillery, and the largest factories of the capital, Putilovsky and Metallichesky, went on strike, demanding an increase in the 20% patch. Workers in Russia during the war (!) Could strike and rally as they please. Only in January, 1916 in Russia, 169 strikes were noted, in which 135 thousand people took an active part. The tsar and the government did not dare to go against the Duma, where liberal figures prevailed. The tsar also did not dare to disperse the Duma, since behind it stood influential industrialists and bankers who provided the army with supplies. And bankers and liberals maintained relations with revolutionaries, nationalists. Public organizations, officially created to help the front, have achieved the release of their employees from service. As a result, they became the refuge of deserters, speculators, and revolutionaries. In general, the tsarist government was unable to restore order in the rear, and the country steadily went to revolution and collapse.

Thus, in general, by the beginning of the 1916 campaign, the position of the parties and the balance of forces had changed significantly in favor of the Entente. Having completed the mobilization of forces and means of warfare, the Entente countries were determined to go on to a strategic offensive and take revenge for the defeats of previous campaigns. The central powers began to lack power and resources, but were still strong enough to attack. Berlin, Vienna and Istanbul were still hoping for success in the war.

To be continued ...
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  1. Vladimyrych
    Vladimyrych 12 January 2016 06: 29 New
    +5
    The strategy of both this and the current Entente is the destruction of Russia.
    And future ones will have the same strategy.
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 12 January 2016 09: 22 New
      +2
      Quote: Vladimir
      The strategy of both this and the current Entente is the destruction of Russia.
      And future ones will have the same strategy.

      I would say differently. To exhaust Russia, and then the emaciated itself will fall to them or come to beg for alms.
      For those wishing to link: http: //bibliopskov.ru/zip/ruskorp.pdf.
      Russia paid the Entente with its soldiers for the supply of weapons. And the Entente spared the weapons to the Russian ally, who saved the Entente from defeat. The death of the First Samson army, the Brusilovsky breakthrough and a number of smaller operations delayed the troops of the Triple Alliance, otherwise the war would end in 1914 on the Western Front .I took the whole period from1914 to the beginning of 1917 when the price of Russian blood ensured the stability of the fronts.
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. Aleksander
        Aleksander 12 January 2016 13: 24 New
        -2
        Quote: Amurets
        Russia paid the Entente with its soldiers for deliveries of weapons. And the Entente spared weapons to the Russian ally, who saved the Entente from defeat. The death of the First Samson army, the Brusilovsky breakthrough and a number of smaller operations delayed the troops of the Triple Alliance, otherwise the war would end in 1914

        Helping the allies, Russia saved, first of all, not themselves, but MYSELF.
        Quote: Amurets
        otherwise, on the Western Front, the war would end in 1914.

        And then, with all its might, Germany would fall upon Russia, according to Schliffen’s well-known plan, the lightning-fast defeat of France and the transfer of forces to Russia, until it was mobilized. And the 41 year would happen in 14.
        In 1940, the situation repeated almost one-on-one. But this time, Russia did not intervene in the defeat of France and, of course, almost immediately received tremendous force the blow of almost the entire army of Germany and almost all of captured Europe, many times strengthening Germany with resources and people. The results were horrific, half a country in ruins, 26 million killed.
        In 1917, the war did not reach indigenous Russia and Little Russia at all, and the losses were the LEAST of all the participating countries. Russian losses in the WWII were 5-9% of the global losses of the parties, in 2МВ-52% (!) Of the world (without China).
        So the policy of the leadership of the Russian Empire in the war was literate, balanced and reasonable.

        We can add that the goals of Germany in the 1MB in relation to Russia were the same as in the 2MB.
        1. Amurets
          Amurets 12 January 2016 14: 32 New
          0
          Quote: Aleksander
          We can add that the goals of Germany in the 1MB in relation to Russia were the same as in the 2MB.

          In this I agree with you. I’m talking about something else. Read V. Fedorov “In Search of Weapons”, this is one thing. Second: Even what was supplied either incomplete or of poor quality. This is already in Grabin’s memoirs when the SPM guns were tested and the breeders started to burn and bolts. It turns out that they fired French-made shells manufactured by order of the Russian government. And four rifle brigades sent to France could be used with the same success in Russia.
          1. Aleksander
            Aleksander 12 January 2016 15: 15 New
            0
            I’m talking about the same as you, but I think that there was no reckoning by the soldiers — there was a joint struggle of the Allies against a common enemy. Someone acted more decently, someone less, but the general vector was one, and Russia had no better solution.
            1. Amurets
              Amurets 13 January 2016 01: 16 New
              0
              Quote: Aleksander
              Someone acted more decently, someone less, but the general vector was one, and Russia had no better solution.

              Yes! But Churchill, as he was an enemy of Russia, remained so until the 1st World War, and then later. Being the 1st Lord of the Admiralty, he inserted any sticks in the development of relations between Russia and England. And thanks to him, the supply of necessary materials was disrupted. And only disastrous England’s position in World War II forced Churchill to reconcile, but still in 2, when the USSR was especially hard, Churchill “helped a lot” when he put the PQ-1942 convoy under attack and then stopped sending convoys to the USSR before the polar night. Here is the "help", that in the 17st, that in the 1nd mi marketing voyny.Rossiya voyuy depleting its resources, and we will come to repartition mira.Eto is now, when it will end on the dust- BV, if it does not end nuclear disaster.
    2. Lord blacwood
      Lord blacwood 12 January 2016 10: 39 New
      +1
      The Western Allies had a competition strategy. That is, Britain wanted to immediately "kill two birds with one stone." First, of course, destroy Germany, Austria-Hungary. The second is to weaken France and ruin Russia.
  2. Same lech
    Same lech 12 January 2016 07: 09 New
    +1
    And why did RUSSIA get into this world carnage .... there is no need to die for the foreign interests of capital to a Russian peasant.
    Millions and millions of lost lives of young healthy people ... how sad it is to see in the photographs of those years mountains of bones of Russian soldiers ... I hope this will not happen again for our HOMELAND.
    1. Lord blacwood
      Lord blacwood 12 January 2016 10: 43 New
      +2
      If Russia had not entered the war, then Germany, having won the war in Europe, would have opposed Russia. And this time, the Western Allies would not have held her back.
      1. Scraptor
        Scraptor 12 January 2016 11: 27 New
        +1
        Russia did not enter the war, Germany declared it to her.
        And why the Germans (pumped up like everyone else by propaganda for the war through the newspaper) haughtily went wild - it is known whose untreated tuberculosis tried hard on this one.
      2. strannik1985
        strannik1985 12 January 2016 18: 48 New
        -1
        If Russia had not announced mobilization, then Austria-Hungary would have defeated Serbia. All.
      3. Rastas
        Rastas 12 January 2016 21: 13 New
        -1
        Germany would not have won the war in any case, even if Russia had not entered the war. The war would have ended in nothing. The potential of England and France was comparable to German, and the United States would have intervened more quickly in the event of the collapse of France. Let's say that Germany did not want the destruction of England or France, but the redistribution of colonial possessions to expand its market. Russia did not interfere with Germany in this regard. Just.
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 12 January 2016 07: 55 New
    0
    However, the mission did not fully achieve its goal..... Duc, it seems like we went to the allies ..
  4. V.ic
    V.ic 12 January 2016 08: 08 New
    +2
    As a result of the First World War, FOUR empires disappeared from the world map:
    1. The Russian Empire. 2. The Austro-Hungarian Empire. 3. The German Empire. 4. The Ottoman Empire.
    Who do you think was profitable?
    1. Rastas
      Rastas 12 January 2016 21: 21 New
      -1
      I don’t know, and what’s the benefit here, but the collapse of Auto-Hungary and Turkey was quite natural. The Ottoman Empire generally fell apart for 200 years, on the contrary, with the advent of Ataturk, the revival of Turkey began. Auto-Hungary was contraindicated in fighting, but the Czechs, Slovaks, Poles, Croats, Romanians, Italians, Serbs did not want to fight for the decrepit emperor and his patchwork empire. Germany with its military policy was doomed. Here you can read Remarque, he passed a rather strict sentence on Kaiser Germany. And if about Russia, then England and France were not at all profitable in such a situation as the October Revolution. Western European business owned most of Russia's coal, metallurgy, and oil industries. Why would they lose all this after the nationalization of industry. Masochists are they?
  5. lysyj bob
    lysyj bob 12 January 2016 10: 07 New
    0
    Now, if Russia and Germany would unite in a coalition. That would be the alignment.
    1. Scraptor
      Scraptor 12 January 2016 11: 38 New
      -1
      if everyone just hadn’t read the newspapers in the morning (including the Kaisers) and Franz Ferdinand and his wife, instead of blithely foppiness, went with guards and in an armored car.
      And the Serbs of their miklouhakhaklaya themselves should have been castrated because the wife of the Archduke, who was essentially killed along with him, was a Slav.
      And the Austrian interpol (which was now canceled again for some reason) still caught it normally and died this juvenile pretzel-tuberculosis patient on expensive medicines in an Austrian prison, when millions of soldiers died without a trial at the front.
      1. V.ic
        V.ic 12 January 2016 18: 48 New
        0
        Quote: Scraptor
        because the wife of the archduke essentially killed along with him was a Slav.

        Dear, do not smack nonsense! Countess Hotek was indeed a Czech. Even Bismarck admitted that his grandmother was Slavic and did not say a word in German, was from the Lusatian Serbs. The woman who gave birth to Stepan Bandera was also not a gypsy! Here it is not necessary to let muddy tears over Slavic women! If you could get to the Polish women "in the river" about 70 years ago in a dark place (hypothetically of course!), They would have cut you with nail scissors in half an hour.
        1. Scraptor
          Scraptor 20 January 2016 20: 18 New
          0
          You’re rubbing nonsense here, dear. The heir to the throne set out on the transformation of Austro-Hungarian into Austro-Hungarian-Slavonia, and took a real Czech wife. Interethnic friction with the “revolutionary situation” would disappear, therefore they were banged, both of them.

          I would - no, but you would - yes, and rightly so.
    2. Nikolay K
      Nikolay K 12 January 2016 11: 55 New
      +1
      Why did Germany need Russia? Against whom should she fight, against France and Great Britain? Can you imagine Germany letting a fully armed millionth army through its territory, I can’t? Yes, and our army never went on a frankly aggressive campaign. And actually, whom should we conquer in France? Of course, we were potentially interested in the Straits, the Middle East and India. But the Ottomans understood this, therefore they asked faster and entered into an alliance with Germany. And the rest of the Asian colonies were interesting to the Germans themselves. But they are not fools — to strengthen Russia with new Asian acquisitions, and at that time they should hold full blow on the western front.
      1. lysyj bob
        lysyj bob 12 January 2016 14: 24 New
        +1
        Germany has always needed Russia as a source of raw materials. Russia has always needed Germany as a source of industrial technology. Together, they need each other as the strongest military allies. If there was such a coalition, perhaps there would have been no world wars. Therefore, the Anglo-Saxons, with other French Freemasonry, are still trying their best to prevent this union. Unfortunately, many of our rulers were fond of the Masonic games, which is why we fought with each other friend. Comrade Stalin tried to create this alliance, but put it on the wrong person.
        1. Nikolay K
          Nikolay K 12 January 2016 14: 55 New
          0
          In this case, it was enough for Germany that Russia maintain neutrality and that would be the best option for Russia, at least until 1915 .. But that would be all if yes. And in fact, Austria-Hungary was Germany’s main ally, and it had its own accounts with Serbia. Well, we traditionally supported the "little brothers." The cards came together. . .
          1. lysyj bob
            lysyj bob 12 January 2016 15: 22 New
            0
            The roots of the conflict lie much deeper in time than you think. You assess the situation in the plane of PMV. And for “if only if only” there should be a place in History.
        2. Rastas
          Rastas 12 January 2016 21: 27 New
          -1
          Well, how could Russia fight against France and England. Indeed, in the 27 years preceding 1914, the net income of foreigners from investments in the Russian economy totaled almost a quarter the amount of direct foreign investments.The modern coal and steel industry of Donetsk and Krivoy Rog was founded by the British, and it was financed by joint English, French and Belgian capital. The oil fields of the Caucasus were launched by English and Swedish entrepreneurs. The Germans laid the foundation for the Russian electrical and chemical industry. The share of foreign capital in mining, metalworking and engineering was 63%. Under such conditions, could Russia pursue an independent policy?
    3. The comment was deleted.
    4. ism_ek
      ism_ek 13 January 2016 14: 50 New
      -3
      The king in 1916 conducted separate negotiations with Germany on the way out of the war. Negotiations stalled because the Germans put forward unacceptable conditions. They demanded all the occupied territories.
  6. Aleksander
    Aleksander 12 January 2016 13: 50 New
    -3
    Putilovsky and Metallic, went on strike, demanding to increase the payment by 20%. working in Russia during the war (!) they could go on strike and rally as much as they like.


    Miserable, stupid people, imagining themselves that they are the navel of the earth. Nothing, the next year, after the Thief, they received these 20% -in the form of war communism, cards, swollen from hunger for children, bullets from the peasant robbed by them and wild poverty for many years. And the strikes then ended simply and efficiently, with a bullet in the back of the head. We would try to strike in 1941 ...
    1. ism_ek
      ism_ek 12 January 2016 19: 42 New
      -1
      The rebellion in February 17th was organized by the army, not the workers.
  7. South Ural
    South Ural 12 January 2016 15: 24 New
    +2
    The strategy of such wars is the narrow interests of the economic elites of the warring countries. And later today - international!
  8. valokordin
    valokordin 12 January 2016 20: 01 New
    +1
    On the one hand, the Entente, on the other, Germany and Austro-Hungary, it seemed that the forces were not equal in terms of population and Russia could not defeat Germany, because it was weaker. The rotten tsarist regime was unable to mobilize the country, and therefore it fell. Thanks to the Bolsheviks who saved the country by a monstrous exertion of the people's forces. Bourgeois and liberalists could not save the country.
    1. Aleksander
      Aleksander 12 January 2016 21: 11 New
      0
      Quote: valokordin
      Thanks to the Bolsheviks who saved the country by a monstrous exertion of the people's forces


      It would be better if they SAMI overruledthan people to tear. Who gave them the right to touch the people ?!

      Bolsheviks sold half of Russia in Germany, Turkey and A-Hungary-for saving his own, nobody elected, captured animal beast. Having paid hundreds of tons of gold contributions, food, pledging to transfer property and concessions. With these resources, they extended the world carnage for several months and earned by such actions the natural curse of all the peoples of the world. The Bolsheviks shamed Brest in memory of hundreds of thousands of Russian soldiers who fell in the struggle against the aggressor and deprived Russia of the deserved fruits of Victory in the war.

      Eternal shame on the Bolshevik traitors of Russia.
  9. Cobra77
    Cobra77 12 January 2016 20: 08 New
    0
    Well, actually the myth of "one rifle for three" is just not from the Second World War, but from the First World War. For example, during the Second World War, the USSR produced more IL-2 attack aircraft than RI machine guns in the First World War. Yes, I must say honestly that RI was not ready for a serious war from the word at all. As before with Japan. The decline of the empire .... Three revolutions not from scratch occurred.
  10. Cobra77
    Cobra77 12 January 2016 20: 51 New
    0
    Quote: Aleksander
    Putilovsky and Metallic, went on strike, demanding to increase the payment by 20%. working in Russia during the war (!) they could go on strike and rally as much as they like.


    Miserable, stupid people, imagining themselves that they are the navel of the earth. Nothing, the next year, after the Thief, they received these 20% -in the form of war communism, cards, swollen from hunger for children, bullets from the peasant robbed by them and wild poverty for many years. And the strikes then ended simply and efficiently, with a bullet in the back of the head. We would try to strike in 1941 ...


    You, my friend, are either not smart, or you studied history from the magazine Ogonyok (which is also not smart). No need to compare workers in the 40s and 10s. Just do not compare their living conditions and prospects. Just bother to think about what they worked and fought in the Second World War and why in the First World War. What role did our industrialists and capitalists play in those days. What was the relation to the Tsar and the government among the people, the bourgeois and the church. Who staged the February coup. What preceded this. Why the Entente recognized the interim government. Why did the October revolution. Why did the people support her. Why did the Bolsheviks win the civil war. That's when you can clearly answer these questions at least, you will be able to understand what happened and not to bear an outright blizzard.

    And yes, tell ukra about hunger and swollen children under Soviet rule, it’s fashionable for them to study an alternative history and famine. But try to google about hunger in RI. About the price of bread. About the export of wheat. About the effectiveness of agriculture. About riots in RI.
    1. Aleksander
      Aleksander 12 January 2016 22: 58 New
      0
      Quote: cobra77
      You are my friend or not smart,


      "Smart ass", lol lol , look out (those) through the window and try to find your Bolshevik power there. And think about why it disappeared like smoke and why not only the people, but not even any MEMBER (parties, parties lol) did not go out to save what is so "expensive" to him?
      Wild lies, deceit, populism, hypocrisy, inhuman cruelty and crazy dictatorship - the reasons for the Bolsheviks' pyrrhic victory in the civil massacre unleashed by them - and even after 4 years of massacre. But after only 70 years, everyone was tired of it and they failed in tartaras and forever.
      In the course of their experiments, the Bolsheviks starved 13 million people of hunger, i.e. 10% of the country's population - do not know this- just ashamed .
      About the mind, a person who has frozen and stiffened in his knowledge at the level of stupid and ridiculous (from the point of view of the knowledge available today) Soviet textbooks does not possess it, in principle, only reflexes are available to him.
      Good luck in the "expansion" (what if?)! hi
  11. semirek
    semirek 12 January 2016 21: 54 New
    -1
    This implies the conclusion: the Bolshevik Russia, headed by Lenin, did not want to finish off the mortally wounded beast, which was Kaiser Germany at that moment, by concluding the shameful and enslaving Brest Peace, allowing this beast to lick its wounds, so that in 41, this beast in a new guise - Hitlerite Germany again tried to conquer Russia (the Soviet Union), which spilled over 26 million lives for the latter --- therefore, these victims are a heavy burden on Bolshevism, no socialist transformations are worth these victims. The Brest Peace is the forerunner 41 of the year.
  12. Cobra77
    Cobra77 12 January 2016 23: 05 New
    0
    Quote: semirek
    This implies the conclusion: the Bolshevik Russia, headed by Lenin, did not want to finish off the mortally wounded beast, which was Kaiser Germany at that moment, by concluding the shameful and enslaving Brest Peace, allowing this beast to lick its wounds, so that in 41, this beast in a new guise - Hitlerite Germany again tried to conquer Russia (the Soviet Union), which spilled over 26 million lives for the latter --- therefore, these victims are a heavy burden on Bolshevism, no socialist transformations are worth these victims. The Brest Peace is the forerunner 41 of the year.


    What nonsense are you talking about. Yes, the war was not needed for the Bolsheviks. She was also not needed by the people of Russia and her army. Why should the Communists fight for the interests of the capitalists? The Brest peace allowed us to get out of this ridiculous and unnecessary war. Yes, the conditions were bad. But they allowed us to tackle internal problems, rather than carrying chestnuts out of the fire for France and Britain, as RI did. You do not understand or have not studied that segment of history at all. Germany has already fallen, just France and Britain have already done it at their own expense. And the world was signed by Germany with the winners on extremely enslaving terms. Humiliating conditions. The same thing would have happened and continued RI to fight further, only a little earlier. The emergence of Nazi Germany is in no way connected with the release of RI from the war. There were completely different premises. Adolf and the Nazis would still have come to power. All the same, there would be a Munich agreement. Anyway, there would be a campaign to the east. Only RI could not fight against Nazi Germany as a Union. She would not have such human, scientific, engineering and industrial potential. The First World War did not solve all the problems and contradictions that were in the world and in Europe in particular. Its completion was only a respite, a pause for a final decision. The problem of the beginning of the Second World War lies primarily in the reluctance of Britain and France to agree on an agreement with the German Counter-Union. A great war became inevitable as soon as surrendered to Czechoslovakia. And this was not done by the Union. All further steps. The Union is already just trying to delay the start of the war and have time to at least somehow prepare for it. In fact, the Union did not have enough years. And then the Second World War would be somewhat different than we know it.
  13. Cobra77
    Cobra77 12 January 2016 23: 10 New
    -1
    Quote: Aleksander
    Quote: cobra77
    You are my friend or not smart,


    "Smart ass", lol lol , look out (those) through the window and try to find your Bolshevik power there. And think about why it disappeared like smoke and why not only the people, but not even any MEMBER (parties, parties lol) did not go out to save what is so "expensive" to him?
    Wild lies, deceit, populism, hypocrisy, inhuman cruelty and crazy dictatorship - the reasons for the Bolsheviks' pyrrhic victory in the civil massacre unleashed by them - and even after 4 years of massacre. But after only 70 years, everyone was tired of it and they failed in tartaras and forever.
    In the course of their experiments, the Bolsheviks starved 13 million people of hunger, i.e. 10% of the country's population - do not know this- just ashamed .
    About the mind, a person who has frozen and stiffened in his knowledge at the level of stupid and ridiculous (from the point of view of the knowledge available today) Soviet textbooks does not possess it, in principle, only reflexes are available to him. Good luck in the "expansion" (what if?)! hi


    Oh child of perestroika and Solzhenitsyn laughing . You didn’t even bother to read the history of that time at least diagonally. I am not going to prove or explain something to you. Do not feed the horse. Everything in your head is so confused, so cluttered with templates by “whistleblower whistleblowers” ​​that until you yourself take the trouble to simply read historical documents about those times and take a sober look at your history, explain that it makes no sense.
    1. Aleksander
      Aleksander 13 January 2016 10: 23 New
      0
      Quote: cobra77
      Oh child of perestroika and Solzhenitsyn. You didn’t even bother to read the history of that time at least diagonally. I am not going to prove or explain something to you. Do not feed the horse. Everything in your head is so mixed up, so cluttered with templates by “whistleblower whistleblowers” ​​that until you yourself take the trouble to simply read historical documents about those times and take a sober look at your history, explain that it makes no sense.


      You can’t imagine how ridiculous you look with your moldy “victorious” lol belay Sovagitti against the backdrop of absolute collapse and the complete disappearance of Bolshevism. Or is this inglorious CRASH not an objective assessment of the commies and acts of the commies?
      I’m not going to argue with you and people like you — the comms template is driven in tightly.
      There is a platform for presenting the opinions of readers and facts, and not for switching to meaningless "you are not smart" child ", etc. This site is not welcome and correct.
      I wish you success- in the knowledge of the world around you and such a mysterious and incomprehensible world for you, which by no means wants to fit into such “correct and logical” (for you) commissions hi
  14. South Ural
    South Ural 14 January 2016 08: 43 New
    0
    The strategy of such wars is the narrow interests of the economic elites of the warring countries. And later today - international! But Russian reality needs to be studied better by the author